Skip to main content

Full text of "Cyclopedia of Painters and Paintings"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book lhal w;ls preserved for general ions on library shelves before il was carefully scanned by Google as pari of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

Il has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one thai was never subject 

to copy right or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often dillicull lo discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher lo a library and linally lo you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud lo partner with libraries lo digili/e public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order lo keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial panics, including placing Icchnical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make n on -commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request thai you use these files for 
personal, non -commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort lo Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each lile is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use. remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 

countries. Whether a book is slill in copyright varies from country lo country, and we can'l offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through I lie lull lexl of 1 1 us book on I lie web 
al |_-.:. :.-.-:: / / books . qooqle . com/| 


From the Library of the 

Fogg Jviuseum of Art 
Harvard. University 

:„ :: i, Google 

MbyGooglc __ 



Painters and Paintings 

Volume II 




Digitized t>» G00gle 

= by Google 

Madonna and Saint* 

Digitized by GoOgle I 













Rf: A 13||. ia_ <% ) 


Copyright, 1885, 1886, 1887, by 
darks Seribner's Sons 




1. Book Homo Titian 

2. Eden, Expulsion from Maaaccio Brancaoci Chapel, Carmine, Florence . 8 

3. Elevation of Cross Rubens Antwerp Cathedral. 14 

4. Elizabeth, St., op Hun- ) „ .„ . _ . _ _ ,»,,.. 

t Murilio AcademiaS. Fernando, Madrid. 15 

5. Entombment Michelangelo da Garavaggio Vatican, Rome. 21 

6. Entombment Raphael Palazzo Borgheee, Borne. 21 

7. Entombment Titian Louvre, Paris. 22 

8. Edbopa, Bape of Paolo Veronese Palazzo Dnoale, Venice. 29 

9. Eve, Creation or Michelangelo Sistiae Chapel, Koine. SO 

10. HmbOM, Vision of. Raphael Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 35 

11. FzABT IN THE HOUSE 0F)_ ITr ir • » a a* 

_ \ Paolo Veronese Venice Academy . 46 

12. Feast in the House or) _ , _ m . ~ „ .. 

__ \ Paolo Veronese TunnGallery. 16 

THE rRlHTum ,.....) 

13. Feast of Boss Garlands . . Albrecht Diirer Prague Gallery. 47 

14. Fbde, La Titian Palazzo Ducale, Venice. 48 

15. Finchlry, March to William Hogarth Foundling Hospital, London . 57 

16. Fibber, Kitty Sir Joshua Reynolds. Lord Crewe. 59 

17. Flight into Egypt Murillo Duchesee de Galliera. 65 

18. Flora Titian. Uffizi, Florence . 66 

19. Fobnabina, La. Sebastian del Piombo Uffizi, Florence. 72 

20. Fobnabina, La Raphael Palazzo Barberini, Borne. 72 

21. Fortune Guido Reni Aceademia de S. Luoa, Borne . 74 

22. Francis Xavieh, Br. Rubens Vienna Museum. 84 

23. Galatea, Triumph of. Raphael Palazzo Farnesina, Rome. 105 

24. Gamesters Michelangelo da Garavaggio Dresden Gallery. 108 

25. Ganymede, Rape of Emtache Lesueur Louvre, Paris. 108 

26 ' """SL^" "" T}"**" 1 Hermitage St P.t^burg. 125 



27. Georcie, St., and the ) „ , , „ . 

D„<™ )B^had Lou™. P.™. 125 

28. George, St., Mabtybdoh) „ , _ „„..„.„ 

f Faolo Veronese S. Giorgio Maggiore, Verona. 12G 

Correggio Parma Gallery. 140 

30. Giobqione, Family or Otorgione Palazzo Giovanelli, Florence. 141 

31. Graces, Three Raphael Due d'Aumale, Chantilly. 163 

32. Gbanicus, Pashaoe of the. . Charles Lebrun Louvre, Paris. 169 

33. Green Grocer Gerard Dm Louvre, Paris. 171 

34 Gregory, St., Miracle of .Andrea Sacchi Vatican, Some. 173 

86. Haoab, Dismissal of Guercino .Brera, Milan. 197 

36. Helen, Rape of Gxtido Reni. Louvre, Paris. 228 

37. Helena, St., Vision of. . ..Paolo Veronese Vatican, Rome. 229 

38. Heliodorub, Expulsion or. Raphael Stanza dVEliodoro, Vatican, Rome. 230 

39. Henri TV*, and the Spanish ) _ . . r ( Baron Alpbonse ) „ . _„„ 

Ao^ jlW^/nsre. { ^ Bothihfld, J *■"■ 237 

40. Hehccles, Death of Guido Rent. Louvre, Paris. 240 

41. Hercules, Infant Agostine Carraoci (?) Louvre, Paris. 241 

42. Hermans and Thubnelda. . . Angelica Kauffmann Vienna Museum . 244 

43. Hermejia at the Shep- ) „ . , . r „ . 

, „ i Domen-tchtno Louvre, Pans. 245 

herds House ) 

44. Hjlanderas, Lab Velasquez Madrid Museum. 257 

45. Hillb Bobbe Fran* flofa Berlin Museum. 259 

46. Holy Family. Rderigo Baroccio National Gallery, London. 274 

47. Holt Fault. Fra Bartoiommeo Panahanger House, England. 274 

48. Holt Family. Michelangelo TJffizi, Florence. 275 

49. Holy Family Murillo Louvre, Paris. 276 

B0, Holt Family (La Petite 1 _ . , „ . ,„_ 

S u ™pim„)....f*»*»l Lou™, P™. 277 

51. Holt Family Rubens Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 278 

52. Holy Family. Andrea del Sarto Louvre, Paris. 278 

53. Holt Family. Andrea del Sarto National Gallery, London . 279 

54. Holt Family — del Bactno. Giulio Romano Dresden Gallery. 280 

65. Holy Family, Canioiani . . .Raphael Munich Gallery. 281 

66. Holy Family of Francib L . Raphael Louvre, Paris. 282 

67. Holt Family — del 


68. Holy Family — del Paja- ] 

59. Holy Family — la Pkbla . . . Raphael Madrid Museum. 284 

60. Hohatii, Oath of the. .... Louis David Louvre, Paris. 291 

61. Ignatius, St., Mteaoles or. Rubens. Vienna Museum . 311 

62. Inoendio delBoboo Raphael. Stanza dell' Incendio, Vatican, Borne . 313 

63. Inn, The Jan Steen Hague Museum . 317 

64. Isabella d'Ebte, Court of. Lorenzo Costa. Louvre, Paris. 320 

^Raphael(?) Madrid Museum . ! 

\ MuriRo. Madrid Museum. I 



65. Jacob, Blessing of. Rembrandt. Caasel Gallery . 323 

66. Jacob, Dream of Spagnoletto Madrid Museum. 324 

67. Jacob and Rachel Giordano Dresden Gallery. 326 

. 68. Jaffa, Plaque of Antoine Jean Oros Louvre, Paris. 329 

69. Jeremiah Washington AlUitvn Yale College Gallery . 338 

70. Jericho, Blind Men of. . ..Nicolas Poussin Louvre, Paris. 339 

71. Jerome, Communion of St. .Agottino Oarracoi Bologna Gallery. 840 

72. Jerome, Communion of St. . Domenii-hino Vatican, Borne. 341 

73. Jesus, Sleep of Annibale Carracci Louvre, Paris. 343 

74. Joan of Abc in Prison .. .Paul Delaroche Duke of Padua. 344 

75. Job "Visited by his Friends \ 

(History of Job) . . 

76. John, St., Baptist Leonardo da Vinci. Louvre, Paris. 347 

£ Nicola* Poussin Louvre, Paris. 348 

r Francesco da Votterra Campo Santo, Pisa. 345 

77. John, St., Baptist, 


78. John, St., Baptist, 

[ Raphael Uffizi, Florence. 349 

f Alonso Cano. Private Gallery, Paris. 350 

79. John, St., Evangelist, | 

Vision of.. 

80. Joseph, Chastity of Jokan BOevelt Uffizi, Florence. 356 

81. Joseph, Chastity of LioneUo Spado. Lille Museum. 357 

82. Joseph in Prison Spagnoletto. Escnrial, Spain. 358 

83. Josephine, Coronation of. . Louis David Versailles Museum. 859 

84. Judas, Payment of Fra Angelica Florence Academy. 361 

85. Judith Grieto/ano Allori Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 862 

86. Judith Philip Van Dyck Hague Museum. 362 

87. Judith and Holofebneb . . .Artemisia Gentileschi Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 363 

88. Julian, St., Hospitality or. Cristofano Allori Palazzo Pitti, Florence . 364 

89. Jupiter Destroying Crimes . Paolo Veronese Louvre, Paris. 367 

90. Jupiter and Io Gorreggio Vienna Museum . 367 

91. Justtna, St. , Martyrdom ov . Paolo Veronese S. Giustina, Padua. 368 

92. Justinian Promulgating 1 „ . , „ , . „ __„ 

n (■ Raphael Vatican, Borne . 869 

the Pandects. ) T 

93. Ktomess Rubens Louvre, Paris. 388 

94. Ems, Throwing a. Jean Raptiste Oreuxe . .Alfred de Rothschild, London. 389 

95. Knight's Vision Raphael National Gallery, London. 394 




Eastlaka, Sir Charles Look 1 

Eeckhout, Garbrand van den 9 

Elliott, Charles Loring. 16 

Elmore, Alfred. 16 

EUheimer, Adam 17 

Engarth, Eduard von 20 

Enhuber, Karl tod 20 

Erdmann, Otto 23 

Etty, William 27 

Everdingen, Allurt, von 30 

Exner, Johaiin Julius 32 

Eyck, Hubert van. 32 

Eyck, Jan van 33 

Famni, Pietro. 38 

Faed, Thomas 88 

Fattore, H 43 

Ferrari, Luca. 52 

Ferri,Ciro 62 

Feti, Domenioo 53 

Feuerbach, Anselm 53 

Feyen-Perriu, Augustin 54 

Ffldes, Luke 66 

Flameng, Francois 61 

Flandrin, Hippolyte 62 

Flinck, Govaert 65 

Floris, Frans 67 

Fontana, Lavinia. 69 

Forest, Jean Baptists 71 

Forster, Ernest Joachim 73 

Fortuny y Carb6, Mariano 75 

Fouquieres, Jacques 77 

Fragonard, Jean Honor6 78 

Francais, Francois Louis. 78 

Franceses, Fiero della. 79 

Franceschini, Maroantonio 80 

36. Francia, Francesco. 82 

37. Francken, Frans, the younger 85 

38. Francken, Hieronymns, the elder. . 87 

39. Freminet, Martin 90 

40. Frere, Edouard 91 

41. Frith, William Powell 94 

42. FrOlich, Lorens 94 

43. Fromentin, Eugene 95 

44. Frost, William Edward 96 

45. Fflhrich, Josef Bitter von 98 

46. Fuller, George 98 

47. Fuaeli, Henry 100 

48. Gabbiani, Antonio Domenioo 101 

49. Gaddi, Taddeo 102 

50. Gainsborough, Thomas 104 

61 Gallait, Louis 106 

62. Garbo, Raffaellino del 109 

53. Gebhardt. Eduard von 116 

54. Geertz, Julius 118 

55. Genelli, Bonaventura 121 

56. Genoels, Abraham 122 

57. Gentileachi, Orazio 123 

58. Gerard, Francois Pascal 126 

59. Gericault, Theodore 127 

60. Gerome, Jean Loon 128 

61. Gervex, Henri 180 

62. GeselBchap, Eduard 130 

63. Ghirlandajo, Domenioo 132 

64. Ghirlandajo, Eidolfi 133 

66. Gifford, Robert Swain 136 

66. Gifford, Sandford Robinson 135 

67. Gilbert, Sir John 137 

68. Gillot, Claude 138 

69. Giordano, Luca. 139 

70. Giorgione, D , 140 





Giotto 142 

Giovanni da TJdine 144 

Girodet de Roussy, Anne Louis . . 146 

Giulio Romano 149 

Glsize, Leon 151 

Gloyro, Charles Gabriel 158 

Goltzius, Hendrik 

Goodall, Frederick 157 

Gow, Andrew C 

Goya y Lucientes, Francisco Jose" 

de 161 

Goyen, Jan van 161 

Gozzoli, Benozzo 

Graff, Anton. 164 

Graham, Peter. 165 

Granet, Francois-Marios 167 

Grant, Sir Francis. 

Gray, Henry Peters 170 

Greco, El 171 

Gregory, Edward John 172 

Greuze, Jean Baptiste 178 

Gros, Antoine Jean 178 

Grosse, Franz Theodor 179 

Grutzner, Ednard 181 

Gnde, Hans Fredrik 183 

Gndin, Theodore 183 

Guercino, 11 184 

GuGrin, Pierre Narciaae 185 

Guffens, Godfroid 186 

Gnido (Gnido Reni) 187 

Guillaumet, Gustave. 189 

Guillemot, Jean Baptiste Antoine . 190 

Gussow, KarL 191 

Gyms, Nikolaus 193 

Haas, Manritz Frederick Hendriok 

de 194 

Hagen, Theodor 197 

Haghe, Louis. 198 

Hagn, Ludwig tod 198 

Hals, Frans 202 

Hammer, Gnido 205 

Hamon, Jean Louis 206 

Hanoteau, Hector 207 

Hansen, Konstantin 208 

Harlow, George Henry 211 

Harpignies, Henri 212 

Harrach, Ferdinand tod 212 

Hart, James McDougal 218 

Harvey, Sir George 214 

Hasenclever, Johann Peter 215 

Haydon, Benjamin Robert 217 

Hebert, Ernest 220 

Heem, Jan Davidsz de 222 

Heemskerk, Marten van. 224 

Heinz, Joseph, the elder 228 

Helat, Bartholomeus van der 232 

Hendschel, Albert 234 

Henner, Jean Jacques 236 

Herkomer, Hubert 242 

Herrera, Francisco de, the elder , 247 

Herring, John Frederick 248 

Hess, Heinrich Maria von 250 

Heyden, August von 253 

Heyden, Jan van der 254 

Hildebrandt, Ednard 257 

Hildebrandt, Theodor 258 

Hill, Thomas . 269 

Hire, Laurent de la 262 

Hodgson, John Evan 264 

Hoft Karl 267 

Hogarth, William 268 

Hoguet, Charles 269 

Holbein, Hans, the elder 270 

Holbein, Hans, the younger 270 

HoU, Frank 272 

Homer, Winalow 285 

Hondecoeter, Melchior d' 286 

Honthorst, Gerard van 287 

Hooch, Pieter de. 289 

Hoogstraten, Samuel van 289 

Hook, James Clarke 289 

Horschelt, Theodor 293 

Horsley, John Cnllcott 294 

Hosemann, Theodor 294 

Houbraken, Arnold 295 

Howard,Hem-y 297 

Huber, Johann Rudolf 298 

Hdbner, Karl 299 

Hubner, Julius 299 

Huet, Jean Baptiste 300 

Humbert, Ferdinand 304 

Hunt, William Holman 805 

Hunt, William Morris 306 



162. Hon ten, Emil Johannes. 306 

163. Hunter, Colin 307 

164. Huntington, Daniel 

165. Huysmant), Cornelia 309 

166. Huytmni, Jan van 309 

167. Ingres, Jean Auguate Dominique. 315 

168. Inman, Henry 316 

169. Inneaa, George 317 

170. Irabey, Jean Baptiate 321 

171. Israels, Jozef 321 

172. Jacque, Charles Emile 327 

173. Jacquemart, Nelie 328 

174 Jardin, Karel du 334 

175. Jeaurat, fitienne 336 

176. Jerichau-Baumann, Ehaabeth.... 338 

177. Joest, Jan. 346 

178. Johnson, Eastman. 351 

179. Jonghe, Jan Baptist de 353 

180. Jordaens, Jakob. 354 

181. Jordan, Rudolf 365 

182. Kaemmerer, Frederik Hendrik . . 370 

183. Kalckreuth, Stanislaus von 371 

184. Kalf.Willem 371 

186. Kalkar, Hans tod 372 

186. Karger, Karl 374 

187. Kauifinann, Angelica 376 

188. Kauffmnnn, Hermann. 376 

189. Kauffinann, Hugo 377 

190. Kaulbach, Friedrieh 877 

191. Kaulbach, Friedrieh August 877 

192. Kaulbach, Hermann 378 

19a Kaulbach, Wilhelm von 378 

194. Keller, Albert 379 

195. Keller, Ferdinand 380 

196. Kenaett, John Frederick 380 

197. Kessel, Jan van, the elder 382 

198. Ketel, Cornelia 383 

199. Keyser, Nicaise de 384 

200. KIGcker von Ehrenstrabl, David. . 390 

201. KnauB, Ludwig 392 

202. Kneller, Sir Godfrey 393 

203. Knille, Otto 395 

204. Koch, Josef Anton 399 

205. Koninck, Philip de 404 

206. Kotzebue, Alexander von 406 

207. Kraus, Friedrieh 408 

208. Kreling, August von 409 

209. KrOyer, Peter Severin 411 

210. Kruger, Frana 412 

211. Kuchler, Albert 413 

212. Kurzbauer, Eduard 417 

213. Kyhn, (Peter) Vilhelm (Karl) ... . 418 



2. Ebert, Karl 4 

3. Eeckhout, Gerbrand van den 10 

4. Ehrhardt, Adolf 12 

5. Ellenrieder, Marie 16 

6. EUiger, Ottmar, the younger 16 

7. Eleheimer, Adam 16 

8. Empoli, Jacopo Chimenti da 18 

9. Engelbi-ecbtsen, Cornelia. 20 

10. Enhuber, Karl von 21 

11. Es, Jacob van 24 

12. Escalante, Juan Antonio 24 

13. Espinoea, Jacinto Jeronimo da . . . 26 

14. Estense, Baldassare 26 

15. Everdingen, Allart van 31 

16. Everdingen, Cesar van. 31 

17. Evera, Anton Clemens. 31 

18. Eyck,Janvan 34 

19. FabritiuB, Karel 38 

20. Faloonnetto, Giovanni Maria. 40 

21. Patens, Karel van 41 

22. Farinati, Paolo 42 

23. Fasolo, Lorenzo. 43 

24. Perrier, Gabriel 52 

26. Feselen, Melohior 53 

26. Fcti, Domenico 53 

■27. Piacco, Orlando. 54 

28. Flemael, Bartholet 63 

29. Flinck, Govaert 66 

30. Fontana, Lavinia. 69 

31. Fdrster, Ernst Joachim 73 

32. Fortuny y Carbo, Mariano 76 

33. Fragonard, Jean Honor*; 78 

35. Francia, Giacomo di FranceBco ... 82 

36. Franck, Franz Priedrich 84 

37. Francken, Ambrosius, the elder. . . 85 

38. Francken, Frans, the younger. ... 86 

39. Franquelin, Jean Augustin 88 

40. Praser, Alexander 89 

41. Freminet, Martin 90 

42. Frere, Edouard 91 

43. Fries, Ernst 93 

44. Fromentin, Eugene 96 

45. Furini, Francesco. 99 

46. Fyt, Jan 101 

47. Gabron, Guiliam. 102 

48. Gaddi, Taddeo 103 

49. Gael, Barend 103 . 

50. Gaelen, Alexander van 103 

51. Galloche, Louis 107 

52. Garofalo, H Ill 

53. Gassel, Lucas 112 

54. Gassies, Jean Bruno 112 

55. Gaudin, Fray Luis Pascual 113 

66. Gauffier, Louis 114 

67. Geddes, Andrew 116 

68. Geel, Joost van 117 

69. Genoels, Abraham 122 

60. Gentileschi, Orazio 123 

61. Gerard, Fran9ois Pascal 127 

62. Gericault, Theodore 128 

63. Gerdme, Jean Leon 129 

64 Gfflot, Claude 138 

65. Gimignani, Giacinto 138 

66. Giordano, Luca 140 

67. Girard, Firmin 144 

68. Girodet de Boussy, Anne Louis. . . 146 



69. Glink, Franz Xavier 163 

70. Goltziofl, Hendrik 156 

71. Gool, Jan van 158 

72. Goupil, Jules Adolphe 160 

73. Goyen.JanTan 162 

71. Gozzoli, Benozzo. 163 

75. Gran, Daniel 166 

76. Granacci, Francesco 166 

77. Grandi, Ercole di Giulio 167 

78. Granet, Francois Marios 168 

79. Grabber, Pieter de 171 

80. Grauze, Jean Baptists 174 

81. Greredon, Henri 176 

82. Griffier.Jan 176 

83. Griffler, Robert 176 

84. Grimmer, Hans 177 

85. Gros, Antoine Jean 179 

86. GryeS; Adriaan de 182 

87. Guardi, Francesco 182 

88. Guercino, D 186 

89. Gnenn, Pierre Nardsae 186 

90. GuibaL Nicolas 187 

91. Guido Beni 189 

92. Hackaert, Jan 195 

93. Hagen, Joris van der 197 

94. Halle, Claude Guy 200 

95. Hallfi, Noel 201 

96. HalGi, Dirk 201 

97. Hals, Frans, tbe elder 202 

98. Hals, Frans, the younger. 203 

99. Hamon, Jean Louis 206 

100. Harpignies, Henri 212 

101. Haudebourt-Lescot, Mme. Hor- 

tense Victoire 216 

102. Hebert, Ernest 220 

103. Heem, Cornells de 222 

104 Heem, Jan Daviduz de 223 

105. Heemskerk, Marten van 224 

106. Heinz, Joseph, the elder 228 

107. Hellemont, Mattheus Tan 280 

108. Heist, Bartholomeus van der 232 

109. Hemissen, Jan ran 233 

110. Hennequin, Philippe Augusts. . . . 235 

111. Henuer, Jean Jacques 236 

112. Herkomer, Hubert 243 

113. Herp, Guilliam van 245 

114. Horrera, Francisco de, the younger 247 

116. Hess, Karl 260 

116. Hetsch, Philipp Friedrieh von... 252 

117. Heusch, Jacob de 253 

118. Heyden, Jan Tan der 264 

119. Hickel, Josef 255 

120. Hildebrandt, Theodor 258 

121. Hobbema, Meyndert 263 

122. Hoecke, Jan van den 265 

123. Hoet, Gerard 266 

124. Hogarth, William 269 

125. Holbein, Hans, the younger. . . . 272 

126. Hondecoeter, Melchiord' 286 

127. Hondius, Abraham 287 

128. Honthorst, Gerard van. 288 

129. Hooch, Pieter de. 289 

130. Hoogstraten, Samuel Tan 289 

131. Horemans, Jan Jozef, the elder. . 292 

132. Houasse, Michel Ange 295 

133. Houbraken, Arnold. 295 

134. Huber, Johann Rudolph 298 

136. Hudson, Thomas 300 

136. Hue, Jean Francois 300 

137. Huet, Jean Baptiste 301 

138. Hughtenburgh, Jan Tan 302 

139. Hutin, Charles. 308 

140. Huysum, Jan Tan 310 

141. Ingres, Jean Auguste Dominique. 316 

142. Isabey, Jean Baptists 321 

143. Israels, Jozef 322- 

144. Jacque, Charles Emile 328 

145. Janssens, Victor Honore~ 333 

146. Jardin, Karel du 335 

147. Jeaurat, Etienne 336 

148. Jonge, Ludolf de 353 

149. Jordaena, Jakob 865 

150. Jouvenet, Jean 360 

151. Eaemmerer, Frederik Hendrik. . . 370 

152. Kail, Willem 372 

153. Kauffmann, Angelica 376 

154. Eeirincx, Alexander 379 

155. Kessel, Ferdinand ran 382 

156. Kernel, Jan van, the elder 382. 



167. Keyset, Thomas de. 385 

168. Klein, Johann Adam 389 

159. Kloeber, August von 391 

160. Klomp, Aelbert 391 

161. Knaus, Lndwig 393 

162. Kneller, Sir Godfrey 394 

163. Koekkoek, Barend Cornelia 400 

164. Koninck, Philip de 404 

165. Koninck, Salomon 404 

166. Kulmbach, Hans Ton 414 

167. Kupetzky, Johann 416 




Acad., Academy. 

A.N.A., Associate of the National Academy. 

A.R.A., Associate of the Royal Academy. 

A-K.H.A , Associate of the Royal Hiber- 
nian Academy, 

A.R.8.A., Associate of the Royal Scottish 

C4C, Crowe and Cavalcaeelle, 

Cat, Catalogue. 

Oh., Church. 

CoL, Collection. 

GaL, Gallery. 

D_, Height 

ib., ibidem. 

id., idem. 

Inst., Institute. 

L of Honour, Legioi 

Mua, Museum. 

N.A., National Academy or Academician. 

Nat GaL, National Gallery, 

Pal., Palace, Palais. Palazzo. 

R,, Royal. 

R. A., Royal Academy or Academician. 

R.H.A., Royal Hibernian Academy 01 

R.S.A., Royal Scottish Academy or Acad' 

S., San, Santa. 
8S., Santi, Sante. 
S. M., Santa Maria. 
St, Saint 
W. & W., Woltmann and Woermann. 

Worth in italics indicate tht afyliabetical plana tjf artidaa on the svlffocti tpecifad 




Painters and Paintings. 

EAKTNS, THOMAS, born in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., in 1844. Portrait and 
genre painter ; pupil of Pennsylvania 
Academy of Pine Arts, of J. L G6r6me, Leon 
Bonnut, and of A. A. Duinont, sculptor. At 
present professor of painting at Pennsylva- 
nia Academy. Studio in Philadelphia. 
Works in oil : William Rush carving his 
Allegorical Representation of the Schuylkill ; 
Surgical Clinic of Professor Gross in Jeffer- ' 
son College, Jefferson Collection ; Portraits 
of Dr. Brinton and Professor Rand ; Chess- 
players (1878), Metropolitan Museum, New 
York ; Professional at Rehearsal, T. B. 
Clarke, New York ; Pair-Oared Shell (1879) ; 
May Morning in the Park (1881), Fairman 
Rogers, Philadelphia ; Mending the Net, 
Shad Fishing at Gloucester — on the Dela- 
ware (1882) ; Singing Girl (1883). Water- 
colours: Whistling for Plover, Base-Ball 

EARL, RALPH, born at Lebanon, Conn., 
about 1751, died at Bolton, Conn., in 1801. 
History and portrait painter, self-taught 
Was at first an itinerant portrait painter ; 
went with the Governor's Guard to Lexing- 
ton and Cambridge, and painted from 
sketches made at the time four scenes of 
the battle of Lexington, engraved by Amos 
Doolittle, which are believed to be the first 
historical compositions by an American ar- 

tist Went to London after the war and 
studied under Benjamin West, but returned 
to America in 1786. Among his works are 
a large picture of the Falls of Niagara, and 
portraits of George HL, Roger Sherman, 
Judge Ellsworth, Colonel George Willis, 
Dr. Dwight of Yale College, and Governor 
His son, Augustus Earle, history 
ine painter, fellow-student at Royal 
Academy in 1813 with C. R Leslie and S. 
F. B. Morse, was known from his roving 
disposition as the "wandering artist" James 
Earle, portrait painter (died in Charleston, 
S. C, in 1796), was perhaps a brother of 
Ralph. — Bryan (Graves), 451 ; French, Art 
in Connecticut (Boston, 1879), 32. 

at Plymouth, Eng., 
Nov. 17,1793, died hi 
Piaa, Italy, Dec 24, 
1865. History paint- 
er, pupil in London 
of Haydon and of 
Royal Academy ; ex- 
hibited at British In- 
stitute, in 1813, Christ , 
raising the Daughter 
of the Ruler of the 
Synagogue. Went 

to Paris in following year to copy pictures 
in Louvre, but the escape of Napoleon from 


Elba obliged him to return to Plymouth, 
where he saw the deposed Emperor on the 
Bellerophon, and from memory and Borne 
hasty sketches painted him surrounded by 
Ms officers, a picture, now belonging to 
Lord Lansdowne, which brought him into 
notice. In 1817 be went to Italy, and in 
1819 to Greece, returning to Borne, where, 
and at Ferrara chiefly, he spent in all four- 
teen years. He sent, in 1823, to the Royal 
Academy three views of Borne, but his first 
work which won special praise was The 
Spartan iaidas (1827), now the property of 
the Duke of Devonshire. He became an 
A.B.A. in 1828 and R.A. in 1830 ; was ap- 
pointed, in 1841, secretary to the royal com- 
mission for decorating the Houses of Parlia- 
ment, in 1842 librarian of theBoyal Academy, 
in 1843 keeper of the National Gallery, and 
in 1860 was elected president of the Royal 
Academy and knighted. From that time 
until bis death he was chiefly engaged in 
selecting pictures to be bought by the gov- 
ernment for the National Gallery. He pub- 
lished " Materials for a History of Painting " 
(1847), and "The Schools of Painting in 
Italy," translated from Kugler (1851); and 
edited "Kugler'a Handbook of Painting" 
(1855). "Works : Christ lamenting over Je- 
rusalem (replica ; original, 1841), Haidee 
(1831), Escape of the Carrara Family (rep- 
lica, 1850; original, 1834), Lord Byron's 
Dream (1827), National Gallery, London ; 
Una delivering the Bed Gross Knight (1830); 
Greek Fugitives (1833); Arab selling Cap- 
tives (1837); Gaston de Fob: before Battle 
of Ravenna (1838); Christ blessing Little 
Children (1840); Hagar and Ishmael (1843). 
— Bedgrave ; Art Journal (1855), 277 ; Cat 
Nat. Gal; life by Lady Eastlake (London); 
Quarterly Rev., April, 1870 ; Sandby, iL 280; 
Kunst Chronik, i. 3 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., iv. 93. 
Akron, O., Dec. 13, 1850. Landscape painter, 
self-taught Studio in New York. Works : 
At FJyria— Ohio (1881); Near Avon— New 
York, Apples (1882); Autumn Study of 
Beech Trees (1883); Marsh Lands, Meadow 

Brook, Morning at Lakeside (1884); Indian 
Summer, Autumn Days (1886). 

EATON, JOSEPH O., born in 1829, died 
atYonkers,N.Y.,in 1875. Genre and portrait 
painter. An Associate of the National Acad- 
emy in New York, where his professional life 
was spent ; visited Europe in 1873. Ideal 
works : Landscape — Yiew on the Hudson 
(1868); Moral Instruction (1869); Last Chap- 
ter, Dawning Maternity (1871); Greek Water- 
Carrier(1872); LadjGodiva (1874); Tender 
Thoughts, John Hoey, New York. Portraits : 
R S. Gifford (1869) ; E J. Kuntze (belonging 
to National Academy, New York); Rev. G. H. 
Hepworth (1870). The painter's own portrait 
(belonging to the National Academy), and 
Looking through the Kaleidoscope, were 
exhibited after his death. Water-colours : 
Vision of the Cross (1869); Little Nell and 
her Grandfather (1871); Two Pets (1874). 

EATON, WYATT, born at Philipsburg, 
Canada, May 6, 1849. Portrait and figure 
painter ; pupil of the National Academy and 
of J. 0. Eaton in New York, later of Gc~ 
rdme in Paris. In 1872 he studied and 
sketched in England and France. Studio 
in New York. Works : Farmer's Boy (1870); 
Reverie (1875); Harvesters at Rest (1876); 
Boy Whittling, G. A, Drummond, Baltimore; 
Portrait of William Cullen Bryant (1878); 
da of Miss Ella M. M. (1879); Grandmother 
and Child (1880) ; Portrait (Salon, 1884).— 
Sheldon, 169 ; Mag. of Art (1884), 496. 

EBEL, FRITZ, born at Lauterbach, Hesse, 
in 1835. Landscape painter ; was a chemist 
but took up painting in Darmstadt in 1856, 
and in Dasseldorf under Schirmer in 1857- 
61. Studied nature in Germany, Italy, and 
France, and settled in Dasseldorf. Works : 
Mountainous Country (1862); View in Rhon 
Mountains ; Hessian Summer Landscape 
(1864); View in Southern Tyrol ; nse Val- 
ley in the Hartz ; Autumn Landscape in Ton- 
toburg Forest; Uklei Lake in Holstein (1880). 
— Moller, 151. 

EBEBHARD, KONRAD, born at Hinde- 
lang, Algau, Nov. 26, 1768, died in Munich, 
March 12, 1859. History and portrait 



painter and sculptor, first instructed by hie 
father, then studied in Munich and Borne. 
Works : Altarpieoe with Historic Develop- 
ment, Propagation, and Triumph of Chris- 
tianity ; Procession of Corpus Christi ; por- 
traits of Dante, Goethe, Cornelius, and 
Plattner.— Regnet, i 87. 

eur), Ary Scheffer, Louvre, Paris; canvas, 
H. 5 ft x 5 ft 4 in. ; signed. TJlrich, son of 
Count Eberhard, of Wurtemberg, on recov- 
ering from wounds received in the battle of 
Beutlingen, which he had lost, sought his 
father at Stuttgart The old knight re- 
ceived him coldly, and when his son took 
bis seat opposite him at table, seized a knife 
and cut the table-cloth between them. TJl- 
rich, stung by the insult made extraordinary 
efforts in the next battle, Doffingen, which 
he won at the cost of hie life. The picture 
represents the father alone in his tent 
weeping over his son's dead body, as de- 
scribed in Schiller's ballad. Salon, 1831 ; 
Collection of Louis Philippe ; from Luxem- 
bourg. Replicas in Corcoran Gallery, Wash- 
ington, Boston Art Museum, and Rotterdam 
Museum. A second picture (Salon, 1851), 
called Le Coupeur de Nappe, represents the 
father cutting the table-cloth. — Art Treas- 
ures of America, i. 6. 

EBERLE, ADAM, born at Aix-la-Cha- 
pelle in 1805, died in Rome in 1830. His- 
tory painter, student of the Academy at 
Dusseldorf, After Cornelius was appointed 
director, Eberle became his devoted pupil, 
painted two remarkable pictures under his 
influence, and accompanied him to Munich 
in 1825, where he painted a large fresco on 
the ceiling of the Odeon, and another in the 
arcade of the Hofgarten. In 1829 be went 
to Rome. Works : Entombment, St He- 
lena and Angels; Apollo with the Shepherds 
(fresco, Odeon Hall, Munich) ; Investiture 
of Maximilian I of Bavaria (fres- ' i 
co, Arcade of the Hofgarten). — fv\ 
Allgem. d. Biogr., v. 573 ; Brock- 1 Lt\ 
haus, v. 708 ; Forster, Denkmale, iii. 29 ; 
do. Gesch., v. 13, 67, 78. 

EBERLE, ADOLF, born in Munich, Jan. 
11, 1813. Genre painter, son of Robert E., 
pupil of Munich Academy, and from 1856 
of Piloty. Painted his first picture in 1861. 
Medal at Vienna, 1868. Works : Seizure of 
the Last Cow (1861) ; Fruitless Effort ; Out- 
post Scene ; Camp School from Thirty 
Tears' War ; Quartering of Pandours ; Love 
Declaration ; Unsuccessful Music Rehearsal; 
Wedding Day ; Subhastation (1869), Kunst- 
halle, Hamburg ; After Baptism ; Zither 
Lesson ; Old Innsbruck Woman with Grand- 
daughter ; Bridal Dance ; Saying Grace ; 
The First Deer (1879); Visit to Bello 
Family (1883) ; Hunter's Lodge (1884).— 
Zeitechr. f. b. K, ix. (Mittheilungen, iL 25); 
Elustr. Zeitg. (1884), i. 401, 412 ; N. illustr. 
Zeitg. (1878), ii 510. 

EBERLE, ROBERT, bom at Meersburg, 
on Lake Constance, July 22, 1815, died at 
Eberfing, near Munich, Sept 19, 1862. 
Animal painter, pupil in Constance of J. J. 
Bidermann. Went to Munich in 1830 and 
formed himself by studying nature, Ruys- 
dael, and Du Jardin ; spent three months in 
America (1848), and then settled in Munich, 
where he died from an accidental pistol- 
shot Works : Shepherd with Herd return- 
ing Home (1846) ; Grain Harvest (1848) ; 
Morning at Weinheim, Leaving the Alp 
(1849) ; Frightened Sheep, Cattle returning 
Home, Sheep Besting (1860) ; Return from 
the Fields (1851) ; Alp on Benedicten Wall, 
Goats starting for Pasture, Sheep resting at 
Noon, Evening in Pasture, Sheep resting 
and Shepherd Boy (1852) ; Sheep during 
Storm, Early Snow (1853) ; Shepherd and 
Sheep (1854) ; Shepherd's Dinner (1855) ; 
Sheep driven by Dog (1856) ; Village in the 
Morning, Peasant and Shepherd (1857) ; 
Sheep driven over Precipice by an Eagle 
(1858), Carlsruhe Gallery ; Village Scene 
(1859) ; Suabian Shepherd with Herd (1860), 
New Pinakothek, Munich ; Cows returning 
from Pasture (1861). — Allgem. d. Biogr., v. 
574 ; Andresen, iv. 238 ; Brockhaus, v. 708. 

EBERS, EMIL, born in Breslau, Dec. 14, 
1807. Genre painter, pupil of Dasseldorf 


Academy in 1831 and 1837. Visited Hol- 
land and Normandy with Bitter and Jordan, 
whose style he followed. Lives in Brealau, 
whither he returned in 1844 Works: 
Smugglers about to Land (1830), National 
Gallery, Berlin ; Fisher-Hut with Mother 
and Daughter (1831) ; Smugglers Surprised 
(1832) ; Smugglers in Tavern (1833) ; War 
Scene in small Town ; Rescued Women 
among Fishermen (1841); Dutch Smugglers 
on Coast of Normandy (1842) ; Prussian Hus- 
sars quartered in France (1843) ; life-Boat 
(1844) ; Pilot Boat (1846) ; Storm on In- 
land Sea (1846) ; Mutiny on Brig (1848). 
— Andresen, iv. 217 ; Brockhaus, v. 709 ; 
DUsseldf. K, 230. 

EBERT, KARL, born in Stuttgart, Oct. 
13, 1821, died in Munich, March 1, 1885. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Stuttgart Art- 
School under Steinkopf. Settled at Munich 
in 1846. Member of Amsterdam Academy. 
Works : Sternberg Lake, Suabian Alp near 
the Hohenstaufen, Bathing Children in the 
Woods (1867), Stuttgart Gallery; Land- 
scape near Rotterdam ; Storm in the Woods ; 
The Seasons ; Beech Wood with Sheep 
(1871) ; Evening Landscape (1873) ; Wood 
of Tall Trees, Wood 
/■* "T* Interior (1874); 
V, IT Chestnut Wood in 
*— * Tyrol ; Forge in the 
Woods ; Vranduk in Bosnia (1880) ; Storm 
(1882).— Brockhaus, v. 712 ; Illustr. Zeitg. 
(1881), u. 441 ; (1888), i. 466 ; Kunst- 
Chronik, xx. 445. 

Handmaid of the Lord), Dante Gabriel 
Boasetti, National Gallery, London ; canvas, 
IL 2 ft. 4 in. x 1 ft. 5 in. The Annuncia- 
tion. Head of Virgin painted from Chris- 
tina Rossetti ; W. M Rossetti sat for the 
angel, but it was finished from another 
sitter. Royal Academy, 1850 ; sold in 1863 
to Mr. MacCracken, Belfast, for £52 10s. ; 
Graham sale (1886) bought for National 
Gallery (1886), £850.— Art Journal (1884), 
160 ; Athen. (1883), i. 23. 

ECCE HOMO (Behold the Mao), the 

presentation of Christ to the people, after 
scourging, by Pilate (John xix. 5). 

By Annibale t'arracci, Dresden Gallery; 
canvas, H. 3 ft X 3 ft 6 in. Christ, half- 
length, crowned with thorns, with an angel 
on each side. From Modena Collection. 
Engraved by M KeyL — Gal Roy. de 
Dreade, L PI. 18. 

By Correggio, National Gallery, London ; 
wood, H. 3 ft. 2 in. x 2 ft. 7 ¥ in. Christ, 
half-length, with hands bound and crowned 
with thorns ; in front, the Virgin sinks faint- 
ing into arms of Mary Magdalen ; behind, 
Pilate looking out of a window, and on 
other side the bead of a soldier. Painted 
about 1519-21 ; bought of the Colonna 
family, Rome, by Sir Simon Clarke, who 
sold it to Murat, King of Naples ; from his 
widow, the ex-Queen, it passed to the Mar- 
quis of Londonderry, who sold it in 1834, 
together with the Education of Cupid, to 
National Gallery for £11,500. Placed by 
Meyer among the doubtful works of Correg- 
gio. At the end of the 16th century there 
were two Ecce Homos claimed to be by 
Correggio : One belonging to Count Pratt 
(engraved by Agostino Carracci, 1587), the 
other to Lorenzo Salviati, Florence. This 
latter, which passed to the Colonna family, 
is the National Gallery picture. The other 
has disappeared. Engraved by Bettelini ; 
Doo ; Asioli ; Rosaspina. — Meyer, Correg- 
gio, 357, 487 ; do. Eunst Lex., L 434 ; 
Waagen, Treasures, i. 326 ; Kugler (East- 
lake), ii. 505 ; Richter, 62. 

By Guido Reni, Dresden Gallery ; wood, 
oval, H. 1 ft 9 in. x 1 ft. 3 in. Head of 
Christ, crowned with thorns, with eyes 
turned upward. One of Guido's most cele- 
brated pictures, known through many cop- 
ies. Presented by Innocent XDL to Augustus 
H., King of Poland and Elector of Saxony. 
Restored by Palm. Engraved by Ant Krfl- 
ger.— Gal Roy. de Dresde, iii. PI. 26. 

By Outdo Reni, Dresden Gallery ; copper, 
H 2 ft. 8 in. x % ft 1 in. Christ, crowned 
with thorns and holding a reed in his bound 
hand; around his shoulders a red mantle. 


Formerly in tie Imperial Gallery at Prague, 
whence bought in 1748. Engraved by C. 
G. Schnltze.— GaL Boy. de Dreade, in. PL 4. 

By Guido Beni, Louvre ; canvas, H. 2 f t 
x 1 ft 6 in. Head of Christ, crowned with 
thorns, and surrounded with an aureole ; at 
right, before his shoulder, a reed. Given 
to Louia XIV. in 1696 by the Commander 
de Hautefenille.— FilboL i. PL 63 ; Villot, 
Cat Louvre. 

By Guido Beni, National Gallery, Lon- 
don ; wood, oval, H. 1 ft 9£ in. x 1 ft 4 in. 
Head of Christ, crowned with thorns. For- 
merly in Collection of Benjamin West, P.B. A. 
Bequeathed to National Gallery by Samuel 
Rogers in 1855. Engraved by William 

By Murillo, Lord Aahburton, London ; 
canvas, H. 2 ft 7 in. x 2 ft Christ, crowned 
with thorns, wearing a brown robe, looking 
np, half-length. Purchased in 1815 from 
General SebaatianL — Stirling, iii 1430 ; 
Waagen, ii. 102 ; Curtis, 199. 

By Murillo, Cadiz Museum ; canvas, H. 2 
ft 8 in. x 2 ft 2 in. Christ, crowned with 
thorns, and wrists bound, standing front, 
half-length ; upper part of body naked, 
lower part draped with red ; right hand 
holds a reed. Presented to Capuchin Con- 
vent, Cadiz, in 1780, by Dofia Catalina Rod- 
riguez ; deposited in Museum in 1862. Rep- 
etitions, with changes : Mrs. Thomas BirchaU, 
Preston, Lancashire ; Robert Baillie-Hamil- 
ton, Langton House, Dunse, Berwickshire, 
Scotland ; William C. Cartwright, Aynhoe, 
Northamptonshire. — Ponz, Viage, zvii 339 ; 
C Bermudez, it 62 ; Curtis, 197. 

By Murillo, Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 
lft 9 in. x I ft 4 in. Bust, three quarters 
right, looking down ; heavy dark hair and 
beard, crowned with thorns, purple robe. 
Companion to Mater Dolorosa, Madrid Mu- 
seum. From Isabel Famese Collection. — 
Curtis, 198 ; Madrazo, 487. 

By Murillo ; called The Veronica, original 
lost? On a napkin, suspended by two upper 
corners, which are formed into rosettes, is 
the face of Christ, crowned with thorns, the 

eyes downcast, the beard short, and the hair 
falling below the chin. Called La Santa Faz 
(The Holy Face) ; formerly in Capuchin Con- 
vent, Seville, whence disappeared, in what 
way is unknown. — Repetitious : Lord Over- 
stone, London ; A. J, Beresford-Hope, Lon- 
don.— Curtis, 198. 

By II Sodoma, Palazzo Pitti, Florence; 
wood, H. 2 ft x 1 ft 6 in. Christ, half- 
length, crowned with thorns, and hands 
bound with a rope ; behind, three execu- 
tioners. Engraved by L BonajutL — GaL du 
Pal. Pitti, ii PL 80. 

By H Sodoma, Siena Academy ; fresco, H. 
3 ft 8 in. x 4 ft 4 in. Christ, crowned with 
thorns and bound to the column. Formerly 
in cloister of Convent of S. Francesco ; cut 
from wall in 1841. 

By Lo Spagna, National Gallery, London ; 
wood, H. 1 ft 3 in. x 1 ft Christ crowned 
with thorns, presented by Pilate to the peo- 
ple.— Nat GaL Cat 

By Tintoretto, Munich Gallery; copper, 
H. 1 ft 3 in. x 1 ft. Christ sitting, crowned 
with thorns, holding in his bound hands the 
reed sceptre, aided by an officer ; in back- 
ground, Pilate. 

By Tintoretto, Scuola di S. Bocco, Venice ; 
canvas. Christ lies fainting on the ground, 
with a soldier standing beside him ; on the 
other side, Pilate withdraws the robe from 
the scourged body and points it out to the 
Jews. In treatment, resembles Titian more 
than Tintoretto. — Ruskin, Stones of Venice, 
iii 852. 

By Titian, Madrid Museum ; slate, H. 2 
ft 3 in. x 1 ft 9£ in.; signed. Figure, half- 
length, turned to the right ; arms bound in 
front of body ; head bent and blood drops 
from punctures of the crown of thorns. 
Painted in 1647 for Charles V., and carried 
by Titian to Augsburg ; at Yuste at time of 
Emperor's death. A copy, given by Titian 
to Aretino, is perhaps the one of the Averoldi 
collection, Brescia, now in gallery of Due 
d'Aumale ; exhibited at Leeds in 1868 and 
in Paris in 1874— C. & G, Titian, ii. 160. 

By Titian, Scuola di S. Bocco, Venice ; 


canvas. Christ, with face inclined and arms 
folded, sorrowing. Painted before 1500. — 
C. & C., Titian, L 58. 

By TUian, Vienna Museum ; canvas, H 
12 ft. x 8 ft ; signed and dated 1643. Christ 
presented to the people from the top of a 
flight of steps leading from the palace into 
the square below ; the gaoler below looks 
on while Pilate (portrait of Aretino) points 
to the Captive ; the turbaned Turk in the 
crowd below is Saltan Soliman, and the 

tauo, Padua, dated 1674 — Vasari, ed. Mil. , 
vii. 429 ; C. & C, Titian, ii 92. 

Subject treated also by Hans Holbein, 
elder, Donauschingen Gallery ; Lodovico 
Carracci, Pal Doha, Borne ; Bartolommeo 
Montagna, Louvre ; Fra Bartolommeo, Pal. 
Pitti, Florence ; Lodovico Cardi da Cigoli, 
ib. ; Mabuse, Antwerp Museum. 

ECHENA, JOSE, born in Spain, contem- 
porary. Paints chiefly oriental subjects. Hut 
picture, The Arrival at Calvary, painted fot 

knight is said by tradition to be Charles V., 
but the features are those of Alfonso d'Este. 
Painted in Venice for Giovanni d' Anna, who 
placed it in his palace, now the Palazzo Mar- 
tinengo ; sold in 1620 to Sir Henry Wot ton, 
English envoy at Venice, for Duke of Buck- 
ingham, who a few years afterward refused 
£7,000 for it ; sold by his son for about £700 
to Canon Hillewerve of Antwerp, who sold it 
to the Archduke Leopold, for his brother, 
the Emperor Ferdinand HL; removed from 
Prague to Vienna in 1688 by Emperor 
Charles VL Copy in sacristy of S Gae- 

the high altar of the Cathedral, Madrid, was 
exhibited iu London in 1884. Another 
work, Snake Charmers, was painted in 1882. 
ECHTER, MICHAEL, born in Munich, 
March 6, 1812, died there, Feb. 4, 1879. His- 
tory painter, pupil of Munich Academy un- 
der Heinrich Hess, Clemens Zimmermann, 
and Julius Schnorr, then of Olivier ; assisted 
Schnorr in the decoration of the Royal Pal- 
ace in Munich, and in 1846 Kaulbach, by 
whom he was much influenced, in that of 
the Berlin Museum. After his return to 
Munich, he became member of the Academy 


in 1862, and professor at the Art School of 
Industry in 1868. Order of St Michael, 
Belgian Order of Leopold, Bavarian Medal 
for Art and Science. Works : St. George, 
Peter delivered from Prison ; Walk to Eto- 
nians ; Battle in Lech Valley in 956 (1800), 
Treaty of Pavia (both in Maximilianeum) ; 
Barbarossa's Wedding (1865), Burial of Wal- 
ther von der Vogelweide (both in National 
Museum, Munich) ; Four Elements (1865) ; 
Telegraphy and Railroad Travelling (1862), 
Central Railway Station, Munich ; thirty 
Scenes from Wagner's Operas (Royal Palace, 
Munich) ; Fancy and Poetry (1873) ; Aurora ; 
Twelve Months represented by Children's 
Figures. — Brockhaus, v. 722 ; Kunst-Chro- 
nik, xiv. 369 ; Regnet, i 104 

ECHTLER, ADOLF, born at Goritz, 
Austria ; contemporary. Genre and por- 
trait painter, pupil of Venice Academy un- 
der Karl Blaas, of Vienna Academy under 
Fuhrich, and of Munich Academy. Lives 
in Paris. Gold Medal Berlin, 1876. Works: 
Difficult Problem ; Peaceful Company ; 
Honi aoit qui mal y pense (1877) ; Souve- 
nir of Italy, "Thou whom I have always 
Loved . . ."(1879) ; The Eiss (1880) ; Nea- 
politans in Normandy, In the Morning 
(1881) ; Repentant Sinner (1882) ; Ruin of 
a Family, All is Vain (1883) ; Souvenir of 
Venice (1881) ; Five Orphans (1885). 

EMIL), born at Copenhagen, July 2, 1832. 
Marine painter, pupil of Copenhagen Acad- 
emy, but really self-taught ; visited Ger- 
many and Italy in 1853-56, and England, 
France, and Italy in 1873. Works : View 
of Venice ; Fishermen fleeing from Storm 
(1862) ; Fishermen boarding Yacht (1866). 
— Weilbach, 139. 

MISTOCLES VON, bom in Athens, Nov. 
17, 1842. Landscape and marine painter, 
pupil in Potsdam of Wegener, then in 1861- 
63 in Dusseldorf of Oswald Achenbach; 
travelled in Germany and Switzerland, took 
part in the campaign of 1870-71, then, after 
visiting many parts of Europe, settled in 

Dusseldorf, where, since 1880, has painted 
panoramic views on a large scale. Works : 
Thingvalla Lake, Ahnanadjao, sis Icelandic 
views, Square near Mosque in Stambool, 
Chan Street in Stambool (1873) ; Voring Fos 
in Norway, North Cape, Evening on Bos- 
porus (1875) ; Brusa (1876) ; View on 
Norwegian Coast (1877) ; Battle of Grave- 
lotte (1880) ; Battle of Nieuwpoort (1881), 
Entry of Mecca Caravan into Cairo. — Brock- 
haus, v. 726 ; Mailer, 163. 

ECKERHANN,KARL,bom in Weimar in 
1831. Landscape painter, pupil from 1849 
of Preller, then spent 1855 in Brussels, and 
in 1856 went to Carlsruhe to study under 
Schinner. Travelled afterwards through 
Germany, Belgium, and Holland. Works : 
Rhine Valley and Vosges ; View on Isle of 
Rugen ; Landscape in Holstein ; View on 
Inn River ; Luneburg Heath ; View on 
Rhine ; Landscape in Storm ; series of Still- 
Life (Castle Ettersburg, near Weimar). — 
Mul ler, 153 . 

rTELM, born at Varnaes, Jutland, Jan. 2, 
1783, died in Copenhagen, July 22, 1853. 
History and portrait painter, pupil of Co- 
penhagen Academy under Abildgaard ; won 
great gold medal in 1809, went in 1810 to 
Paris, where he studied under David, and 
after his return went to Rome in 1813 ; be- 
came in 1817 member of, 1818 professor in, 
and in 1827 director of the Copenhagen 
Academy. Commander of Order of Danne- 
brog. Works : Jacob's Death (1809) ; Loke 
and Sygin (1810) ; Women at the Holy Sep- 
ulchre (1812) ; Raider's Death (1817) ; Axel 
and Walburg, Eight Scenes from History of 
Oldenburg (1818-28) ; Christ at Gethsem- 
ane (1821) ; Crossing the Bed Sea (1815), 
Russian Man-of-War (1828), Danish Ship 
under Sail (1835), Sailing Vessels in Sunset, 
Ships off Copenhagen Roadstead (1848), 
four others, Copenhagen Gallery ; Death of 
Balder, Academy, ib.; Calm Sea (1832) ; 
Swedish Fisherman's Boat (1833) ; Sermon 
on Mount (1834) ; Meeting at Sea ; Pirate 
Schooner ; Kronborg ; Portraits of Oehlen- 



schlager, Thorwaldsen, and of royal family. 
— Brockhaus, v. 728 ; Weilbach, 140. 

born at Dramnien, Norway, in 1822, died at 
Sandwik, July 13, 1870. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Dusseldorf Academy under Schir- 
mer. At the age of eighteen be had been 
placed in a mercantile office in Christiania, 
but during a previous sojourn of several 
years in Holland having imbibed a taste for 
art, relinquished his post and entered the 
technical drawing school, where he obtained 
a government stipend in 1824, and went to 
Dusseldorf. Returned to Christiania in 
1848, lived and sketched in Madeira in 
1852-54, and founded the Academy of 
Painting at Christiania in 1859. Works : 
View in Saeter Valley, Christiania Gallery ; 
High Plain in Middle Norway; Peak of 
Eomsdftlshorn ; View in Sigdal ; Series of 
Views in Madeira. 

ELIAS), born at Greifswalde, Pomeranta, 
Jan. 22, 1803, died Dec. 24, 1852. History 
painter, pupil of Copenhagen Academy, and 
studied in Borne in 1839-44 Executed 
paintings for Christian sborg Castle in 1831- 
32, and after his return from Borne began 
to decorate the Chapel of Christian TV. in 
Boskilde Cathedral, but was paralyzed in 
1852. Medals, 1827, 1831, 1833, 1887. 
Member of Copenhagen Academy in 1845. 
Works: David playing the Harp before 
Saul (1837) ; Christ blessing the Children 
(1840 and 1844) ; Staerkadder awaiting An- 
gantyr for Combat ; Young Faun (1830), 
Copenhagen Gallery. — Weilbacb, 149. 

EDELFELT, ALBERT, born at Helsing- 
fors, Finland; contemporary. Genre painter, 
pupil of Ger6me. Lives in Paris. Medals : 
3d class, 1880; 2d class, 1682. Works: 
Blanche de Namur and Prince Hacquin 
(1877) ; Duke Charles DX of Sweden insult- 
ing the Dead Body of his Enemy Fleming 
(1878) ; Episode in Revolt of Finland 
Peasants, 1596, The Cherries (1879) ; Child's 
Funeral in Finland (1880) ; At the Artist's 
(1881) ; Divine Service on Sea-shore (1882) ; 

Old Finland Peasant Woman (1883) ; At Sea 
(1884) ; The Little Ship (1885) ; Under the 
EDEMA, GERARD, born in Friealand in 
1652, died at Richmond, England, in 1700. 
Dutch School, Landscape painter, pupil 
of AUart van Everdingen, whom he imi- 
tated, and like whom painted chiefly views 
in Norway ; went to England in 1670, and 
thence visited Norway and Newfoundland 
The figures in his landscapes were generally 
supplied by Thomas Wyck. Works : River 
Scene, Landscape, Hampton Court Gallery. 
iii. 24), Giuseppe Cemri, Louvre ; copper, 
H. 1 ft 6 in. x 1 ft. 2 in. Adam and Eve, 
nude, fleeing to right ; at left, the angel 
with a sword. Collections of Prince de 
Carignan, of Prince de Conti, and of Louis 
XVI. Engraved by Levassenr in Musee 
francais; Villerey in FilhoL — Landon, vii. 
10 ; FilhoL u. 134 ; Reveil, vL 386. 

By Maaaccio, 
Brancacci Chap- 
el, Carmine, 
Florence ; fresco 
on left wall. 
Adam and Eve, 
their loins cov- 
ered with fig- 
leaves, are fleeing 
before the Angel 
with a sword, who 
appears above. — 
Kugler (East- 
lake), i 222. 

By Tintoretto, 
Venice Academy; 
canvas. Adam 
and Eve driven 
from Paradise. 
Companion piece 
to Death of Abel; 
both formerly in 
Scuola di SS. 
Trinita. — Zanot- 
to, ii. PJ. 69. 


George H. Boughlon, Corcoran Gallery, 
Washington ; canvas, II. 3 ft 6 in. x 5 ft 6 
in. Scene from Irving' b " Knickerbocker's 
History of New Tori," Chapter VH. Will- 
iam the Testy, Governor of New Nether- 
lands, having issued an edict prohibiting 
the smoking of tobacco, a multitude of citi- 
zens, armed with pipes and an immense 
supply of ammunition, sat themselves down 
in front of his house and fell to smoking 
with all their might The Governor, with 
cane uplifted, is threatening the rioters, 
conspicuous among whom is Antony van 
Corker, the Trumpeter, and Brinkerhoff, 
hero of the clam-and onion war against 
the Yankees. Fainted in 1877. Original 
study, Charles S. Smith, New York. 

EDMONDS, FRANCIS W., born in Hud- 
son, N. Y., Nov. 22, 1806, died in 1863. 
Genre painter, self-taught For many 
years connected with the American Bank- 
Note Company, on whose notes several of 
his pictures were engraved. Exhibited 
first in 1836, elected an AN.A in 1838, and 
N.A. shortly after ; be was trustee and at 
one time recording secretary of the National 
Academy. Visited Italy in 1810. Works : 
Penny Paper (1839) ; Sparking (1840, en- 
graved by the Art Union) ; Boy Stealing 
Milk (1843), Jonathan Sturges, New York 
Florence, Vesuvius (1844) ; Sleepy Student 
(1846) i Trial of Patience (1848) ; Speculator 
(1862) ; Taking the Census (1854) ; Thirsty 
Drover (1866); Bargaining (1868), Image 
Pedler, Wind-Still, R L. Stuart, New York ; 
Gil Bias and the Archbishop, John Taylor 
Johnston, ib. ; Dame in the Kitchen. — 
Tuckerman, 414 

EDOUARD, ALBERT, bom at Caen (Cal- 
vados), April 22, 1846. Historical, genre, 
figure, and portrait painter, pupil of Cornu, 
Gurdme, Cogniet, and J. E. Delaunay. Medal, 
3d class, 1882 ; 2d class, 1885. Works : Don 
Juan cast Ashore (1870) ; Meditation (1874); 
Apollo and Daphne (1875); Odalisque, In- 
discreet (1876); St Leonard and the Pris- 
oner, The Toilet (1877); St James led to 
a (1878); Dante and Virgil on the 

Frozen Lake (1879); Thetis (1880); Caligula 
and the Cobbler (1882); On the Norman 
Coast in August (1883); Khiomara (1884); 
Briseis and her Companions weeping over 
the Body of Patroclus (1885). 

EDRJDGE, HENRY, born at Paddington, 
Aug., 1769, died in London, April 23, 1821. 
Miniature, landscape, and architecture paint- 
er in water-colours; apprenticed, to W. Pether, 
engraver and landscape painter ; student at 
Royal Academy in 1784 ; elected an AR A. 
in 1820. Was a successful painter of minia- 
tures, among his sitters being the royal fam- 
ily, William Pitt, Lord Macartney, the Spen- 
cer family, Soutbey, Wordsworth, and Ben- 
jamin West In 1810 he began painting 
landscapes, and in 1819 architectural sub- 
jects, the first being the Cathedrals of Beau- 
vais and Rouen. Several of his landscapes 
are in South Kensington Museum. — Sandby, 
a 65 ; Portfolio (1880), 196. 

born in Am- 
sterdam, Aug. 
19, 1621, died 
there, Oct 22, 
1674. Dutch 
school; por- 
trait and his- 
tory painter. 
Son of a gold- 
smith and 
after 1635 pu- 
pil of Rembrandt, whose manner he adopted. 
Works : Christ blessing Little Children, Na- 
tional Gallery, London (bought as a Rem- 
brandt from Suermoudt Collection); Christ 
and the Woman taken in Adultery, Adora- 
tion of Magi, Warrior in Repose, National 
Museum, Amsterdam ; Dedication of Sam- 
uel, Louvre ; Male portrait (1640, Copy of 
Rembrandt's Doreur), Solomon sacrificing 
to the Idols (1654), Mother and Child (1659), 
Sophonisbe receiving the poisoned Cup 
(1664), Tobias healing his Father, Female 
portrait, Brunswick Museum ; Music Les- 
son (1655), Copenhagen Gallery ; Circum- 
cision, Jacob's Dream (1669), Cassel Gallery ; 


Christ and the Doctors (1662), Abraham 
casting off Hagar, Isaac blessing Jacob, Old 
Piiiakothek, Munich; David and Abigail, 
Schleissheim Gallery; Presentation in the 
Temple, Mercury killing Argus (1666), Rais- 
ing of Jairus' Daughter, Berlin Museum ; 
Triumph of Mordecai, Guard House, Lord 
Bute, London ; Portrait of the Historian 
j Dapper (1669), 

/""O 4 /. - Stadel Institute, 

W P. QxKohZ Frankfort- 
<S Ch. Blanc, Ecole 

hollandaise ; Allgem. d. Biogr., t. 653 ; Im- 
merzeel, i. 216 ; Kramm, ii. 415 ; Riegel, 
Beitr&ge, ii. 273. 

DEN, born in Antwerp, Feb. 6, 1793, died 
in Paris in 186L History, genre, and por- 
trait painter, pupil of Antwerp Academy; 
then practised sculpture, in which he ob- 
tained a prize in 1S21 ; took up painting 
without a master, and in 1823 obtained the 
first prize in Ghent, and soon after a medal 
at Douai. In 1831 settled at The Hague, 
where in 1839 he became director of the 
Academy ; moved to Mechlin in 1844, then 
to Brussels, and hi 1859 to Paris. Member 
of Amsterdam, Antwerp, Brussels, and Rot- 
terdam Academies. Works : St. Nicholas 
Festival, Checkmate (1823); Peasant plough- 
ing in a Storm (1829); Battle of Bautersum, 
Conquest of Tirlemont (1831); Doctor's 
Visit, Savoyard with Dog and Monkey, 
Nuptials of Jacqueline of Bavaria with Duke 
Jan of Brabant (1839), National Museum, 
Amsterdam ; Abdication of Jacqueline of 
Bavaria, Peter the Great at Zaandam (1840); 
Death of William the Silent, Death of Van 
Spuyk (together with Wappers), Hambroek 
on Isle of Formosa (1841); Orphans coming 
from Church, Departure of Scheveningen 
Recruits, Domestic Scene at Scheveningen, 
Paternal Admonition, Old Woman reading 
aloud. The Poor Blind, Rabbit on the Wall 
Pay-Day, Return from the Chase, Return 
from Fishing ; Collection of portraits of mod- 
ern artists bom in the Netherlands (1822). 
— Immerzeel, L 217 ; Eramm, ii. 414. 

EERTVELT. See Artvelt. 

EFFDjJ DEANS, Sir John Everett MO- 
laia, Robert Loder, Esq., M.P. ; canvas, H. 
4 ft 9 in. x 3 ft 6 in. Scene from Sir 
Walter Scott's " Heart of Midlothian ; " one 
of the clandestine meetings between Effie 
Deans and Geordie Staunton or Robertson. 
The outlaw, in a slate-coloured coat with 
the deep cuffs of the period and wearing a. 
Lowland broad bonnet, is on the further 
of a wall in a wood ; Effie, on the side 
toward the spectator, attired in a loose pink 
costume and holding her blue suood in her 
hand, turns her eyes upward with a hope- 
less expression as she listens to her betray- 
er's words ; at her feet sits a faithful collie, 
looking wistfully up into her face. Painted 
in 1877 ; Arbuthnot sale (1882), £892. 

London, May 2, 1816, died in Algiers, 
March 25, 1863. History and genre painter, 
pupil in drawing of Henry Saas, and student 
at Royal Academy in 1836 ; became an A.R A. 
in 1848, and R.A. in 1860. Won a well-de- 
served reputation as a painter of social his- 
tory subjects. Works: Spanish Girl (1838); 
Laugh when you Can (1839); Scene from 
Henry IV. (1840); Scene from Le Diable 
Boiteux (1844), National Gallery ; Bucking- 
ham Bebuffed (1846); Wooing of Katherine, 
Lucentio and Bianca (1847); Peter the Great 
and Catherine (1850); Pepys's Introduction 
to Nell Gwynne (1851); Life of Bucking- 
ham, Death of Buckingham (1855); Knight- 
ing of Esmond (1857); Night before Naseby, 
Madame de Maintenon and Scan-on (1859); 
Katherine and Petruchio (1860), his last 
picture.— Cat Nat GaL; Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
anglaise ; Redgrave ; Sandby, ii 310, 

EGGERS, JOHANN KARL, born at Neu- 
strelitz, Mecklenburg, in 1790, died there in 
1863. History and portrait painter, pupil 
in Dresden of Matth&i At Rome he aided 
in the revival of fresco painting, and at Ber- 
lin assisted Cornelius in decorating the por- 
tico of the new Museum with frescos. Works : 
Mater Dolorosa, Sleeping Venus (1819); Cu- 
pid (1823), Bellevue Castle near Berlin ; 



Christ with Mary and Martha ; Washing 
the Lord's Feet ; Choir in Naumburg Cathe- 
dral. Fresco : Borne Personified (Vatican). 

born at Hildesheim, Sept, 1792, died Jan. 
16, 1869. History, genre, and portrait 
painter, pupil of Dflsseldorf Academy under 
Sohn ; a beautiful and gifted woman at Court 
of "Weimar, mentioned by Goethe in his 
poems. Became oanoness of Hildesheim. 
Works: Shepherds in the Campagna (1835); 
Girl braiding her Hair ; Hagar in the Des- 
ert ; Exposure of Moses ; portraits of Queen 
Teresa of Bavaria and of Grand Duchess of 
Sue-Weimar. — Allgem. d. Biogr., v. 683. 

born in Leyden, Sept, 22, 1661, died 
in Antwerp, Jan. 8, 1674. Flemish school ; 
history and portrait painter, pupil of Gas- 
par van den Hoeck in 1615, and then of 
Rubens, whom he assisted especially in the 
execution of the Marie de Medici pictures 
at the Louvre. Later was in the service of 
Louis XHL and Louis XIV., and was 
among the original members of the French 
Academy, founded in 1648. He worked 
also conjointly with Vouet, and returned to 
Antwerp before Nov. 11, 1660. Works: 
Portrait of Archduke Leopold William, two 
portraits of Philip IV. of Spain, Vienna Mu- 
seum ; Maria de' Medici, Schleissheim Gal- 
lery. — Allgem. d. Biogr., v. 687 ; Biog. nat. 
de Belgique, vi. 512 ; Jal, 528 ; Booses 
(Reber), 318 ; Van den Branden, 766. 

OF, Louis Gallait, Tournay Museum ; can- 
vas. The Duke of Alva, who under the 
forms of justice had executed his noble 
Dutch predecessors, Count Lsmoral of Eg- 
mont and Philip of Montmorency, Count 
Horn, visits their bodies when arranged 
for burial and contemplates them with 
savage satisfaction. Painted in 1861 ; pur- 
chased by city of Tournay. Replica (1859), 
water-colour (14 x 19 in.), W. T. Walters, 
Baltimore. — Art Treasures of America, i. 88. 

EGOGNL AMBROGIO. See Borgognone, 

Santsnder, Spain ; contemporary. Works : 
Don Quixote and the Parson ; Bright Look- 
out; Boudoir Scene, A. J. DrexeL Phila- 
delphia; She laughs at his Folly, W. R 
Bement, Philadelphia; Disappointed; Re- 
turn from Walk, C. P. Huntington, New 
Y ork ; Reading Girl, Borie Collection, Phila- 
delphia ; Michelangelo beside the Body of 
Vittoria Colonna ; Charles V. at San Yuste 
(1868); After a Brawl (1869); Infant Don 
Carlos and Infanta Doiia Juana swear to de- 
fend the Catholic Faith (1870); The Be- 
trothed (1883). 


EGYPT, REPOSE IN. See Repose. 

EGYPTIAN FEAST, Edwin Long, Fine 
Art Society, London ; canvas, H. 6 ft 2 in. 
X 12 ft 4 in. A feast spread in a vast dec- 
orated hall of Egyptian architecture, with 
massive columns in background ; in the cen- 
tre slaves are dragging a mummy upon a 
bier, to remind the numerous revellers that 
they are mortal ; in foreground, musicians. 
Engraved by E. Girardet 

in New York, July 22, 1827. Landscape 
and figure painter ; after graduating at Co- 
lumbia College he went to Paris (1847), 
where he studied two years under Couture, 
and then at Dflsseldorf. He was at one 
time employed by a London illustrated 
journal to furnish designs for wood-cuts. 
Elected N.A. in 1860. Studio at Saratoga 
Springs. Works : Peter Stuyvesant (1850); 
Eight illustrations of Miles Standish (1858); 
Autumnal Landscape (1867); Monk (1871); 
Vintage in the Valtellina— Italy (1877); Twi- 
light from the Bridge of Pau — Basses-Pyre- 
nees (1878); Subject for Thanksgiving (1879); 
Lady of the Manor (1882); The Old, Old 
Story (1884).— Tuckerman, 461. 

Schubert von Ehrenberg), born at Antwerp, 
baptized May 12, 1630 (according to Van 
den Branden in Germany In 1637), died 
there in 1675 or 1676. Flemish school ; 
architecture painter, master of the guild in 


1662. Excellent in perspective. Works : 
Interior of Palace (1666, figures by H. van 
Minderhout), Antwerp Museum ; Architect- 
ure in BiBet's William Tell, Brussels Mu- 
seum ; do. of Art Gallery (1671), Hague 
Museum ; do. (1666), Old Pinakothek, Mu- 
nich ; Church Interior (1664), Vienna Mu- 
seum. — Biog. nat de Belgique, vi. 515 ; 
Cat du Muses d'Anvers (1874), 464 ; Tan 
den Branden, 875. 

ADOLF, born in "Berlin, Nov. 21, 1813. 
History painter, pupil in the Dusseldorf 
Academy under Schadow (1832); after 1838 
assisted Bendemann in decorating the Royal 
Palace at Dresden with frescos and became 
professor at the Academy in 1846. Works : 
Jephthah's Daughter (1836); Christ with 
Mary and Martha (1837); Death of the 
Troubadour Rudello ; Rinaldo and Armida ; 
Dante's Dream ; Charles V. in the Monas- 
tery ; Louis the Bavarian with Frederic the 
Fair ; Luther as Squire 
in Jena (1864), 
Leipsic Museum ; Resur- 

5EP *\s< rection ; Portrait of Lud- 
***« ° ^* wig Richter.— Muller, 
155 ; Wiegmann, 152. 

Strasburg, Sept 5, 1833. History painter, 
pupil of Gleyre and of the Ecole des B. 
Arts, studied two years in Italy, and re- 
turned to Paris in 1865. Medals : 1865 
and 1868 ; 3d class, 1874 ; L. of Honour, 
1879. Works : Siren Fishing (1865, burned 
in Strasburg, 1870); A Conqueror (Luxem- 
bourg Museum, copied at the Gobelins); 
Ariadne abandoned by Theseus (1873), 
water-colour, Luxembourg Museum ; Greece, 
Rome, The Barbarians, The Middle Ages 
(1874), M Girsrd, Paris ; Venus passing be- 
fore the Sun (1875); The Muses (1877); Re- 
publican France leading the Nations to 
Peace and Industry (1879); The Fates ; The 
Fountain of Youth ; Wisdom uniting Art 
and Industry (1884); The Manuscript (1885). 
— L'Art (1876), iii. 297 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex., 
xvni 259. 


ETBNER, FRIEDRICH, born at Hilpot- 
stein, Palatinate, Feb. 25, 1835, died in 
Munich, Nov. 18, 1877. Architecture and 
landscape painter, self-taught, principally by 
copying after H. Schoenf eld ; travelled 
through Bavaria (1847), Germany and 
France (1852), North Italy (1853-56), 
and Spain (1860-61), whither he accom- 
panied Prince Metschersky, in whose pos- 
session is a valuable series of sixty -five great 
water-colour views from Spain. Among his 
best works are : Cathedrals of Burgos, Se- 
ville, and Segovia ; Palace of Inquisition at 
Cordova ; Ponte del Paradiso in Venice ; 
St Anastasia in Verona; Church of Our 
Lady at Esslingen. — Kunst^Chronik, xiiL 


FJCHHORN, ALBERT, born at Freien- 
walde on the Oder, July 7, 1811, died at 
Potsdam, Oct 19, 1851. Architecture and 
landscape painter, pupil, in Berlin, of Tem- 
peltei and Biermann, travelled through Italy 
and Greece, settled in Potsdam, and was 
much employed by King Frederick William 
TV. Works : Views in and about Boms' 
(1842); Taygetus, Temple of Phigalia (1842); 
St Peter's in Rome ; Temple of Corinth ; 
Temple of Zeus, Road of Patras ; City Views 
from Italy ; The Campagna. — Allgem. d. 
Biogr., v. 728; Kunstblatt (1853), 2670. 

EICHLER, HERMANN, bom in Vienna 
in 1842. History painter, pupil of Christian 
Ruben, whose studio he entered in 1864. 
Works : Charles X meeting Cromwell after 
the Sentence ; Peter Hele the Inventor of 
Watches; Rudolph LL; Count von Helfen- 
stein in the Peasants' War ; Oberon ; In the 
Shade of the Bormio ; Picnic (1879).— Mul- 
ler, 156 ; N. illustr. Zeitg. (1681), i 339. 

Jean Louis Ernest Meisaonier, Mrs. A. T. 
Stewart, New York ; canvas, H. 4 ft 6 in. x 
8 ft At first called Friedland, but finally 
named after the date of the battle. Scene 
—a ceremonial review of the exhausted vic- 
torious troops after the nine hours' fight- 
ing which made Napoleon dictator of Eu- 
rope. The Twelfth Cuirassiers galloping 


through the trampled grain are rising in 
their stirrups, waving their swords, and 
shouting in a frenzy of enthusiasm as the 
Emperor, on a white horse at left, sur- 
rounded by his Etat-major and Marshals 
Besaieres, Duroc, and Berthier, salutes them 
by raising his cocked hat. Behind, at Na- 
poleon's left, troops axe waiting to fall into 
line, and further ou are seen the bearskin 
caps of the Old Guard In the foreground, 
at Napoleon's right, in yellow breeches and 
red dolmans, are the four troopers compos- 
ing the avant-garde of the imperial escort 
Meissonier's masterpiece. Finished in 1876 
after fifteen years' labour. The costumes 
and trappings were made by tailors, boot- 
makers, and saddlers; the horses were 
modelled in wax. Vienna Exposition, 1878. 
Mr. Stewart paid $60,000 for it— L'Art 
(1876), L 14 ; Art Treasures of America, i. 

terby, Fiinen, March 1, 1827. landscape 
painter, pupil of Copenhagen Academy ; 
took part in the Schleawig-Holstein cam- 
paign of 1848-60, and afterwards studied 
under J. P. Moller ; visited France, Switzer- 
land, and the Pyrenees in 1858-60, London 
in 1862, Holland and Belgium in 1871, Vi- 
enna and Salzburg in 1873, and Italy in 
1876. Many of his pictures bought in Ger- 
many and England. Member of Copenha- 
gen Academy, 1871 ; Order of Danebrog, 
1876. "Works: Mill near Heden; Land- 
scape in Southern Fiinen (1855) ; View of 
Himroelbjaerget (1867) ; Gloomy Weather 
in the Landes, Two Views in the Pyrenees 
(1861) ; Morning at Sorrento, October After- 
noon at AmalU (1881) ; View in Frysenborg 
Deer-Park (1864), Copenhagen Gallery.— 
Sigurd Mtlller, 87 ; Weilbach, 152. 

EIN8LE, ANTON, born in Vienna in 
1801, died there March 10, 1871. Portrait 
painter, pupil of Vienna Academy ; ap- 
pointed court-painter in 1867, and decorated 
with the Order of Franz Josef. Works : 
Count Zichy, The Letter (1842) ; Sculptor 
Elieber (1844) ; Negro Slave (1846) ; Count 

Chotek, Countess Wickenburg (1846) ; Em- 
peror Francis Joseph, Empress Elizabeth, 
Field-Marshal Count Radetzky. — Wurzbach, 
iv. 15. 

EIRENE, painter. See Irene. 

enna, Feb. 11, 1830. Decorative painter, 
pupil of Leopold Schultz, of the Vienna 
Academy, in 1842-48, and in 1856 of RahL 
whose indispensable assistant he soon be- 
came. Professor at Vienna Academy since 
1872. Works : Apollo and the Muses (1869), 
Musikverein, Vienna ; Ceiling Paintings, 
Grand Hotel, ib.; Twelve Months, Palais 
Guttmonn, ib.; The Graces and Peace, 
Tietz Mansion, ib.; Scenes from Lives of 
Emperor Maximilian L and Duke Leopold, 
Castle Hornstein ; Fresco Paintings in the 
Museum of Art and Industry. — Graph. E., 
vL 77 ; Mftller, 156. 

Salzburg in 1634, died in Venice in 1698. 
German school ; landscape, marine, and 
battle painter, self-taught ; went to Venice, 
where he studied after the old masters, and 
soon attained considerable success. His land- 
scapes and seaports embellished with archi- 
tecture were especially esteemed. Works : 
Landscapes with Ruins (2), Dresden Gal- 
lery ; Landscape with Cavalry Skirmish, Vi- 
enna Museum. 

born in Venice in 1679. Landscape, marine, 
and battle painter, adopted son and pupil 
of preceding, who at Venice had formed a 
friendship with bis father, Mattia Brise- 
ghella. After Eismann's death he seems to 
have settled at Ferrara. Works ; Skirmish 
under the Walls of a Fortress, Cavalry Skir- 
mishes (2), A Battlefield, Dresden Gallery. 

EKELS, JAN, the younger, born at Am- 
sterdam in 1759, died there June 4, 1793. 
Dutch school ; genre painter, son and pu- 
pil of Jan E. the elder (1724-81) ; went to 
Paris, and in 1783 up the Rhine to Duesel- 
dorf to visit the gallery. Imitated the old 
masters, especially J. Molenaer. Works s 
Young Man Drawing, Peasant lighting hia 


Pipe, Stadel Gallery, Frankfort — Immer- 
zeel L 220. 

EKWALL, KNUT, born at Saby, Sma- 
land, April 3, 1843. Genre painter and 
illustrator, pupil of Stockholm Academy ; 
devoted himself to illustration in 1870, and 
was engaged in it at Munich and Leipsic 
until 1875, when he studied genre painting 
under Knaus in Berlin, and settled there. 
Works : Ten Minutes for Refreshments ; 
Family Scene in Dalecarlia ; After Mid- 
night ; Sailor's Return ; After the Bath ; 

ELECTION, Hogarth, Soane Museum, 
London ; four pictures, canvas, H. 3 ft 4 
in. x 4 ft 4 in. 1. The Election Entertain- 
ment ; 2. Canvassing for Votes ; 3. Polling 
at the Hustings ; L The Chairing of the 
Successful Candidate. These pictures for- 
merly belonged to Garrick ; bought of his 
widow in 1823 for £1,732 10s. — Jameson's 
Handbook, n. 572. 

werp Cathedral ; H. 14 f t x 15 ft In three 
parts: centre, the Saviour on the Cross, 

Berlin Fire Department ; Sub Rosa (1880) ; 
Honeymoon (1882) ; He is Coming (1883) ; 
Morning after Wedding, Jolly Morning 
Hour (1884). 

ELAINE, Toby Rosenthal, Mrs. R. C. John- 
son, San Francisco. Illustration of Tenny- 
son's "Lancelot and Elaine, "where the "lily 
maid of Astolat," stretched upon her bier on 
the funeral galley, "Oar'd by thedumb, went 
upward with the flood." Painted in 1874 

ELASIPPUS, Greek painter, date un- 
known. One of many reputed inventors of 
encaustic painting. — Pliny, xxxv. 39 [122]. 

which nine powerful men are elevating ; 
left wing, the Virgin, the Holy Women, and 
St John, the latter standing by the Virgin ; 
right wing, mounted Roman soldiers super- 
intending the crucifixion of the two thieves. 
The groups on the wings are painted on the 
inside of the covers of the middle part. On 
the exterior of the covers are : St Cather- 
ine on one side, and St Eloi on the other. 
Painted in 1610 for S. Walburge, Antwerp ; 
retouched in 1627 by Rubens, who then 
introduced the Newfoundland dog in the 
corner. Carried to Paris in 1796 ; returned 


in 1816. Engraved by C. L. Masquelier ; 
in three parts by Witdouc SL Catherine 
engraved by Bolswert, Mariette. — Smith, ii. 
1 ; Jameson, Hist Our Lord, ii. 135 ; Re- 
veil, x. 687 ; Landon, Muace, x. 33. 

By Anton van Dyck, Notre Dame, Cour- 
tray, Belgium ; canvas. The Saviour on 
the Cross, which four men are raising into 
position ; at left, an assistant, with a spade 
in his hand, and two mounted soldiers, one 
of whom is giving orders ; in foreground, 
right, a basket with implements, and a 
spaniel dog. Painted by order of Canon 
Boger Braye in 1632 ; carried to Paris, re- 
turned in 1815. Etched by A. Boulard. 
Sketch in Collection of M. de fieuck, at 
Wareghem ; engraved by Bolswert, J. Au- 
dran.— Guinrey, 136 ; Smith, iil 11 

ELIJAH, Washington Allston, Museum 
of Fine Arts, Boston, Mass. ; canvas. Elijah 
in the desert fed by ravens. Begun in Eng- 
land, finished in Boston ; bought by Hon. 
Mr. Labouchere, afterwards Lord Taunton, 
and taken to England ; purchased (1870) 
after his death by Mrs. Samuel Hooper, of 
Boston, and presented to Museum. — Me- 
morial Hist Boston, iv. 395. 

Ddaroche, Louvre, Paris ; canvas, H. 13 ft. 
9 in. x 11 ft 2 in. ; signed, dated 1828. The 
Queen, lying upon cushions, assisted by her 
women, is surrounded by the grand digni- 
taries of her court. Cecil, Secretary of 
State, is kneeling beside her. Salon, 1827, 
although dated as above. Formerly in 
Luxembourg. Engraved by Jazet — An- 
nates des B. Arts, Salon de 1827, PL 66. 

EL TlROSO (The Scald-Head), Murdlo, 
Academia S. Fernando, Madrid ; canvas, 
H. 13 ft 9 in. x 10 ft 6 in. The Saint, 
dressed as a nun, with a small coronet on 
her head, stands in a portico washing the 
scald-head of a beggar boy, who bends over 
a silver basin on a pedestal ; two ladies and 
a duenna supply lotions ; on left, a second 
boy, a cripple on crutches, and an old 
tod ; in foreground, a half-naked 

beggar seated ; in background, the Saint 
and her ladies are serving poor persons 
seated at a table in a gallery. Companion 
to San Juan de Dion. Painted in 1674, one 
of eight large pictures, for Hospital de la 
Caridad, Seville ; carried to Paris by Marshal 

Soult, who gave it to Louis XV ILL at the Res- 
toration ; placed in Louvre, hut returned to 
Spain in 1815. Original study, with changes, 
John L. O'Sullivan, New York. Engraved 
by P. Boutrois, D. Martinez ; lithographed 
by Flor. de Craene, Lafosse, F. Chevalier, 
Ch. Vogt, Defrondat, M. Lavigne, Charpen- 
tier, H. Jannin.— Curtis, 229 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole espaguole ; Viardot, Hlust. Hist Paint 
ers (London, 1877) ; Becker, Eunst und 
Kunstler ; Harper's Mag. (1885). lxsi. 938. 

stance, March 20, 1791, died there, June 5, 
1863. History and portrait painter, pupil 
of the miniature painter Einsle, then from 
1813 of Langer in the Munich Academy. 
"Worked in 1816-20 in Constance, in 1822- 
24 in Borne, where she became a follower 


of Overbeck Appointed court-painter at 
Baden in 1829 and revisited Bome in 1838- 
40. Works : Si Cecilia (1814) ; Praying 
Girl, Madonna (1824); Holy Virgin reading, 
Madonna in Glory, Si Nicholas, Resurrec- 
tion (1825); Si Anatolica (1828); Martyr- 
dom of Si Stephen (1827), Catholic 
Church, CarlBruhe; St. Cecilia (1829); Ma- 
donna in the Rose-Hedge (1834), Carlsruhe 
Gallery; Magnificat (1835); Si Charles of 
Borromeo (1838); St. Felicitas with her 
Sons, Jesus and the Children, St Anthony, 
Angel bearing Prayers to Heaven 
["J^, (1840); Simeon in the Temple; 
Raising of Lazarus ; Baptism of 
Livia ; St Jerome ; Gratitude. — Allgem. d. 
Biogr., vL 49 ; Andresen, iv. 30. 

FJJJGER (FJger), OTTMAR (Ottomar), 
the elder, born at Gothenburg, Sept 18, 1633, 
died in Berlin in 1G79. Flemish school ; 
fruit and flower painter, pupil in Antwerp 
of Daniel Seghers, called to Berlin as court- 
painter, by the Great Elector, in 1670. 
Works: Tulip with Roses and Berries on 
a Table (1674), Bouquet on a Table with 
Grapes and Apricots, Dresden Gallery ; 
others in Brunswick, Frankfort, and Stock- 
holm Galleries. — Kramm, ii. 422 ; Michiela, 
viii 303. 

ELLIGER, OTTMAR, the -younger, born 
in Hamburg in 1666, died at Amsterdam in 
1732. Dutch school ; history painter, son 
and pupil of Ottmar FJliger the elder ; then 
pupil in Amsterdam of Michiel van Mus- 
Bchert and of Gerard de Lairesse ; painted, 
in the style of the latter, wall and easel 
pictures in which he loved to introduce 
grand architecture. Works : Death of Alex- 
ander the Great (1716), Marriage of Peleus 
and Thetis (1717), for Elector of Mentz ; 
Banquet of Cleopatra, Herodias dancing be- 

f* _ fore Herod and his 

fOfi'tftOn Cbnests, Cassel Gal- 
UOLMf^ lory; Woman with 
«_X Goblet and Fruits 

(1714), Vienna Museum; Allegory, Bor- 
deaux Museum ; others in Brunswick Mu- 
seum. — Immersed, L 221 ; Kramm, ii. 422. 

Scipio, N. T., Dee., 1812, died in Albany, 
Aug. 25, 1868. 
Portrait painter, 
pupil of Trum- 
bull and of Qui- 
dor in New York, 
where he spent 
the greater part 
of his profession- 
al life. Elected 
and N.A in 1846. 
H's pictures are 
to be found in the State Library, Albany, 
the Mercantile Library, Baltimore, and in 
the New York City Hall. Among his por- 
traits are those of: Matthew Vaasar (Vas- 
sar College) ; Fletcher Harper ; Fenimore 
Cooper ; Fitz-Greene Halleck ; Governors 
Hunt and Seymour ; Erastus Coming, 
A, B. Durand, N.A, Corcoran Gallery, 
Washington ; his own portrait, M. O. Rob- 
erts' Collection, New York. Ideal works : 
Falstaff (Vassal) ; Don Quixote ; Andrew 
van Corlaer the Trumpeter, W. T. Walea, 
Baltimore ; Head of Skaneateles Lake, F. 
N. D. Horton ; Falstaff, Leonard Jerome, 
New York. 

ELMORE, ALFRED, born at Clonakilty, 
Ireland, June 18, 
1815, died in 
London, Jan. 24, 
1881. Student 
in London in 
1832 of Royal 
Academy, where 
he exhibited in 
1834 his Subject 
from an Old Play. 
Made an extend- 
ed art tour to 
Paris, Municb, Venice, Bologna, Florenoe, 
and Rome, where he remained two years. 
Returned to England in 1844 ; became an 
AR.A in 1845, and R.A. in 1856. Works : 
Martyrdom of Thomas * Becket (1840), St 
Andrew's Church, Dublin ; The Novice 


(1843) ; Bienzi 1b the Forum (1844); Inven- 
tion of Stockin g Loom (1847) ; Death of Rob- 
ert, King of Naples (1848); Griselda(1850); 
Charles V. at Yuste (1856), Lee sale, 1883, 
£1,412 ; Incident in Life of Dante (1858)-, 
Tuileries in 1792 (1860); Marie Antoinette 
in the Temple (1861); Lucrezia Borgia (1863); 
Louis XTTT. and Louia XIV. (1870); Across 
the Fields<1872); Afterthe Emulsion (1873); 
Mistress Hettie Lambert (1874); Ophelia 
(1875); Mary Queen of Scots and Darnley 
(1877); Pompeii, Judith and Holofernes, 
Columbus at Porto Santo, John Alden and 
Priacilla (1878); Sabina, Greek Ode (1879); 
After the Ruin, Lenore. — Art Journal (1857), 
113; (1881), 96; Sandby, ii 302; Meyer, 
Conv. Lex., xviii. 281. 

born in Berlin, July 24, 1810, died in 
Borne, Sept. 1, 1845. Landscape and archi- 
tecture painter, pupil of Berlin Academy 
under Blechen ; went to Borne in 1831, and 
was much influenced by Franz Catel ; mem- 
ber of Berlin Academy in 1841. Works: 
Outlook from Volsker Mountains towards 
the Sea, From the Woods of Calabria ; The- 
atre of Taormina; Church Interior of Pa- 
lermo ; Convent Yard in Palermo ; Interior 
of Si Peter's in Borne ; View of Soman Ru- 
ins ; Campo Santo in Pisa by Moonlight ; 
Siren Group in Tivoli ; Cloister in Cefalii ; 
View of Tivoli ; Views of Peacock Isle near 
Potsdam. His brother Julius (born in Ber- 
lin in 1615, died in Borne, Dec, 25, 1859), 
also made a reputation as a landscape paint- 
er. — A 11 gem, d. Biogr., vi 61 ; Brockhaus, 

ELSHOLTZ, LUDWIG, born in Berlin, 
June 2, 1805, died there, Feb. 3, 1850. 
Genre and battle painter, pupil of Berlin 
Academy and of Franz Kriiger. Works : 
Battle of Leipsic (1833); Battle of Denne- 
witz ; Farewell on Battlefield ; Scene from 
Battle of Bautzen ; Noon-Day Best during 
Harvest ; Entry of Allies into Paris ; Civic 
Guard ; Beginning of Skirmish (1834), Na- 
tional Gallery, Berlin. — Allgem. d. Biogr., 
■vi 67 ; Brockhaus, vi 82. 

ELSHFJMER (Elzbeimer), ADAM, 
born in Frankfort, baptized March 18, 1578, 
died in Borne in 
1620. German 
school; landscape 
painter, pupil of 
Philip Uffenbach; 
called Adam of 
Frankfort at 
Rome, where he 
fixed his resi- 
deuce at an early 
age. Had numer- 
ous pupils, such as T Win an , Jan Pinas, 
and Goudt, and founded a new school 
which treated biblical subjects in the nat- 
ural, anti-classic style afterwards developed 
by Rembrandt, of whom he is regarded as 
one of the precursors. His biblical and 
mythological scenes are represented in land- 
scapes suggested by Italian motives, and 
the figures are no lay figures, but human in 
dress and sentiment. Each one of bis pu- 
pils brought back to Holland something of 
his master, whose influence was communi- 
cated to Rembrandt through Lastman. 
Works : Sacrifice at Lystra, Bacchus among 
the Nymphs at Nysa, Stadel Gallery, Frank- 
fort ; Landscape with Mountain Prospect, 
Aurora, Brunswick Museum ; St. Lawrence, 
Carlsruhe Gallery ; replica, Montpellier Mu- 
seum ; Landscape with St. Jerome, Eunst- 
tuule, Hamburg ; Walk to Emmaus, Aschaff- 
enburg Gallery ; Martyrdom of St Law- 
rence, Contento, an Allegory, Flight into 
Egypt, Burning of Troy, Woodland Valley, 
St John Preaching!?), Old Pinakothek, 
Munich ; Six Scenes from Life of Mary, 
Syrinx and Pan, St Martin and the Beggar, 
Arcadian Wood Landscape, Berlin Museum; 
Flight into Egypt^ Joseph put into a Pit by 
his Brethren, Jupiter and Mercury visiting 
Philemon and Baucis, Judith {?), Dresden 
Gallery; Repose in Egypt, Museum, Vienna; 
Realm of Venus, Academy, ib. ; Birth of 
Christ, Czernin Gallery, ib. ; Flight into 
Egypt, Liechtenstein Gallery, ib.; do., Ferdi- 
nandeum, Innsbruck ; Peter denying Christ, 


Scourging of Christ, Venice Academy ; Ar- 
tist's Portrait, Shepherd playing the Shalm, 
Aglaia's Daughters led to Temple by Mer- 
cury, Hagar consoled by Angel, Uffizi, 
Florence; Six Landscapes with Story of 
Icarus, Naples Museum ; Scoffing of Ceres, 
Madrid Museum ; Flight into Egypt, Good 
Samaritan, Louvre, Paris; Martyrdom of 
St Lawrence (copy?), National Gallery, 
London ; Meeting of Elias and Obadiah, 
Marquis of Bute, ib. ; Repose in Egypt, 
Duke of Devonshire, Chatsworth ; Fight 
small Landscapes with Saints, Earl of Le- 
«— i-r confield, Pet- 

Hall, near Edinburgh. — AUgem. d. Biogr., vi. 
66 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole allemande ; Bode, 
Studien, 231 ; Jahrb. der KongL preuss. 
Eunstaammlg., i. 61, 246. 

ELST, PD3TER TAN. See Verelst. 

Francis B. Carpenter, staircase of House of 
Representatives, Capitol, Washington. Presi- 
dent Lincoln signing the proclamation of 
emancipation of slaves in the United States, 
January 1, 1863. Painted in 1861 j pur- 
chased for $26,000 in 1877 by Miss Mary 
Elizabeth Thompson, and presented to the 

Cassel, Dec. 2, 1780, died there, Aug. 10, 
1862. Genre and portrait painter, pupil of 
Cassel Academy ; studied the old masters at 
Dresden, Dusseldorf, Munich, and Vienna, 
painted portraits in Cassel until 1830, and 
then began to treat child and peasant life 
with much success. Works : Hessian Peas- 
ant Girl with Letter ; Children playing on 
Ruins of their Burned Home ; Girls at the 
Well ; Cinderella ; Children playing at the 

EMELE, WILHELM, born at Buchen, in 
the Odenwald, in 1830. Battle painter, pu- 
pil in Munich of Feodor Dietz, studied 
afterwards in Antwerp and Paris. Hie pict- 

ures are good in colour and show thorough 
knowledge of military details. Since 1861 
he has resided in Vienna. Works: Battle 
of Stockach, Assault on Heidelberg Bridge 
(1867) ; Skirmish near Aldenhoven (1869) ; 
~ tode in Battle of Aspen (1860) ; Taking 
of Camp near Farmars, Park Scene with 
Horses, Attack of French Cuirassiers at 
Waterloo, Battle of Wflrzburg (1867) ; Bat- 
tle of Neerwinden (1872) ; Attack of Divi- 
sion Bonnemoin at Elsasshausen ; Battle of 
Dijon ; Meeting of Patrols ; Headquarters 
of XIV. Army Corps in Battle of Belfort ; 
Episode from Battle of Worth ; Victory of 
George H. at Dettingen (1879) ; Cavalry 
Flight near Langenbruck. — Kunst-Chronik, 
ii. 162 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex., xvii 292. 

EMINENCE GRTSE, Jean Leon Ob-dme, 
J. H. Stebbins, New York. His Gray Emi- 
nence, the Father Joseph of Bulwer's " Rich- 
elieu," is descending a broad flight of stairs; 
absorbed in his breviary, he is apparently as 
unconscious of the servile bows and genu- 
flections of the courtiers before him as of 
the defiant and contemptuous glances of 
those who have passed him. 

EMMET, ROSINA, bom in the United 
States, contemporary. Figure pointer, pu- 
pil of William Chase. Exhibits at the Na- 
tional Academy, New York, and is well 
known as an illustrator and designer. Stu- 
dio at East Rockaway, L L Works : Portrait 
of Boy (1881), Alexander Stevens; Apple 
Blossoms, Haymaking, Waiting to see the 
Doctor (1882) ; Red Rose Land, Elder 
Flowers, La Mescicana (1883). 

born at Empoli in 1654, died in Florence, 
Sept 30, 1640. Florentine school ; pupil 
of Tommaso da San Friano, but formed bis 
style chiefly by studying the works of An- 
^— j drea del Sarto, 

*\ /j whose pictures he 

* many pictures, 

the best of which is Christ in the Garden of 
Olives, Madrid Museum. Other works are : 


Madonna and Saints (1579), Louvre ; Crea- 
tion of Adam, St. Tves (1616), Drunkenness 
of Noah, Sacrifice of Abraham, Uffizi, Flor- 
ence ; Susanna at the Bath (1600), Vienna 
Museum. — Ch. Blanc, Ecole floreatuie ; Va- 
sari, ed. Le Mem., vii. 163 ; viii. 261. 

ENDER, EDUARD, born in Vienna in 
1824. History and genre painter, son and 
pupil of Johann E., and student in the Vi- 
enna Academy. Works: WaUenstein and 
Seni (1844) ; CorheiUe de Mariage (1850) ; 
Tasso at Court of Ferrara (1852) ; Francis 
I in Cellini's Studio (1854) ; Emperor Ru- 
dolph II and Tycho de Brahe (1855); 
Philip IV. Painting Order on Portrait of 
Velasquez (1856) ; Shakespeare reading 
Macbeth at Court of Elizabeth ; Emperor 
Joseph IL meeting Mozart; Schiller at 
Court of Weimar ; Rembrandt in his Studio ; 
Elizabeth and Van Dyck ; Rudolf IV. on 
Site of St Stephen's in Vienna ; Pouting 
Corner ; Secret Communication ; Drinking 
and Brawl ; Game of Chess (1857) ; Puri- 
tans on Guard ; Humboldt and Bonplacd on 
the Orinoco ; Marie Antoinette's Farewell 
of Maria Theresa. — Brockhaus, vi. 124 ; 
Land und Meer (1872), Nob. 4, 21 ; Wurz- 
bach, iv. 38. 

ENDER, JOHANN, born in Vienna, Nov. 
8, 1793, died there, March 16, 1854 His- 
tory and portrait painter, pupil of Maurer, 
Caudg, Fuger, and Lampi in the Vienna 
Academy, where he obtained four prizes 
and the great gold medal. Visited Italy, 
Malta, Corfu, Greece, and Constantinople in 
1818-19. Studied and copied the old mas- 
ters at Borne in 1820-26, then went to 
Paris and Vienna, where he painted chiefly 
portraits in the style of Isabey. In 1829-50 
was professor at the Academy. Works : 
Marcus Aurelius ou his Deathbed (1814), 
National Gallery, Pesth ; Orestes pursued 
by the Furies (1815) ; Minerva showing 
Ithaca to Ulysses (1816) ; Assumption, 
Sleeping at Christ's Sepulchre (1817) ; 
Judith ; Bacchus finding Ariadne ; Portraits 
of Duchess of Coburg, of Princesses Eszter- 
hazy, Hohenzollern, Auersperg, Liechten- 

stein, and Taxis, and of Emperor Francis ; 
Madonna in Landscape, Vienna Museum ; 
Crucifixion (fresco, 1850-52), Liechtenstein 
Chapel, St Stephen's, Vienna— AUgem. d. 
Biogr., vi 105 ; Brockhaus, vi 124 ; Wurz- 
bach, iv. 38. 

ENDER, THOMAS, born in Vienna, Nov. 
4, 1793, died there, Sept 28, 1875. Land- 
scape painter, twin brother of Johann, pu- 
pil of the Vienna Academy under Mossmer 
and Steinfeld. Won the grand prize in 
1816. Went in 1817 to the Brazils, and in 
1819 accompanied Prince Metternich to 
Italy, where he remained four years ; in 
1826 he visited Paris, in 1836 became cor- 
rector, and later was professor at the Vienna 
Academy until 1849. Works : View of Gross- 
glockner, High Goll with Berchtesgaden Val- 
ley, Castle Tyrol, Nona Valley with Castle 
Cles, Coast of Sorrento, all in Vienna Mu- 
seum ; View of Rio Janeiro, Vienna Acad- 
emy ; Chapel in the Woods, National Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; Ruin of the Habsburg, Prospect 
from the Habsburg (1866). — AUgem. d. 
Biogr., vi. 106 ; Brockhans, vi. 124 ; Kunst- 
Chronik, i 53 ; xi. 304 ; Wurzbach, iv. 41. 

Boussy, Louvre ; canvas, BL 6 ft 6 in, x 8 
ft 6 in. Endymion, nude, lies asleep, on 
his mantle and a tiger-skin, under a tree ; 
beside him are his bow and his spear, and 
at his feet, left, his dog lies sleeping ; in 
background, Cupid, in the form of Zephyr, 
draws aside the branches that the moon- 
beams may fall upon him. Painted in 
Rome in 1792 ; acquired, in 1818, with the 
Deluge and the Burial of Atala, for 50,000 
francs. Engraved by Chatillon (1810). — Re- 
veil, ii 137. 

By Ouercino, Uffizi, Florence ; canvas, H. 
2 ft 9 in. x 3 ft 2 in. Endymion, nude, 
seated, leaning his head upon his arm; 
background, a night landscape, with the 
crescent moon. Acquired by gallery in 
1795. Engraved by J. B. Maasard pere. — 
Molini, Gal. di Firenze, L 19 ; Soc. Ed. and 
Paris, Gal. di Firenze, PL 133 ; Wicar, i 
Part 7. 


ENFANT A L'EPEE, Edouard Manet, 
Erwin Davis, New York ; Canvas, H. 4 ft. 
3 in. x 3 ft. ; dated 1861. A child walking 
to left, dragging a large sword after him. 
Hdtel Drouot Sale (Paris, 1881). 

in Leyden is 1468, died there in 1633. 
Dutch school ; bod of the wood-engraver 
Engelbert, and himself the earliest known 
painter at Leyden. Two altarpieces in the 
Town Hall there are attributed to him by 
Van Mander. The stiff and formal fig- 
ures, painted dryly in a prevailing brown 
tone, are treated without any attempt at 
aerial perspective. Many of Engelbrecht- 
sen's works were destroyed by the Icon- 
oclasts during the Reformation. Authentic 
Works: Altai-piece with Crucifixion, do. 
with Pieta, Town Hall, Leyden. Doubtful 
works : St Leonard, Antwerp Museum ; 
Crucifixion, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; De- 
. . position, Moritz Chapel, 
YY Nuremberg ; Madonna 
1 t V < and Child, National Gal- 
X J lery, London ; 2 pictures, 
MKL Hermitage, St Peters- 
*""~ burg ; Crucifixion, Venice 
Academy. — Allgem. d. Biogr., vi. 136 ; 
Dohme, 1L; Michiels, iv. 339; W. & W., 
ii. 530. 

ENGELHARDT, GEORG, born atMuhl- 
hausen, Thuringia, in 1823. Landscape paint- 
er, pupil in Berlin of Eduard Biermann; 
travelled repeatedly in the Alpine countries, 
whence he draws most of his subjects. 
WorkB : Meiring Valley, View in Otz Val- 
ley, Tyrol ; View in South Tyrol ; Forest 
with tall Trees (1867); Charcoal-Burner on 
the Brocken ; The Jungfrau ; Autumn Land- 
scape (1872); Mills in Otz Valley.— MuUer, 

ENGERTH, EDUARD VON , Ritter, born 
at Pless, Silesia, May 13, 1818. History 
and portrait painter, pupil of Vienna Acad- 
emy, where in 1845 he obtained the gold 
medal ; went in 1847 to Rome, and then 
travelled until 1853 in Italy, France, Eng- 
land, and the East After his return in 1854 

he became director of the Prague Academy, 
and there painted chiefly portraits, and in 
1865 professor at 
the Vienna Acad- 
emy ; was made di- 
rector of the Belve- 
dere Gallery in 1871, 
and rector of the 
Academy in 1874. 
Commander Order 

^of Francis Joseph 
in 1867. Works: 
Hainan and Esther, 
Ladislaus and 
Akus (1844); Coronation of Rudolf L; Jo- 
seph explaining the Dream (1845); Seizure 
of King Manfred's Family (1853), Vienna 
Museum ; Victory of Prince Eugene at 
Zenta (1865); Marriage of Figaro, Fable of 
Orpheus (1868); Coronation of Francis Jo- 
seph as King of Hungary (1870); Death of 
Eurydice (1877); Group of Prague Ladies ; 
Portraits of Emperor and Empress of Aus- 
tria. — Brockhaus, vi. 141 ; Kunst-Chronik, 
i. 84 ; iv. 174 ; v. 172 ; Wurzbach, iv. 49 ; 
xiv. 440 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, iii 5. 

ENHUBER, EARL VON, born at Hot. 
Bavaria, Dec. 16, 1811, 
died in Munich, July 
6, 1867. Genre and 
animal painter, pupil 
of Munich Academy 
in 1832. His pictures 
of Suabian life are 
characteristic, hu- 
mourous, and both 
well drawn and col- / 
oured. Honorary ' ' 
member of Munich Academy in 1858. Order 
of St Michael. Works : Poachers sought 
by Forester (1835); Tyrolese in Mountain 
Pass, Dying Constable (1836); Shoemaker 
studying, Watercure (1837); Image Carver 
(1839); Smoking Boy (1841); Peering into 
Cooking Pot (1843); Shoemaker's Appren- 
tice, Civic Guardsman (1844), National Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; Village Painter's Apprentice 
(1852); Interrupted Game of Cards (1858); 


Stage Coach at the Inn (1859); Conrfc-Daj 
in Bavaria (1860), Darmstadt Gallery ; Rain; 
Day in the Mountains (1861); Grandfather'! 
Delight, "Wood-Carver in his Shop, New 
Pinakothek, Munich ; Thir- 
teen Illustrations to Melchior K t/ IT" 
Meyra Novels. — Allgem. d . i ' '-^ 
Biogr., vi 146 ; Brockhaus, f\j #, £* 
vi 184; Regnet, L 118; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K., L 253 ; in. 53. 

ENNF.KTNG, JOHN J., born at Minster 
0., 1841. Figure and landscape painter 
studied art in Cincinnati and Boston, where 
he Uvea, and was a pupil in Paris of Bonnal 
and of Daubigny. He travelled in Europe 
in 1872. Works: Moonlight on the Giu- 
decca— Venice (1876); 'Freshly Picked, Drove 
of Cattle on a November Day (1878); The 
Obersee ; Farm-Yard Scene in France ; No- 

vember Twilight (1881); Cloudy Day, T. B. 
Clarke, New York ; November (1884).— Ben- 
jamin, 196. 

ENTOMBMENT, Michelangelo da Cam- 



Christ borne to the tomb by two young men ; 
near the body, behind, John, Joseph of Ari- 
mathea, and Alary Magdalen ; at right,, the 
Virgin swooning, supported by three women; 
background, rocky landscape with Calvary 
in distance. Painted in Perugia by order of 
Atalanta Baglioni, for her chapel in 8. Fran- 
cesco, where it remained until 1608, when 
it was removed to the Palazzo Borgheee, 
a copy made by the Cavaliere di Arpino 
being put into its place. Carried in 1797 
to Paris ; returned to Vatican in 1816 ; af- 
terward removed to Palazzo Borghese. Dis- 

figured by splits and patches. Copies by F. 
Penni (1518), Turin Gallery ; by Orazio Al- 
fani, Perugia Gallery ; by Sassoferrato, S. 
Pietro, Perugia ; and others. Three round 
monochromes, Faith, Hope, and Charity, 
once the predella of the Entombment, are in 
the Vatican. The lunette representing God 
the Father surrounded by ten cherubs' 
heads is in the Perugia Gallery ; designed, 
but not painted, by Raphael Studies for En- 
tombment in Louvre, L'ffizi, Palazzo Bor- 
ghese, etc. Engraved by Seal berg, Collin, 
Piroli, Volpato, Amsler, Scheich, and Mas- 
quelier. Predella, engraved by Desnoyers 
(1811), Landon, Koch.— C. &, G, Raphael, 
i 315 ; Passavant, i. 95, ii 57 ; Rumohr, 
Italienische Forschungen, ii. 69; Vasari, 

cd. Mil, iv. 327 ; Kugler (Eastlake), ii 422 ; 
Muntz, 233, 247 ; Perkins, Essay, -75. 

By IT Bosso, Louvre ; canvas, H. 4 f t 1 
in. x 6 ft. 3 in. The body of Christ, on a 
cushion at the entrance of the tomb, is sus- 
tained by Nicodemus ; at left, the Magdalen 
holdshisfeet; the Virgin, on her knees, with 
arms extended, swoons in the arms of one 
of the holy women. Probably the picture 
which, according to Vasari, was painted for 
Signer di Piombino, or that executed for 
the Constable.— Vasari, ed. Mil., v. 168, 171; 
Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Landon, xii PL 61. 

By Tintoretto, Parma 
Gallery. Christ borne to 
the tomb in a desert place, 
with a melancholy sky, 
against which the three 
crosses are seen in the dis- 
tance, together with the 
ruins of the cattle-shed of 
the nativity. In this pict- 
ure sublimity of concep- 
tion and grandeur of col- 
our are seen in the highest 
perfection. — Buskin, Mod. 
Painters, ii. 168 ; iii. 324. 
By Tintoretto, S. Fran- 
cesco della Vigna, Venice; 
canvas, arched at the top. 
In foreground, the Virgin 
swooning, attended by two women ; in mid- 
dleground, Christ borne to the tomb by the 
disciples, above them an angel with a wreath ; 
in background, to right, the three crosses 
on a hill, with Roman soldiers. Engraved 
by L. Eilian. — Ch. Blanc, Ecole venitienne. 
By Titian, Louvre ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 10 
in. x 6 ft. 8 in. The body of Christ sus- 
pended in a cloth, borne by Nicodemus and 
Joseph of Arimathea, the latter with one 
knee on a stone ; St John Evangelist, be- 
hind, holds up one arm ; the Virgin and 
Magdalen at left Painted in Mantua in 
1523 for Duke Federigo Gonzaga ; in inven- 
tory of the Mantuan Palace in 1627 ; passed 
thence to collection of Charles L, after 
whose death it was sold for £120 to Jabaoh, 



who disposed of it to Louis XlV. One of 
the great pictures of the world, in which 
the grandest drawing, composition, and ex- 
pression are combined with the most effec- 
tive chiaroscuro, the most splendid colour, 
and the deepest sentiment. An inferior 
copy, probably by a disciple of Titian's, was 
sold lately from the Palazzo Manfrini, Venice. 
Original study in the Venice Academy. En- 
graved by G. Bousselet ; Chaperon ; Mas- 
son ; Joh. de Marc— C. & C, Titian, L 283; 
Vaaari, ed. MiL, rii 458 ; KlhoL ix. PL 619 ; 
Miindler, 208 ; Landon, Musee, viL PL 67 ; 
Van der Doort's Cat ; Scharf a Old London, 

By Titian, Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 4 
ft 6 in. x 5 ft, 9 in. ; signed. Theme some- 
what different from the Louvre example, 
and less rich in tints and less engaging in 
form. Painted in 1559 for Philip IX and 
sent to Madrid, with the Diana and Actseon 
and the Diana and Callisto, to take the place 
of one despatched in 1657, but lost on the 
way. Placed in Royal Chapel at Aranjuez, 
and after Philip's death in the Escorial 
Original sketch at Oxford University. Copies,' 
with variations, of picture in Madrid Mu- 
seum, the EflcoriaL Ambrosiana in Milan, 
Torrigiani Collection, Florence, and Vienna 
Museum.— C. & C, Titian, ii. 289. 

EPAMTNONDAS, ancient pictures. See 
Arutolaus, Euphranor. 

EFHOBUS, painter, of Ephesus, about 
346 B.C. First master of Apelles. — Said v. 

EPIPHANY. See Magi, Adoration of. 

EPP, BUDOLF, bom at Eberbach, Baden, 
July, 1834. Genre and portrait painter, 
pupil of Carlsruhe Art School under Des- 
ooudres. Since 1865 settled at Munich. 
Works : Hide and Seek (1864); Mother and 
sleeping Child ; Christmas Eve ; Black For- 
est Idyl ; Hop Harvest ; Mother and Child ; 
Juggler performing before Peasants ; "Onwel- 
oome Guest ; Cat's Breakfast —Mailer, 161. 

KSE. See Grandi. 

EBDMANN, LUDWIG, bom atBodecke, 
near Paderbom, in 1820. Genre painter, 

pupil of Dtisseldorf Academy. His pictures 
show inventive power, humour, and techni- 
cal skill Works : Satisfied Artist ; Shoe- 
maker teaching a Bird to whistle ; Three 
Drunken Men returning from Fair ; Village 
Painter admiring his Work; Dismayed 
Lover of Flowers ; Morning after Masquer- 
ade Ball (1854).— Muller, 161. 

EBDMANN, MOBITZ, bom at Aroeburg 
near Stend&L April 15, 1845. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Berlin Academy and of 
Hermann Eschke; travelled through Ger- 
many, Holland, Sweden, and, for one year, 
visited Italy. Works : Heath on the Begen- 
stein in Hartz Mountains ; Morsum Cliffs on 
Isle of Sylt ; Moonlight in Gallmars Fjord ; 
Green Grotto in Capri ; Villa of Hadrian at 
Tivoli ; Aqua Claudia of Campo Santo, Na- 
ples ; Roman Campagna. — Muller, 161. 

EBDMANN, OTTO, bora in Leipsio in 
1834. Genre painter, 
pupil of Leipsic Acad- 
emy, studied in Dres- 
den and Munich, and 
in 1858 settled in Diia- 
seldorf. Works: Tal- 
ented Children ; Suc- 
cessful Wooing ; Blind 
Man's Buff (1863), ' 
Leipsic Museum ; Ex- 
pectation ; Reception of 
Bridegroom; Visit 

from the Country ; Secret Message ; He loves 
me, he loves me not ; Accepted Suitor ; Re- 
jected Suitor; Couple in the Woods; Fort 
une-Teller ; Interrupted Piano Lesson ; Con- 
versations; Flattering Recommendation; 
Journey to the Fiancee ; Betrothal Ring 
(1880); Chambermaid in Rococo-time, 
Found for Life (1884). Paints also excellent 
portraits. — Mttller, 161 ; Blustr. Zeitg. 
(1884), L 284 

at Winterbach, Wiirtemberg, in 1825, died 
in Stuttgart, Sept 20, 1881. Portrait 
painter, studied first in Berlin, then in 
Stuttgart under Gegenbauer, whom he as- 
sisted in the palace frescos ; frequented the 


Munich Academy in 1848-49, and then set- 
tled in Stuttgart, where he received the 
great gold medal, and in 1876 became 
court-painter. Works: Portraits of King 
Charles of WOrtemberg, Queen Pauline, 
King William, Queen Olga, King Frederic 
as Prussian Colonel; numerous portraits 
and family groups of Stuttgart aristocracy. 
— Kunst-Chronik, xviL 42. 

ERIGONUS, of Sicyon, about 280 a a, 
colour-grinder to Nealoee, and afterwards his 
pupiL Erigonua was the master of Pastas. 
—Pliny, xxxv. 40 [145]. 

ERILLUS, Herillus, or Phrylus, painter, 
about 420 aa Mentioned by Pliny (xxxv. 
60) as an artist of note. 

Cologne in 1621 or 1641, died in Nurem- 
berg, Dec 3, 1699. German school ; his- 
tory and landscape painter, pupil in Co- 
logne of Johann Hulsman. At Utrecht he 
studied the landscapes of Jan Both, and at 
Nuremberg associated himself with Willem 
van Bemmel in 1660, and painted the fig- 
ures in his landscapes. Works : Christ and 
Samaritan Woman ; Resurrection, Ascen- 
sion (1663), St Sebaldus, Nuremberg ; Land- 
scape with approaching Storm, Landscape 
in Evening Light, both in St&del Institute, 
Frankfort ; Landscape with Animals, Mann- 
heim Gallery ; Landscape with ruined Mon- 
ument, Vienna Museum ; Waterfall, Cologne 
Museum; Rocky Landscape, Kunsthalle, 
Hamburg ; Landscape in Storm, Oldenburg 
Gallery.— Allgem. d. Biogr., vi. 231 j Merlo, 
Nachrichten, 110. 

ES (Essen), JACOB VAN, born in Ant- 
werp, Oct. 15, 1606, died there, buried 
March 11, 1666. Flemish school ; painter 
of animal and still life, especially fish and 
other marine uni'mala ; pupil of Omer van 
Ommen ; admitted to guild of St Luke in 
1646. Works : Fruitpiece, Lille Museum ; 
Crabs and Fruit, Oysters and Fish, Nancy 
Museum ; Fruit with Dead Game and Ves- 
sels, Antwerp Museum ; Fish Market (2), 
with figures by Jordaens, Museum, Vienna ; 
Breakfast Table, Fruitpiece (1640), Liech- 

tenstein Gallery, ib.; 3 pictures in Madrid 
Museum; others in Turin, Nancy, Lille, 
t Ghent, Frank- 

\ \ / 17^ £ *»*. *nd Stock- 
I ^^ • {^^ ^J holm Museums. 
— A 1 1 g e m . d. 
Biogr., vi. 336 ; Biog. nat de Belgique, vi 
695 ; Kramm, ii. 442 ; Michiels, x, 420 ; Van 
den Branden, 1108. 

Paris in 1809, died there in 1856. Land- 
scape painter, pupil of Wattelet and Lethiere. 
Medals: 3d class, 1844; 2d class, 1847. 
Works : Lake of Brienz (1844); Banks of 
the Seine near Caudebec (1847), Ministry 
of the Interior ; Fountain near Bourbonne 
(1842); View in the Park of Eu (1845); Val- 
ley of the Nievre (1848); A Watering Place 
for Horses (1852); Visit of Napoleon BX to 
Sologne (1853), ordered by State ; Pasture, 
Mouth of the Somme. — Larous&e. 

at Cordova in 1630, died in Madrid in 1670. 
Spanish school ; pupil of Francisco Rizi, but 
imitated Tintoretto. Painted historical and 
religious compositions. Works : Holy Fam- 
ily, Child Jesus and St John, Abigail, Tri- 
umph of Faith over the Senses, Madrid Mu- 


St Joseph 
and Infant Christ, 
Hermitage, St Pe- 
tersburg ; Fortune- 
Teller, Hague Mu- 

Stirling, iii. 1026; Viardot 289; 
Madrazo, 395. 

Paris ; contemporary. Architecture, figure, 
and portrait painter, pupil of Andr6 and De- 
launay. Medal, 2d class, 1884. Works: 
Interior of St Mark's, Venice, da of San 
Miniato, Florence (1873); The first Model 
(1875); Doge Dandolo the Elder (1876); 
Decorative Panel (1878); A Surprise for the 
Inhabitants of the Rialto, Venice (1881); A 
happy Occurrence (1884); Andante (1885). 
Frescos in Palazzo Lubia, Venice (1873). 

at Poligny (Jura); contemporary. Still-life 


painter, pupil of Ziegler. Medal, 1868. 
Works: The Pond, The Garden (1861)', 
Young Girl with Fish (1865); Garden Cor- 
ner (1867); Flowers and Birds (1868); Chrys- 
anthemums (1869), Luxembourg Museum ; 
Autumn Flowers (1870); Spring Flowers 
(1872); Peaches and Grapes (1872), Dijon 
Museum ; Decorative Panels for the Palais 
de la Legion dTionneur (1876).— Be.llicr- 
Auvray, i 520. 

ESCH, MATHUDE, born at Elattan, 
Bohemia, Jan. 18, 1828. Genre, landscape, 
and still-life painter, pupil in Vienna of 
Waldm (Viler, and in Munich of MoritzMttller ; 
studied also in D Usseldorf and Paris, and set- 
tled in Vienna in 1856. Works : Farm House 
in Moravia, Market Scene in Moravia, Mu- 
nich Girls in the Cemetery, Girl with Dog 
(1856); Unexpected Beturn (1857); Gate and 
Sarkander Pulpit in Brunn Cathedral ; The 
Five Senses; Tanered baptizing Clorinda; 
Farewell of the Bride.— Wurzbach, iv. 7a 

HERMANN, born in Berlin, May 6, 1823. 
Landscape and marine painter, pupil of Wil- 
helm Erause, then hi Paris of Le Poittevin ; 
travelled through Europe before completing 
his studies in 1850, and then revisited the 
coast of the Mediterranean and the Pyre- 
nees. Gold medal in 1879. Professor at 
the Berlin Academy since 1881. Works : 
Montorgueil from the Sea, St. Aubin's Cas- 
tle (1860) ; Light-House near L'Etacq ; West- 
ern Coast of Helgoland (1861); Elizabeth 
Castle on Jersey, Isle of Nenwerk (1863); 
Pond in Twilight ; Dutch Landscape ; Storm 
in open Sea ; Blue Grotto at Capri ; Isle of 
Amrum at Ebb Tide ; Bergen on Bugen ; 
St Catherine on Isle of Jersey (1868); Bal- 
tic Sea in Winter, Life-Boat to Rescue of 
Schooner (1872); Steinbach Valley in the 
Haifa ; Storm on Coast of Capri ; Promon- 
tory of Arkona on Bugen ; Whatcombe Bay 
on Isle of Wight ; Light-House on Isle of 
Nenwerk ; Eastern Pier at Swinemtlnde 
(1879); Light-House on the Cliff (1879), 
National Gallery, Berlin. — Brockhaus, vi. 
850 ; Rosenberg, BerL Malersch., 340. 

E8COSURA. See Leon y Esoosura. 


ESKILSSON, PETER, born at Billeber- 
ga, Sohonen, in 1820, died at BremO, near 
Sigtuna, Jan. 29, 1872. Genre painter ; 
sub-officer in a Gotha artillery regiment, 
and bookseller at Gothenherg, before he 
became the pupil of Tidemand (1853) in 
Dusseldorf. In 1859 he settled in Stock- 
holm, and became member of the Academy 
in 1866. Works: Moll berg's Bowling Party 
at Faggens (1868), Stockholm Museum. 

ESOP, Velasquez, Madrid Museum ; can- 
vas, H 5 ft 10 in. x 3 ft. An old man, full 
length, standing, with a parchment folio in 
his right hand, his left thrust into the 
bosom of his grey dress. Probably painted, 
with its companion Menippus, for royal 
palace, by command of Philip IV. Copy 
by Prevost in Ecole des Beaux Arts, Paris. 
Engraved by Esquivel ; etched by Goya, C. 
Alabern ; Galvan, and others. — Ford, Hand- 
book, ii. 689 ; L'Art (1878) ; Curtis, 18 ; 
Madrazo, 638. 

in Barcelona; contemporary. History paint- 
er, pupil of Barcelona Art School, then 
studied in Rome and in Germany. Works : 
Tobias ; Death of Moses ; Dante's Purga- 
tory ; Discovery of America ; The Moor's 
Sigh ; Melancholia ; Portrait of Don Buen- 
aventura C. Aribau, Barcelona Museum ; 
frescos in University and other Buildings 
at Madrid.— La Hustracion, 1877. 

ESPINAI, JUAN DE, born at Seville, 
died there in 1783. Spanish school ; his- 
tory painter, sou and pupil of Gregoria E., 
then pupil of Domingo Martinez, whose 
daughter he married ; was made director of 
the School of Design at Seville. Works: 
Scenes from Life of St Jerome, Seville Mu- 
seum ; Frescos in Collegiate Church, San 

lencia, died about 1817. Spanish school ; 
flower painter, son of the history painter 
and engraver Josef Espinos (1721-1784); 
was appointed director of the Valencia Acad- 


eray in 1787. Works : Nino Flower pieces, 
Madrid Museum ; others in the Escorial 
and in Valencia Museum. 

born at Concentaius, Valencia, July 20, 1600, 
died in Valencia in 1680. Spanish school ; 
history painter, son and pupil of Rodriguez 
de EBpinoea (1662-1630), amediocre painter; 
probably studied afterward under Francisco 
Bibalta, and later in Italy. Painted chiefly 
religious compositions, and excelled in por- 
traits. Warm colour, resembles the best 
Bolognese masters in style. Works : Mary 
Magdalen, Christ at the Column, St John 
Baptist, Madrid Museum ; St Francis of 
Assuo, Christ bearing the Cross, Dresden 
Gallery ; Communion of Mary Magdalen, 
St. Louis Bertrand, Christ appearing to St 
Ignatius Loyola, Valencia Museum. Others 
in churches of Valencia He was aided in 
many of his works by bis son Miguel Jeron- 
imo, who imitated his style with moderate 

n.J. h 



success. — Stirling, II 768 ; Ch. Blanc, Scale 
espagnole ; Viardot, 150 ; Madrazo, 398. 

ESSELENS, JACOB, flourished at Am- 
sterdam, 17th century. Dutch school ; land- 
scape and figure painter, supposed pupil of 
Rembrandt ; painted Tillages on the banks 
of rivers, buildings with fountains, stag- 
hunts, and shipping-pieces. Works : Fig- 
ures by a River, Rotterdam Museum ; Fish- 
ing Piece, Copenhagen Gallery ; Rendezvous 
of a Hunting Party, Corporation Galleries, 
Glasgow. — Immerzeel, i. 224 ; Kramm, ii. 

ESTE, ALFONSO D', Duke of Ferrara, 
portrait, Titian, Madrid Museum ; wood, EL 
1 ft 1 in. x 3 ft 3 in. Painted about 1518 ; 
acquired in 1533, by Emperor Charles V. 
Replica, lately in Kaunitz Collection, by 
some later painter. Second portrait of Al- 
fonso, painted by Titian in 1536, lost — C. & 
0., Titian, L 189, 368, 410. 

chioness of Mantua, portrait Titian, Vienna 
Museum ; canvas, H. 3 ft 2 in. x 2 ft. 
Pointed in 1534, from an older portrait by 
some unknown painter. Bought by Arch- 
duke Leopold Wilhelm for hie gallery in 
Brussels, and thence passed to Vienna. En- 
graved by Vorsterman from copy by Ru- 
bens ; also engraved by Van der Steen, 
Krepp, and others. Replica, with varia- 
tions, at Hermitage, attributed to Paris Bor- 
done ; others at Verona and Padua. — C. & 
C., Titian, i 385. 

school, last half of 15th century. Probably 
of Reggio, as he is sometime* called Bal~ 
dassare da Reggio. Supposed illegitimate 
scion of House of Este, as he received un- 
usual promotion from the Dukes of Ferrara, 
Painted a likeness of Borso L in 1469, and 
was sent to Milan to present it in person to 
the Duke. His frescos in the Rufini Chapel, 
S. Domenico, Ferrara, have perished, but 
his portrait of Tito Strozzi, a tempera on 
canvas, of good outline and finish, dated 
1483, is in the Costabili Collection, Ferrara. 
He seems to have followed in the footsteps 
of Turn and of 
Cosss. Bsldas- 
sare's will was 
made in 1500. — 
C. & G, N. Italy, L 625 ; Vasari, ed. Lb 
Mon., iv. 17a 

Schroder, National Gallery, Berlin ; canvas, 
H. 6 ft 6 in. x 8 ft 3 in. ; signed, dated 
1856. Illustration of Esther, Cb. V. Ahasu- 
erus, at left lowering his sceptre graciously, 
greets Queen Esther, who swoons in the 
arms of her two attendants ; behind him 
the anxious Hainan ; at right at entrance of 
palace, two soldiers. Figures life size, seen 
to knees. 

By Tintoretto, Hampton Court Palace, 
England ; canvas, H. 6 ft 9 in. x 8 ft 9 in. 
Esther fainting, held up by a woman and a 
man; the King anxiously descending the 
steps of the throne ; other figures crowding 



round. Id collection of Charles I. ; Bold in 
1660 for £120 ; returned to royal collection 
at Restoration. Original sketch at Madrid. 
Engraved in reverse by S. Gribelin. Waagen 
save "this is one of the moat admirable 
specimens I know of this unequal master." 
— Law, Hist Cai Hampton Court, 24 ; 
Waagen, Treasures, ii. 369. 

By Paolo Veronese, Louvre ; canvas, H. 6 
ft. 6 in. x 10 ft. 2 in. Ahasuerua on a throne 
at right, with his councillors around him, 
looks angrily at Queen Esther, who faints in 
the arms of two of her women ; above, two 
figures in a balcony ; in the middle, a statue 
in a niche. Formerly in Casa Bonaldi, Ven- 
ice ; bought by Jabach, who Bold it to 
Louis XIV.— Landon, (Euvres, xxi PL 3 ; 
Musee, xix. PI. 30 ; Villot, Cat Louvre. 

ETEX, ANTOINE, born in Paris, March 
SO, 1808. Painter, sculptor, architect, en- 
graver, and writer on art subjects. Studied 
sculpture under Dupaty and Pradier, paint- 
ing under Ingres, and architecture under 
Duban. Has worked chiefly as a sculptor. 
Medal, 1st class, 1833 ; L. of Honour, 1841. 
Works : Woman Bathing (1828) ; St Se- 
bastian, Joseph explaining his Dream to his 
Brethren (1844) ; Deliverance (1846) ; Woman 
of the Roman Campagna, Eurydice (1853), 
Luxembourg Museum ; Asia, Daiiae, Isaac 
blessing Jacob (1867) ; Christ on Lake Geu- 
ezareth, The Seasons, Europe, Africa (1869); 
Education of the Medici (1861); Jacob 
going to meet Joseph in Egypt, Jacob's Fu- 
neral (1863) ; The Sons of Joseph blessed by 
Jacob (1866) ; Ancient Slave, Modern Slave 
(1866) ; Death of the Child Adeodatus (1875) ; 
Portrait of himself (1877) ; Christ, Glory of 
the United States (1886). 

ETEX, LOUIS JULES, born in Paris, 
Sept 20, 1810. History, genre, and por- 
trait painter, brother of Antoine E, pupil 
of Lethiere and Ingres. Medals : 2d class, 
1833, 1838. Works : Adam and Eve (1838); 
Woman carrying Fruit (1840); Madonna, 
Lost the Way (1846); Woman from Fron- 
tier of Naples (1849); Christ raising the 
Widow's Son (1851); Stage-Coach during 

Storm (1852); Vestal re-entering Temple 
swoons at seeing the Sacred Fire extin- 
guished (1868); Souvenir de La Varenne, 
Vestal dragged out of the Temple (1869); 
St Genevieve, Evening (1870); St Philibert, 
Notre-Dame de Lorette, Paris ; Portraits of 
Henri L, Due de Montmorency, and of 
Marquis de Sillery, Versailles Museum. — 
Bellier-Auvray, i 524. 

ETTT, WILLIAM, born in York, March 
10, 1787, died 
there, Nov. 13, 
1849. History 
painter, son of a 
miller; appren- 
ticed for seven 
years with Peck, 
a letter-press 
printer at Hull ; 
went to London 
in 1806, in 1807 

became a student at the Royal Academy, 
and in 1808 of Sir Thomas Lawrence. He 
was long unsuccessful but by persevering 
drudgery at last won bis reward ; in 1811 
his Telemachus rescuing Antiope was hung 
in the Royal Academy, and in 1820 his Coral 
Finders, and in 1821 his Cleopatra on the 
Cydnus, brought him fame. In 1822 he 
visited Italy and became an honorary mem- 
ber of the Venetian Academy ; and in 1824 
he was elected an A.R. A., and ' in 1828 R. A. 
Etty delighted in painting the nude, espe- 
cially the female form, and as a colourist 
had few equals in the English school. 
Works: Sappho (1811); The Deluge (1816), 
Cupid sheltering Psyche (1823), Head of a 
Cardinal (1844), South Kensington Museum ; 
Imprudence of Candaules (1830), Window 
in Venice during a Festa (1831), Touth on 
the Prow and Pleasure at the Helm (1832), 
Lute-Player (1833), Dangerous Playmate 
(1833), Christ appearing to Magdalen (1834), 
II Duetto (1838), Female Bathers surprised 
by a Swnn (1841), Magdalen (1842), Bather 
(1844), National Gallery, London ; Deliver- 
ance of Bethulia by Judith (3 pictures, 1827- 
31), Benaiah (1829), The Combat (1825), 


National Gallery, Edinburgh ; Ulysses Mid 
the Sirens (1837), Manchester Gallery ; Or- 
igin of Marriage, Bevy of Fair Women (1828), 
Stafford House, London ; Venus and Cupid, 
Henry Bicknell, Cavendish House, Clapham 
Common; Bape of Proserpine (1839), Ve- 
nus Anadyomene, Three Graces, J. Gillott 
Collection ; Judgment of Paris ; Venus and 
her Satellites (1835); Wise and Foolish Vir- 
gins ; Hylas and Nymphs ; Prodigal Son ; 
Prodigal's Return ; Destruction of Temple 
of Vice ; Adam and Eve ; Pandora ; Parting 
of Hero and Leander ; Death of da; Diana 
and Endymion ; Amore t freed by Britomart ; 
Zephyr and Aurora; Robinson Crusoe re- 
turning Thanks for Deliverance; Joan of 
Arc (3 pictures, 1847).— Gilchrist, Life (Lon- 
don, 1855); Redgrave; Art Jour. (1849), 13; 
(1858), 233 ; Sandby, a 49; Ch. Blanc, Boole 
anglaise; Portfolio (1875), 88, 107, 142, 149, 
172, 180 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1862), xiii 208. 

ETZDORF. See Ezdorf. 

EUCHETR, of Athens, mythic painter, 
spoken of as the discoverer of painting in 
Greece, and as related to Daadalus. — Pliny, 
viL 67 [205]. 

EUDORUS, scene-painter and statuary, 
place and date unknown. — Pliny, zxxv. 40 

EUMARTJS, monochrome painter, of Ath- 
ens, latter part of 6th century b.c. Said to 
have been the first to distinguish men from 
women in his pictures by colour, by which 
is meant, probably, that he painted the flesh 
of the former of a reddish brown and that 
of the latter white. Also said to have first 
marked the differences in age between the 
persons whom he painted. Painting in 
Greece, up to his time on a level with that 
in Assyria and Egypt, took with him the 
first steps in the path of progress. — Pliny, 
mv. 34 [65]. 

EUMELUS, painter, of Csria, probably 
about a.d. 190. His picture of Helen was 
in the Roman Forum. — Philosi Vita Sophist., 
ii. 5. 

EUPHRANOR, one of the greatest of 
Greek artists, of Corinth, Thebon-Attic 

school, pupil of ArisHdea of Thebes or of 
his son and pupil Ariston, about 370-336 
B.C. Master of all arts — painter, sculptor, 
chaser of metals, and writer on symmetry 
and colour (Pliny, xxxiv. 19 ; Quin., xil 10, 
6). He united the traditions of his Theban 
master with those of the Sicyonic school, 
and painted many famous works, both at 
Corinth and at Athens. Upon one wall in 
the Stoa BasiLeus at Athena he painted 
Theseus with personifications of Democracy 
and the Demos, and upon the opposite one 
the twelve great gods. There also he repre- 
sented a fight between the Athenian and 
Boeotian cavalry at the battle of Mantinan, 
with portraits of Epaminondas and of Gryl- 
1ns, son of Xenophon (Paus. L 3. % 3). 
With reference to the first-named picture 
Euphranor remarked that the Theseus of 
Parrhasius had been fed on roses, but his 
own on beef (Pliny, zxxv. 40). Some fa- 
mous pictures of his at Ephesus are also 
mentioned : Ulysses in his feigned Madness, 
yoking together an Ox and a Horse ; and a 
Warrior sheathing his Sword. 

EUPOMFUS, a noted Greek painter, of 
Sicyon, founder of the Sicyonic school, con- 
temporary and rival of Parrhasvus and Tt- 
manthes, about 400 b.c (Pliny, srv. 36 [61, 
64, 76]). Before his time only two schools 
of painting were recognized in Greece, the 
Ionic (Asiatic) and the Attic (Hellenic). 
We know the subject of but one of his 
works, a winner in the Olympic games car- 
rying a palm of victory in his hand. This 
picture was so marked in its individuality 
that the pain ter was conceded to have founded 
a third school, the Sicyonic, at the head of 
which stands his scholar Pamphilus, the mas- 
ter of Apelles. 

EURIPIDES, painter and poet (486-406 
b.c). The great tragic poet was a painter 
in his youth, and Beveral of his works were 
preserved in Megara. — Suidas, v. and Vita 
Eurip. in Vitm scriptores Greet minores (ed. 
Westerm. 134, 16). 

EUROPA, RAPE OF, Claude Lorrain, 
Buckingham Palace ; canvas, H. 4 ft x 4 ft. 


6 in.; signed, dated Borne, 1667. A sea- 
coast view in early morning light ; Europa 
and the bull in foreground, and group of 
trees in middle distance ; in background, 
left, hills. Replica of picture painted for 
Pope Alexander VII. in 1655. Bought by 
George IV. at Lord Gwydyr sale (1829) for 
£2,000. Engraved by Radclyffe, and by 
Claude himself. Liber Veritatia, No. 136. 
Another Europa, Liber Veritatis, 144, was 
in collection of Sir Philip Miles, Leigh 

I whose hands it passed to the Orleans Collec- 
tion ; Bold in 1798 to Lord Berwick for £700 
Copy by Rubens in Madrid Museum ; an- 
other, probably by Del Mazo, is in collection 
of Sir Bichard Wallace ; poor copy in Dul- 
wich Gallery.— C. & C, Titian, ii 319 ; Waa- 
gen, Treasures, iii. 19. 

By Paolo Veronese, Palazzo Ducale, Ven- 
ice ; canvas. Jupiter, in the form of a bull, 
lying down under trees to receive Europa, 
who, aided by attendants, is Beating herself 

Rip* of Europa, Piolo Vnror 

Court— "Waagen, Treasures, ii. 23 ; Patti- 
son, Claude Lorrain, 71, 227. 

By Tttian, Cobham Hall, England ; can 
Tan, H. 5 ft 10 in. x 6 ft. 8 in.; signed. 
Jupiter, in the form of a bull, with Europa 
on his back, rushes through the brine, while 
Eros, with expanded wings, clings to a dol- 
phin following, and two Cupids fly over- 
head ; in the distance Europa's companions 
on the shore bewail her loss. Painted in 
1662 for Philip IL of Spain ; given by Philip 
V. in 1704 to Marquis de Grammont, through 

on his back; above, two Cupids bring wreaths 
of flowers, and a third holds the bull by a 
cord attached to a wreath around his horns ; 
at right, the hull is seen entering the water 
with Europa on his back, with attendants, 
and Cupid bearing a torch ; in distance, the 
bull swimming, with attendants on shore 
taking leave of Europa Left to the Repub- 
lic by Bertucci Contarini in 1716. Taken 
to Paris in 1798; returned in 1817. Buskin 
says : One of the very few pictures which 
both possess and deserve a high reputation. 


Replica in Capitol Gallery, Borne ; another, 
small, with changes, National Gallery, Lou 
don. Engraved by Rainaldi ; Lefebvre. — 
Buskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 297 ; Klas. der 
Molerei, PL 76 ; London, Musee, xv. PL 29 ; 
Bighetti, Compidoglio, ii. PL 206 ; Bosini, 
v. 271 ; Ilcveil, xiL 823. 


EUTHYMTDES, third-rate painter, place 
and date unknown (Pliny, xxxv. 40 [146]). 
Perhaps identical with Euthymides of Ha- 
dria, son of Polius, vase-painter, whose name 
is on a vase found at Vulcl 

EUTYCHLDES, painter, place and date 
unknown. His picture of a two-horse char- 
iot is mentioned by Pliny (xxxv. 40 [141]). 
Perhaps identical with the sculptor of the 
aame name from Sicyon, mentioned byPau- 
saniaa (vi. 2. 6) and Pliny (xxxiv. 78). 

ETJXINIDAS, painter, master of Aristides 
of Thebes, about 400-380 kc. Works un- 
known. — Pliny, mit. 36 [74]. 

EVANS, DE SCOTT, bora in Boston, 
Ind., in 1847. Portrait and genre painter. 

Crxtion of Ey», Michdmgilo, SlMlM Ctnptl, Rom«. 

pupil of Bougaereau in Paris, 1877-78. 
Studio in Cleveland, where he is professor 
in the Academy of Fine Arts. Exhibits at 
the National Academy, New York. Ideal 
works: Mother's Treasure, T. D. Crocker, 
Cleveland; In the Studio; Old Tapestry, 
The Answer (1881); Old Clock, Taxidermist 
(1882); Old Spring House, Morning (1883); 
Birthday Card (1884). 

EYANTHES, painter, of Egypt, 4th oan. 
tury n.c. Painted an Andromeda and a 
Prometheus for the Temple of Zeus Kasius 
at Pelusium. — Achilles Tatius, iii. 6 (edition 

EVE, CBEATION OP, Michelangelo, Sis- 
tine ChapeL Borne ; fresco on ceiling. H 
lustration of Genesis ii. 21-23. 

EVENOR, painter, of Ephesus, father and 
master of Parrhmius, lived about 420 aa 
—Pliny, xiiv. 36 [60]; Paus. 1, 28, 2; 
Athen. xiL p. 543. 
born at Alkmaar 
in 1621 {?), died 
in Amsterdam, 
Nov., 1675. 
Dutch school ; 
landscape paint- 
er, pupil at Ut- 
recht of Boelandt 
Savery, and the 
master of Back- 
^ h uy sen and Buys- 
' dael From 

1645 to 1651 lived at Haarlem, and from 
1654 to 1675 in Amsterdam. Everdingen's 
landscapes are poetic and spirited. His 
treatment of rocks and waterfalls, forests and 
sea-views, is truthful and vigouroua, both 
in his pictures and his numerous etchings. 
Many of his studies from nature were made 
in Norway, which he visited in 1640-44. 
Works: Norwegian Landscapes (2), National 
Museum, Amsterdam ; Two Waterfalls, Rot- 
terdam Museum ; Bocky Landscape, Vienna 
Museum ; Landscapes (2), Louvre ; River 
Landscape (1648), Norwegian WaterfaU, Nor- 
wegian Landscapes (2), Wooded Slope, Cas- 
tle by River, Berlin Museum ; Waterfall with 
Alpine Hut, Norwegian Landscape (1647), 
Brunswick Museum ; Ravine with Torrent, 
Cologne Museum; Landscape with Waterfall 
(1650), Storm at Sea, 2 Landscapes, Old Pin- 
akothek, Munich; Stag-Hunt (1643), 4 Land- 
scapes, Dresden Gallery ; Mountain Torrent 
in Norway, Breslau Museum ; Stormy Sea, 
Landscape with Mill, Norwegian Landscape, 



\AV M 

Stadel Gallery, Frankfort ; High Tide among 
Cliffij (1647), Mountain Landscape (1648), 
three others, Copenhagen Gallery. Others 
in Cassel, Darmstadt, Gotha, Oldenburg, 
Hamburg, and 
Si Petersburg 
Galleries. — All- 
gem, d. Biogr., vi. 435 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
hollandaise ; Forster, iii. 207, 241 ; Immer- 
zeek i 225; Eramm, ii. 445 ; Quellenschrift- 
en, xiv. 201 ; Van der WiUigen, 127. 

Alkmaar in 1606, died there in 1679. Dutch 
school, history, genre, and portrait painter ; 
brother of Allart van E. ; pupil of Jan Tan 
Bronkhorst, entered the Alkmaar guild in 
1632 ; went in 1648 to Haarlem, where he 
entered the guild in 1651, but returned to 
Alkmaar, where most of his pictures are to 
be found in Si Lawrence's Church and in 
the Town HalL He painted with vivid con- 
ception and powerful colouring. Works : 
Diogenes in Search of a Man (1652, figures 
portraits of the Steijn family), National Mu- 
seum, Amsterdam ; Flora, Pomona, Bacchus, 
-f£i m , and Cupid, Dresden 

(V/f fL /J, Gallery. Hia younger 
^L-# w * m brother, Jan (1625- 
1656), painted still life.— ImmerzeeL i. 225 j 
Eramm, ii. 445 ; Quellenschriften, ziv. 200 ; 
Van der WiUigen, 126. 

the Moritzberg, near Hildesheim, in 1802. 
Genre and portrait painter, pupil of the 
Dresden Academy until 1829, after which he 
painted portraits in his native town. In 
1832 he went to Munich, where he estab- 
lished himself as a painter of Bavarian life 
and sports. Works : Peter Vischer in Nu- 
remberg working on Sebaldua' Monument ; 
Guttenberg showing first Trials of Printing ; 

iSL N.v.E ]\^ 


Luther as Squire George at the Wartburg 
Hans Sachs composing Poetry in a Bower. 

DINAND), horn in Berlin, March 17, 1836. 
History painter, pupil in Berlin in 1866 of 
Steffeck, then studied in Paris in 1856-63, 
including one year under Couture. After 
visiting Italy, in 1863-64, he returned to 
Berlin, and there decorated the new city 
hall, and a hall in the National Gallery, with 
wall paintings. In 1868 he became in- 
structor, and in 1874 director, of the Ger- 
man Industrial School, in 1880 also of the 
Royal Art School, at Berlin. Works : The 
Seven Deadly Sins (1863), Scenes from Nie- 
behmgen Saga (1869), National Gallery, 
Berlin. — Brockhaus, vi. 463 ; Rosenberg, 
Berk Malersch., 230. 

EWABD, CHARLES, bora at Nantes 
about 1608, died in Borne May 26, 1689. 
French school ; history and architecture 
painter and engraver. Formed himself in 
Italy, where he was member of the Acad- 
emy of Si Luke, 1635, and after his return 
to France decorated churches and palaces 
with second-rate pictures of sacred and pro- 
fane history. He was one of the founders 
and first director of the French Academy at 
Paris and (1665) at Rome.— Ch. Blanc, Ecole 

RegnauU, formerly in Luxembourg Museum; 
canvas, H. 9 fi 10 in. x 4 ft. 10 in. A mar- 
ble stairway with two or three steps leads 
to a Moorish court in the style of the AJ- 
hambra ; in foreground, two figures, the 
executioner and his victim, the former 
standing wiping his cimeter on his tunic, 
the latter a mangled trunk, the head lying 
in a pool of blood on the marble pavement 
Salon, 1870.— Benjamin, 102. 

Barrios, Luxembourg Museum ; canvas, H. 
8 ft 3 in. x 13 fi The Emperor Tiberius, 
having retired to Caprea (Capri) to pursue 
his pleasures, punished all who stood in his 
way, including even the wives and children 
of the accused, by banishing them to islands 
where they could get neither fire nor water 
(Suetonius). The picture represents a boat 


filled with prisoners going to the island, the 
Mis of which are seen in the background ; 
at right, a galley from which prisoners are 
being transferred to another boat. Salon, 
penhagen, Nov. 30, 
1825. Genre and 
portrait painter, pu- 
pil of the Copenha- 
gen Academy under 
Lund and Eckers- 
berg. He painted 
portraits and scenes 
from Danish history, 
before devoting 
himself entirely to 
the representation of 
country life in Denmark. Member of Co- 
penhagen (1864), and Stockholm ' (1866), 
Academies. Professor at Copenhagen Acad- 
emy in 1876. Order of Danebrog, 1869. 
Works : Old Woman (1852) ; Sunday Visit 
at Grandfather's (1853), Feast at Feasant's 
on Amager (1854), Grandmother's Greeting, 
Game of Black Peter (1863), Little Conva- 
lescent (1867), all in Copenhagen Gallery 
Peasants' Dance in Hedebo (1855) ; End of 
a Bout (1860); Blind Man's Buff (18 
Peasant Wedding (1867); Visiting the Sick 
(1876) ; Wooing (1877) ; Interrupted Nap 
(1881); A Discovery (1882).— Sigurd MiiUer, 
95 ; Weilbach, 155. 

Hamburg, Dec. 17, 1813. History and por- 
trait painter, pupil of the Dusseldorf Acad- 
emy in 1839-47, under Earl Sohn and 
Schadow. lived in Dusseldorf from 1851 
to 1853, and afterwards settled in Hamburg. 
Works : Hagar and Ishmael (1845) ; Susanna 
at the Bath (1853), Kiel Gallery; Charity 
(1847), Children Bathing (1858), Hamburg 

EYBEL, ADOLF, born in Berlin, Feb. 
24, 1808, died there Oct 12, 1882. His- 
tory, genre, and portrait painter, pupil of 
the Berlin Academy and of Kolbe ; studied 
then in Paris (1834-39) under Delaroche, 

became afterwards member of, and in 1849 
professor at, the Berlin Academy. Works : 
Gleaner (1836); Battle of Fehrbellin (1846), 
Royal Palace, Berlin ; Twelve Reformers, 
Royal Chapel, ib. ; Scene from Scott's Wood- 
stock ; Richard Cceur de lion listening to 
Blondel's Singing ; Scene from Faust — 
Brockhaua, vi. 493; Knnst-Chronik, xviii. 24. 
EYBL, FRANZ, born in Vienna, April 1, 
1806, died there April 29, 1880. Portrait 
and genre painter, pupil of the Vienna 
Academy; member in 1843. Works: Smithy 
at Gosau (1835) ; Strawberry Seller, Return 
of Husbandman (1844) ; Dressing the Bride 
(1845) ; Old Woman asleep in Arm Chair ; 
Old Woman leaving Church ; Old Woman 
Praying (1846) ; Austrian Peasant Woman 
(1847), Old Beggar (1856), Vienna Museum. 
— Wurzbacb, iv. 119. 
VAN, born at 
Maaseyck after 
1366, died in 
Ghent Sept 18, 
1426. Flemish 
school. There are 
no authentic rec- 
Jords of his life 
f until 1424, when 
khe was living in 
') p> high repute as a 

painter in Ghent 
The honour of 
perfecting oil 
painting, long known but hitherto undevel- 
oped, belongs to Hubert and bis brother 
Jan. They invented a colourless varnish 
which could be applied with safety to oil 
colours, and thus obviated the only impedi- 
ment to their use, namely, their excessive 
slowness in drying, which had been before 
met by the use of a Tarnish which darkened 
many colours and was therefore objection- 
able. Their new method was that of paint- 
ing with wet upon wet colour. The tints 
were mixed with the drying medium upon 
the palette, and then applied. Hubert's 
one certainly authentic work is that part of 


the great altarpiece in the Church of St 
Bavon (now St. John), Ghent — the Adoration 
of the Lamb, which he painted for Jodocus 
Vydt, a rich patrician of Ghent The fol- 
lowing portions, as differing in drawing, 
colouring, cast of drapery, and treatment 
from the style of Jan, as recognized in his 
other works, may he safely assigned to Hu- 
bert, namely : the Almighty, the Virgin, St 
John the Baptist from the upper inner 
series, and the great picture of the Adora- 
tion of the Lamb, being the central portion 
of the lower series, in the Church of St Ba- 
von, Ghent ; St Cecilia and Angels playing 
on musical instruments, Berlin Museum ; 
both the upper outside wings, with Adam 
and Eve, Brussels Museum. The side of 
the centre picture with the Apostles and 
Saints, and the wings with the hermits and 
pilgrims, with the exception of the land- 
scapes, are also attributed to Hubert Van 
Eyck. The altarpiece in its entirety is one 
of the most wonderful works of art in the 
world. — Biog. nat de Belgique, vi. 775 ; 
Carton, Lea trois Frcres Tan Eyck (Brussels, 
1848) ; Eastlake, Materials ; Eisenman, The 
Brothers Van Eyck, 209 ; Dohme, li. ; Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole flamande; C. & C, Flemish 
Painters, 34; Allgem. d. Biogr., vi. 778; 
Fiirster, Denkmale, iii. 15 ; vi. 17 ; da, 
Gesch,, ii 64 ; Immerzeel i. 226 ; Kramro, 
ii. 448 ; Michiels, ii 83 ; Schnaase, viii 103 ; 
W. & W., ii. 8. 

EYCK, JAN VAN, born at Maaseyck 
about 1381, 
died in Bru- 
ges July 9, 
1440. Flem- 
ish school. 
Jan and his 
elder brother 
Hubert are 
supposed to 
have been 
■ court -paint- 
era to Philip 
afterwards Philip the Good, Duke of Bur- 

gundy, who, with his wife, Michelle de 
France, resided at Ghent between 1418 and 
1421. In October, 1422, Jan entered the 
service of Duke John of Bavaria as " painter 
and varlet," at The Hague, and after his 
death (May 19, 1425) re-entered that of 
Duke Philip in the same capacities. Dur- 
ing the next three years he lived at Lille, 
whence he was sent by the Duke, Oct. 19, 
1428, to Portugal to paint the portrait of 
his affianced bride, the Princess Isabel. At 
Christmas, 1429, Jan returned to Flanders 
with the Princess, and settled at Ghent to 
complete the great altarpiece of the Adora- 
tion of the Lamb, left unfinished by his 
brother Hubert Having accomplished this 
work in 1432, he established himself at Bru- 
ges, where, in consideration of his great 
merit, the Duke exempted him from taxes, 
and in 1434 honoured him by becoming 
godfather to his daughter Lyennie. Au- 
thorities differ as to what part of the great 
altarpiece in the Cathedral of St. Bavon at 
Ghent was painted by Jan after bis brother's 
death. The question is the more difficult to 
decide, as it is Hubert's one authentic work. 
Many pictures by Jan exist, and these when 
compared with the altarpiece have led Wolt- 
mann to conclude that only the paintings 
on the outer shutters, Berlin Gallery, are 
by him. They consist of the Annunciation 
and the Prophets and Sibyls who foretold 
the event, and of four figures in niches, two 
of which in monochrome represent Gothic 
statues of SS. John the Baptist and the 
Evangelist, and two in colour, the kneeling 
donors, Jodocus Vydt and his wife, Frau 
Iasbet Barlut To these as Jan's work are 
added in Kugler's Handbook (Crowe) the 
wing picture with the singing angels of the 
upper series on the inner side, the side of 
the centre picture of the Adoration of the 
Lamb containing the Patriarchs and Proph- 
ets, etc., and the entire landscape, the wing 
with the soldiers of Christ and the Righteous 
Judges, and the landscapes to the wing with 
the hermits and pilgrims. Other works by 
Jan are the Consecration of Thomas a Becket 


(dated Oct 30, 1421), Chataworth, England ; 
Seated Madonna (1432), luce Hall, near 
Liverpool, England ; Burghley House Ma- 
donna, Marquis of Exeter ; Portraits of 
John Arnolfini of Lucca and hia wife (1434), 
and two half-length male portraits (1432- 
33), National Gallery, London ; Virgin and 
Donor, Louvre ; Madonna with Donor, 
Rothschild Collection, Paris ; Cardinal della 
Croce (1430), Canon Jan van der Leeuw 
(1436), Vienna Museum ; Paele Madonna 
(1436), portrait of Jan's wife (1439), and 
Head of Christ (1420), Bruges Academy ; 
Lucca Madonna, Stadel Institute, Frank- 
fort ; Triptych with Christ blessing, Cassel 
Gallery ; Head of Christ (1438), Man with 
the Pinks, Berlin Museum ; Altai-piece, 
Dresden Gallery ; S. Barbara (1437), and a 
Madonna (1439), Antwerp Museum ; Annun- 
ciation, Hermitage, St Petersburg ; Triumph 
of the Church, Madrid Museum ; The Fount 
. of Salvation? Mu- 

\ l/ll . . seum of the Santa 

VT L, 1440. Trinidad, Madrid. 
/ — C. &. C, Flemish 

*-^ Painters, 30; Car- 

ton, Lea trois Frt'res Van Eyck ; Weale, 
Notes sur Jean van Eyck (Brussels, 1861) ; 
Schopenhauer, Johann van Eyck und seine 
Nachfolger (Frankfort, 1823) ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole flamande ; All gem. d. Biogr., vi. 778 ; 
Forster, Denkmale, iii. 15 ; vi 15 ; do., 
Gesch., ii. 64 ; Immerzeel, i 226 ; Kramm, 
ii. 448 ; Michiels, ii. 83 ; v. 447 ; Kegel, 
Beitrage, i. 3 ; Schnaase, viii. 103 ; W. & W., 
iL 9, 17 ; Zeitechr. £ b. K., viii. (Mittheil- 
ungen, i 6). 

EYCK, KASPAP. VAN, born at Antwerp, 
baptized Feb. 6, 1613, died at Brussels in 
1673. Flemish school ; marine painter, pu- 
pil of Andries van Artvelt ; master of the 
guild at Antwerp in 1633. Works : Vessels 
by Fortified Castle, Naval Battle between 
Christians and Turks, Men-of-War with 
Rocks in View, Madrid Museum. — Van den 
Branden, 1044. 

EYCK, LAMBERT VAN, 15th century. 
Flemish school. Brother of Hubert and Jan 

van Eyck ; existence only lately established. 
Only work attributed to him, an altarpiece, 
consisting of a centre and two wings (1445), 
in the Van der Schrick Collection, Loavain. 
— C. &. C, Flemish Painters, 133 ; Kramm, 
ii. 465. 

EYCK, MARGARET VAN, born (?), died 
not later than 1430. Flemish school ; sister 
of Hubert, Jan, and Lambert Van Eyck. She 
is said to have been a skilful painter, but 
none of the works assigned to her ore cer- 
tainly authentic. She died before Jan, and 
was buried, like Hubert, in the Cathedral 
at Ghent. A Madonna, National Gallery, 
London, is attributed to her. Biog. nat, de 
Belgique, vi. 800 ; C. & C, Flemish Paint- 
ers, 129 ; Kramm, ii. 464. 

EYCK, NICOLAAS VAN, born at Ant- 
werp, baptized Feb. 9, 1617, died there in 
1679. Flemish school ; military, genre, and 
battle painter, brother of Kaspar van Eyck, 
pupil of Theodor Kombouts. Probably 
several of his works, which were greatly es- 
teemed in the 18th century, are attributed to 
other masters. Works : Review of Militia 
by Mayor of Antwerp (1673), City Hall, Ant- 
werp ; Two Episodes in Taking of Mechlin 
in 1580 (about 1650), Mechlin Museum ; 
Equestrian Portrait, Lille Museum ; Halt of 
Soldiers in a Village, Vienna Museum ; Sol- 
diers wading through River, Turin Gallery. 
—Van den Branden, 1013. 

in Brussels, Sept 16, 1809, died at Schaer- 
beck-les-Bruxelles Dec 19, 1853. History 
and genre painter, pupil at the Brussels 
Academy of Navez ; obtained the great prize 
in 1835, visited France and Italy in 1837-39, 
and soon after his return took rank with the 
foremost artists of his native country. His 
works in the chapel of Notre Dame in Brus- 
sels were the first examples of monumental 
decoration on a grand scale painted in Bel- 
gium. Professor at Brussels Academy in 
1839, member iu 1848. Gold medals : Brus- 
sels, 1839 ; Paris, 1840 ; Order of Leopold, 
1847. Works: Holy Women at Christ'* 
Tomb (1835); Young Mother with her Dead 


Child (1837), Lisieux Museum ; Entomb- 
ment (1837), Liege Museum ; Divine Mercy 
(1839) ; Banaom of Captive Christians (1840), 
St Boniface imploring the Virgin (1841), 
Eglise do la Chapelle, Brussels ; Descent 
from the Cross (1841), Eglise de Thourout, 
lb. ; Entombment, St. Andrew's, ib. ; Christ be- 
wailing Jerusalem (1844), Vatican, Borne ; 
Prisoner's Wife, St Cecilia's last Song, Abun- 
dance, Revery (1848) ; Falling Leaves (1849); 
Studio Scene, National Museum, Amster- 
dam ; Fourteen Scenes in Christ's Passion 
(1851), Eglise de la Chapelle, Brussels. — 
Biog. nat de Belgique, vi. 804 ; Immerzeel, 
i. 230 ; Kraroni, ii. 466. 

Jean Oroa, Louvre, Paris ; canvas, H. 17 ft. 
6 in. x 26 ft 4 in. ; signed, dated 1808. Na- 
poleon visiting the battlefield of Eylau (Feb. 
9, 1807), before reviewing his troops. Near 
the centre, the Emperor, in a pelisse of gray 
satin bordered with fur, raises his hand with 
a gesture indicating grief at the sight of the 
dead and wounded around him. Among his 
staff are, at right, Soult, Davoust, and Hu- 
nt ; at left, Berthier, Bessieres, and Cau- 
laincourt Kneeling Lithuanians implore 
his pity. In background, Eylau in flames, 
lines of French troops with prisoners defil- 
ing before them, and the dead on the bat- 
tlefield partly hidden by snow. Salon, 1808. 
Gros received 16,000 fr. Engraved by Val- 
lot, Oortman. — Villot, Cat Louvre. 

Posueck, Meiningen, Feb. 28, 1801, died 
in Munich Dec 18, 1851. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Munich Academy. Trav- 
elled extensively, both on the Continent and 
in England. Studied Ruysdael and Ever- 
dingen, and loved to paint Nature in her 
more sombre aspects. He was appointed 
court-painter to the Duke of Saxe-Mein- 
ingen, and member of Stockholm Academy. 
Works: Waterfall with Milt (1836); Land- 
scape with Castle in Park (1837); Iron 
Works by Waterfall (1840), New Pinako- 
thek, Munich ; Storm (1841); Huntsman by 

Beech Trees (1842); Karlssteg in Ziller Val- 
ley (1850); Fisherman's Hut on Lake, Land- 
scape with Bathing Girls. — Andresen, iv. 
249 ; Brockhaus, vi. 407 ; Nagler, Mon., L 

EZEKTEL, Michelangelo, Sistine ChapeL 
Borne ; fresco on ceiling. 

EZEKTEL, VISION OF, Raphael, Palazzo 
Pitti, Florence ; wood, H. 1 ft 4 in. x 1 ft 
Jehovah, in a glory of light and of seraphim, 
seated like Olympian Jove upon an eagle, 

the symbol of St John, with a winged lion 
and bull, symbols of SS. Mark and Luke, 
beneath him, and the angel, symbolic of St. 
Matthew, beside him, extends his arms, up- 
held by two angels, to bless the world, seen 
at an immeasurable depth below ; through 
the clouds a ray of light falls on Ezekiel and 
his steed in the distance. Painted about 
1517 for Count Vincenzo Ercolani of Bo- 
logna. Carried to Paris ill 1799 ; returned 
in 1815. Copy formerly in De Launay, then 
in Orleans Collection, sold to Lord Berwick 
for £800; nowatStratton, seat of SirThomas 



Baring. Engraved by Marri, Longhi, Cala- 
mat.ta, Larmessin, Poillj. — Vaeari, ed. Mil., 
iv. 350 ; Miintz, 519 ; Paaaavant, ii. 151 ; 
GaL du Pal Pitti, iL PI. 93 ; FUhoL iil PL 
187 ; Cab. Crozat, I PI 28 ; Musee francais, 
I. ; London, Musoe, ii. PL 21 ; Malvaeia, i. 
44; Perkins, 174. 

By Tintoretto, Scuola di S. Rocco, Venice ; 
oval, on ceiling of upper room. Heavy and 
dead in colour, but in some measure worthy 
of the master, in the wild and horrible en- 
ergy with which the skeletons are leaping 
up about the prophet — Buskin, Stones of 
Venice, UL 347. 

NIO DE, flourished at beginning of 18th 
century. Spanish school ; landscape and 
history painter, pupil of Antonio Palomino. 
Works : Neptune with Tritons and Nereids, 
Museum, Madrid ; Series of Saints, San Fe- 
lipe Neri, ib. 

FABARIUS, WHiHELM, bom at Muhl- 
heim, on the Ruhr, Jan. 25, 1815. 
Landscape and marine painter, pupil 
at Dtisseldorf of A. von Wille, and studied 
after the works of Andreas Achenbach, then 
in Holland and Belgium from nature and 
after the old Dutch masters. Works : Dutch 
Herring Fishers; Stranded Three-Master 
on Dutch Coast; Launching of Life-Boat; 
Fisherman's Bark wrecked on Norwegian 
Coast ; Storm in the Shears on Swedish 
Coasi— Mailer, 165. 

FABER, JOHANN, born in Hamburg, 
April 12, 1778, died there Aug. 2, 1846. 
Landscape painter ; after treating biblical 
subjects went to Italy, and, under the influ- 
ence of Koch and Rein hart, turned to land 
scape painting. Works : Suffer Little Chil- 
dren to come unto Me, St Catharine's, 
Hamburg ; Capuchin Monastery near Na- 
ples (1830), National Gallery, Berlin.— Cat 
Berlin Nat Gal. 

Lndwigsburg, near Stuttgart, June 3, 1828. 
Battle painter, pupil in Munich of Kotze- 

bue, in Paris of Yvon, and studied also Ver- 
net's battlepieces at Versailles ; served in 
the army until 1867. Studio in Munich. 
WorkB : Lutzow's Riflemen ; Napoleon's Re- 
treat from Russia ; Hungarian Horse Past- 
ure ; Battle of Champigoy ; Delivery of 
French Cavalry Horses after Sedan (1872); 
Death of Ophelia, Departure of Frederic of 
the Palatinate from Prague (1874); Attack 
of Chasseurs d'Afrique ; Equestrian Portrait 
of German Crown Prince (1879); Camping 
Arabs ; Joseph sold by his Brethren ; War- 
temberg Regiment, "Queen Olga," atCham- 
pigny (1883); Ambulance by a Barricade 
(1884); Fantasia a la Rencontre de deux 
Tribus (1885).— Mailer, 165. 

FABIUS, CAIUS PICTOR, of the noble 
Roman house of the Fabii, lived about 
300 B.c, One of the few Roman painters 
known to us. He decorated the Temple of 
Salus (dedicated 302 b.c.) with a mural 
painting representing a battle won by the 
Dictator C Junius Brutus Bubulcus over 
the Samnites (Valer. Maximus, viii. 14, 6). 
This is the earliest recorded Roman paint- 
ing. Fabius's style was marked by simplic- 
ity and absence of mannerism. An excel- 
lent draughtsman, he combined in his work 
the clear outlines of the Old Attic with the 
rich colouring of the Theban Attic school. 
On account of his eminence in his art his 
surname, Pictor (Painter), was given to a 
family of the Fabia gens, and borne by his 
descendants. — Pliny, xxxv. 19. 

born at Montpellier, April 1, 1766, died 
there March 16, 1837. History painter, 
pupil of J. Coustou and of David, won grand 
prix de Rome in 1787 ; was at Rome in 1793, 
and afterwards in Naples and Flore nee, where 
be became a professor in the Academy and 
is said to have secretly married the Count- 
eBS of Albany, after the death of Alfieri. 
He returned in 1826 to Montpellier, and 
founded there the Ecole des Beaux Arts, 
of which he became director. Medal, 1808 ; 
L of Honour, 1827 ; officer, 1829 ; cre- 
ated baron, 1830. At his death he be- 


queathed to the city the collodion called 
after him, the Musee Fabre. Works : Ne- 
optolemos and Ulysses taking from Philoc- 
tetes the Arrows of Hercules, Louvre ; Death 
of Abel, Holy Family, Death of Narcissus, 
Musee Fabre, Montpellier ; Portrait of Alfi- 
eri, do. of Countess of Albany, TJfflzi, Flor- 
ence ; Judgment of Paris ; Death of Milo ; 
Family of Kings of Etruria (1804), Madrid 
Museum. — Yillot, Cat Louvre. 

riano in 1370 (?), died in Borne in 1450 (?). 
Umbrian school. Real name Gentile di Nic- 
cold di Giovanni Masai. Pupil probably of 
Allegretto Nuzi, who died when Gentile was 
fifteen years old ; has been called both master 
and pupil of Fra Angelico, but rather on ac- 
count of a certain superficial resemblance 
between them than from any real affinity. 
He left Fabriano some time before 1521 to 
become court-painter to Pandolf o Malatesta, 
for whom he decorated a chapel at Brescia, 
Thence Gentile probably went to Venice to 
paint a fresco of the battle between Doge 
Ziani and Otho, son of Barbarossa, in the 
Hall of the Grand Council, Palazzo Ducale, 
destroyed by fire in 1574. Jacopo Bellini 
was his pupil there and accompanied him in 
1422 to Florence, where Gentile painted, 
the next year, his most famous picture, the 
Adoration of the Magi, now in the Academy, 
a work which entitles him to be called the 
Umbrian Fra Angelioo. Lake him, Gentile 
paints in the spirit of the old school, with 
the gay colouring of the early Umbrian 
masters, the profuse use of gilt relief orna- 
ment, and the somewhat formal system of 
composition peculiar to the Florentines be- 
fore Masaccio ; but pleasing and poetical aa 
the result is, Gentile shows in it none of the 
deep myatical fervour of Angelico, and in 
this more nearly resembles Benozzo Gozzoli 
than his master. Among his other works 
Gentile painted a charming fresco of the 
Madonna at Orvieto (1426), being on his 
way to Borne. He remained in the latter 
city until his death, and executed many mas- 
terpieces for Popes Martin V. and Eugenius 

IV., which have all perished. Among his 
other works are : Coronation of the Virgin 
with Saints, and a predella with five sub- 
jects, Brera, Milan ; Virgin adoring the In- 
fant Jesus, hall of the Pia Casa, and Adora- 
tion of the Magi, S. Domenico, Pisa ; Virgin 
enthroned with Saints and a Donor, Berlin 
Museum.— C. & O, Italy, iii. 95, N. Italy, i 
106 ; Vasari, ed. Mil , iii. 5, 15 ; Bernasconi, 
Studii, 51 ; Burckhardt, 555, 588 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole ombrienne ; Siret, 858 ; Cibo, Niccolb 
Alunno e la Scuola Umbra (Roma, 1872), 20, 
53 ; Lubke, Geach. ital. Mai, L 213. 

1620, died after 1669. Dutch school ; his- 
tory and portrait painter, pupil of Rem- 
brandt, whom in his portraits he imitated 
successfully ; received into guild at Leyden 
in 1658. Works : Portrait of Young Man 
(1650), Birth of John Baptist (1669), St&del 
Gallery, Frankfort ; Goliath (1657), Camber- 
lyn Collection, Brussels ; St Peter in House 
of Cornelius (1653), Brunswick Museum ; 
Presentation in the Temple (1668), Copen- 
hagen Gallery ; Herodias receiving the Head 
of John the Baptist, Amsterdam Museum 
(under Drost); Bust of Shepherd, Vienna 
Academy ; Adoration of Shepherds, Birth of 
John Baptist, Cassel Gallery ; Portrait of 
Young Man (1650), (?) Old Pmakothek, 
Munich ; Family Repast (1650), Alchymist 
in his Laboratory, Stockholm Museum. — 
Biegel, Beitrage, it 284 ; Burger, Musees, 
il 166, 170 ; Zeitschr. f. b. KL, iiL 290 ; xvi. 
404 ; Gaz. des B. Arte (1860), viii. 186 ; 
(1864), xvi 77 ; (1865), xviii. 80 ; (1874), x. 
408 j Havard, A. & A. Holl., iv. 53 ; Jour, 
des B Arts (1868), 13, 27. 

FABRITIUS, KA KEL , born in 1624, 
killed Oct 12, 1654, by the explosion of a 
powder magazine at Delft, while painting 
the portrait of Simon Decker, sacristan of 
the old church. Dutch school ; pupil of 
Rembrandt and painter of the first order, 
especially in portraits. Works : Male Por- 
trait, Rotterdam Museum ; do., Berlin Mu- 
seum ; do. (attributed), Cologne Museum ; 
The Gold Finch (1654), Aremberg Gallery, 

ed by Google 


Brussels ; Portrait (ascribed to Velasquez), 

Nantes Museum ; Portrait of Young Man, 

Writing Master (?), 

S*\ £> CJA+A 01d Piaakothek, 
f ) q. *** /fc w Munich.— Gaz. des 
\J , I 1 • B. Arts (1864), xvi. 

,yj 77; xvii. 103; 

(1865), xviii. 80 ; (1866), xii 308 ; (1874), 
is. 441 i (1877), xvi. 281 ; Havard, A. & A. 
holL, iv. 43 ; Vosmaer (1868), 166. 

FABBHTUS, KILIAN, flourished about 
1633-80. German school ; landscape painter, 
employed at the court of the Elector John 
George H. of Saxony in 1633-80. Works : 
Expulsion of Hagar (1650), Stockholm Mu- 
seum ; Landscape, Darmstadt Museum ; da, 
Vienna Museum ; Ruins of Burg Weissenfels 
— Saxony, Wiesbaden Gallery. 

FABTJLLUS (Famulus, Famulis, Amu- 
lius), Roman painter, about 60 a.d. Em- 
ployed to decorate the Golden House of 
Nero ; also painted a picture of Minerva. 
His style was simple and severe. It was his 
custom to paint but few hours in the day 
and always to wear his toga when at work, 
out of respect for the dignity of his profes- 
sion.— Pliny, xxxv. 37 [120]. 

FACCINL PB3TRO, horn at Bologna in 
1562, died in 1602. 
Bolognese school ; 
history painter, pu- 
pil of Annibale Car- 
racci ; founded a 
school in opposi- 
tion to that of the 
Carracci, which was 
successful only a 
short time. Works : 
Patron Saints of Bo- 
logna, Madonna, Bologna Gallery; Virgin 
appearing to St. Francis, S. Domenico ; 
Martyrdom of St. Lawrence, S. Giovanni in 
Monte ; Adoration of the Magi, S. Mattia ; 
Madonna and Saints, Marriage of St Cath- 
erine, Dresden Gallery. — Lanzi (Roscoe), 
iii 124 ; Nagler, iv. 214. 

Fray, born in Valencia, June 29, 1520, died 

there Dec. 23, 1583. Spanish school. Son 
of a tailor from Sicily ; became a Franciscan 
monk in 1538, and spent his life in religious 
duties and in painting frescos in the cloister 
of S. Maria at Valencia. Chief work a Ma- 
donna there, selected for prize engraving 
by Academy of S. Carlos at Valencia. Canon- 
ized as a beato or saint of the second order 
by Pius VI (1786). None of his works 
known to exist. — Stirling, L 368 ; Cean Ber- 

FADENO, Hi See Aleni, Tommaso. 
FAED, JOHN, born at Burley Mill, Kirk- 
cudbrightshire, Scotland, in 1820. History 
and genre painter ; first painted miniatures 
with success, removed to Edinburgh in 1841, 
where he turned his attention to genre and 
portrait painting. Member of R S. A in 
1851. Works: Boyhood (1850); Croel 
Sisters (1851) ; Cotter's Saturday Night 
(1854) ; Philosopher (1855) ; Household 
Gods in Danger (1856); Job and his Friends 
(1858) ; Ruth and Boaz (1860) ; Fine Old 
English Gentleman (1862) ; Catherine Sey- 
ton (1864) ; Old Age, Stirrup Cup (1867) j 
John Anderson my Jo (1869) ; Old Mare 
Maggie (1870) j After the Victory (1878) ; 
Morning before Flodden (1874) ; Blenheim 
(1875) ; In Memoriam (1876) ; Goldsmith 
in his Study (1877) • Leisure Hour, Old 
Basket Maker (1878) ; Poet's Dream (1882). 
FAED, THOMAS, born at Burley Mill, 
Scotland, in 1826. 
Genre painter, broth- 
er and pupil of John 
Faed, and student of 
Edinburgh School of 
Design. Became an 
A.RS.A. in 1849; 
went to London in 
1852 ; was elected an 
A.RA. in 1861, and 
RA in 1864. Ranks 
high as a delineator of Scottish life, in the 
school of Wilkie ; many of his pictures have 
been engraved. Works : Rustic Toilet, Mrs. 
O. Roberts, New York ; Shakegpeare and 
his Con temporaries, Corcoran Gallery, Wash- 

ed byGoogk 

ington ; Sir Walter Scott and his Friends 
(1849) ; Burns snd Highland Mary (1852) ; 
Mitherlest Bairn (1855) ; My Ain Fireside 
(1859) ; From Dawn to Sunset (1861) ; New 
Wars to an Old Soldier (1862) ; Last of the 
Clan (1865) ; Flower o' Dunblane, Jeannie 
Deans and the Duke of Argyll (1868) ; High- 
land Mother (1870) ; God's Acre (1872) ; 
Violets and Primroses (1874) ; She never 
told her Love (1876) ; Runaway Horse 
(1878) ; Free from Care (1879) ; School 
Board in the North (1881) ; The Wakefn' 
Heart (1883) ; Keeper's Daughter, Seeing 
them off, Of what is the wee Lassie think- 
ing? (1884).— Sandby, ii 348. 


born in Stockholm, Feb. 5, 1825. Genre 
and portrait painter, pupil of Stockholm 
Academy, then in Dusseldorf of Earl Sohn, 
and in Paris of Couture ; visited Holland, 
and settled in Dusseldorf. Member of 
Stockholm Academy and court-painter to 
the King of Sweden in 1865. Medal, Paris, 
3d class, 1867. Works: Young Smokers, 
Jealousy, Stockholm Museum ; Fisherman's 
Family (1862) ; Love Declaration ; Wooing ; 
Bachelor's Perplexities, Christiania Gallery ; 
Sick-Room ; Rejected Suitor; Without Com- 
fort ; Old Couple ; One too Many (1879) ; 
A Deserter (1882) ; Honeymoon (1884).— 
Mnller, 166 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex., xviiL 305 ; 
Kunst-Cbronik, xix. 549. 

in diocese of Stora Tuna, Dalecarlia, Nov. 
29, 1774, died Jan. 9, 186L Landscape 
painter, pupil of P. Ljung. Fond of north- 
ern subjects. Professor in 1825. Knight of 
the Order of Gustavus Vasa. Works : 
Scenes from Frithiof Saga ; Views of Stock- 
holm ; Christiania ; Sparreholm and Bonus ; 
Hills of Smedjebakken ; Framnas Promon- 
tory ; Balestrand ; Donare Waterfall — 
Brockhaus, vi 622. 

Heidelberg, Dec. 10, 1835. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Dusseldorf Academy under 
Schirmer; continued his studies, 1853, in 

Munich, and afterwards settled in Dussel- 
dorf. Works : View in Heidelberg Stadt- 
wald (1873) ; Landscape in the Odenwald ; 
View near Carlsruhe ; Beech-wood in Au- 
tumn ; Evening on Trout Brook near Hei- 
delberg ; Moonrise over Castle Seefeld, Ba- 
varia. —Muller, 166. 

FAHtMAN, JAMES, born in Glasgow, 
Scotland, in 1826. Landscape painter ; 
settled in the United States in early youth, 
and entered the National Academy, New 
York. In 1871 visited Europe, and studied 
ton years in the art schools of Dusseldorf, 
Paris, and London. Studio in Chicago. 
Works : Sunset in the Androscoggin Valley 
—Maine (1867) ; Pleasant River Valley ; 
Stratford on Avon ; Caernarvon Castle — 
North Wales ; Adieu to the Land (1881). 

FAISTENBERGER (Feistenberger), AN- 
TON, born at Innsbruck in 1678, died at 
Vienna in 1722. German school ; landscape 
painter, pupil of Bouritzsch, an obscure ar- 
tist at Salzburg ; painted in the style of Gaa- 
pard Poussin, whose works he studied in 
Rome. Invited to Vienna by the Emperor, 
who employed him several years. Hans 
Graf and A. Van Bredael assisted him in 
painting his figures. Works : Landscape 
with many figures, Travellers attacked by 
Robbers, Dresden Gallery ; others in Vi- 
enna and Weimar Museums, Liechtenstein 
and Vienna Galleries, — Wurzbach, iv. 

Innsbruck in 1684, died at Vienna in 1736. 
German school ; landscape painter, brother 
and pupil of Anton F., whom he assisted in 
some of his works. Was a skilful imitator 
of Salvator Rosa. Works : Ravine (under 
Rosa), Berlin Museum ; Landscape with 
Animals (by Tamm), Weimar Museum ; 
Mountainous Landscape with Sheep, Land- 
scape with Shepherds and Herds, Museum, 
Vienna ; others in Liechtenstein Gallery, 

FAITH, Moretto, Hermitage, St Peters- 
burg ; H. 3 ft 4 in. x 2 ft 6 in. A symbolic 
female figure, half-length, in red tunic and 


yellow mantle, with a transparent veil on 
her head, holds ft chalice surmounted by the 
wafer in her right hand and embraces a 
cross with her left ; bunch of roses and 
jessamine in lower part of picture, and a 
scroll Formerly attributed to Palma Vec- 
chio.— C. A a, N. Italy, ii. 404 ; Cat Her- 
mitage, 46. 

FAIVRE, TONY, bom at Besanoon, May 
24, 1830. Genre, portrait, and decorative 
painter, pupil of Picot ; visited Italy and 
(1860-62) Russia. Medal, 1864. Works: 
Battledore and Shuttlecock (1857) ; Blind- 
man's Buff (1864); Idyl (1867); First Hours 
of the Day (1869) ; Repose of Venus, Fam- 
ily Reunion in a Park (1870) ; The Missive, 
Reader (1873) ; On a Visit, Tearing, At the 
Bath (1874) ; In the Green-house (1875) ; 
The Secret (1877) ; Good Remedy (1878) ; 
En Famille (1880) ; Autumn (1884) ; Sum- 
mer (1885).— Bellier de la Chavignerie, i. 

LAS, born at Nancy, April 17, 1818. Genre 
painter, pupil of Orsel ; chiefly known by 
his decorative works. He restored Phtti- 
bert Delorme's Diana of Poitiers, a ceiling 
in the Castle of Anet Studio in Paris. 
Medals : 3d class, 1861 and 1861. Works : 
Scenes from lives of Henri H., of Due de 
Yendome, and of Diana of Poitiers (Castle 
of An e t) ; Venus Reposing ; Pomona ; Flora ; 
Cupids ; Isabelle and the Vase, Weakness 
Survives where Strength Succumbs (1879) ; 
Mater Dolorosa, A Study (1881) ; Jacques 

Valencia in 1641, died there May 14, 1711. 
Spanish school ; history painter, pupil of 
Esteban March, after whose death he studied 
in Madrid. On bis return to his native 
city he maintained a school of design in his 
own house, and executed many altarpieces 
for churches in Valencia and Murcia. In 
his later years he was paralyzed and blind. 
Works : Two Pictures of life of St. Eloy, 
S. Salvador, Madrid ; Two Pictures of Mi- 
raculous Image of Christ of Bey rout, S. Sal- 

vador, Valencia ; Conception, Franciscan 
Nuns, Valencia ; Two Altarpieces of Life of 
St. Benedict, Cistercian Monastery, Val- 
digna ; Pictures of Life of San Louis Bel- 
tram, Dominicans, Murcia. — Stirling, 1071. 

FALCONE, ANIELLO, called l'Oraoolo 
dalle Bataglie, bom in Naples in 1600, died 
there in 1666. Neapolitan school, pupil of 
Spagnoletto ; became famous as a painter 
of battle scenes, whose subjects were taken 
from sacred and profane history, and from 
the poets. Daring the insurrection of M&- 
saniello, he, with his pupils and partisans, 
formed the Compagnia della Morte (Band 
of Death), and massacred many Spaniards 
in revenge for the death of a relative and 
scholar killed by their soldiery. On the 
death of Masaniello, Falcone fled to France 
and painted in Paris until about 1656, when 
he was permitted to return to Italy. In the 
Naples Museum are interesting pictures by 
him relating to the revolt of Masaniello, and 
to the plague of 1656. Other works in the 
Madrid Museum, and a Fight between Turks 
and Cavalry, in the Louvre. Falcone was 
the master of Salvator Rosa. — Lanri, ii 50 ; 
Ch. Blanc, £cole napolitainc. 


bom in Verona in 1458, died in Padua in 
1534. Neapolitan school He was more 
noted in his time as an architect than as a 
painter, and it has been said of him that he 
was overrated as an architect and under- 
rated as a painter. The figures in some of 


his early frescos are correct neither in ac- 
tion nor in outline, and without style in 
draperies ; but his later pictures, especially 
the religious allegories executed in 1509-16 
for S. Pietro Martire, Verona, are less de- 


formed by mannerism, and show affinity 
with Liberate and Piaano. The last of his 
life was devoted to architecture, chiefly at 
Paria.— C. & C, N. Italy, L 469 ; Burck- 
hardt, 606. 

FALENS, KAREL VAN, born in Ant. 
werp, baptized Nov. 24, 1683, died in Paris, 
May 26, 1733. Flemish school ; painter of 
hunts and landscapes, pupil of Constantyn 
Francken ; imitated Wouwermans with 
great success. Went in 1703 to Paris ; made 
member of the Academy in 1726. Works : 
Rendezvous of Huntsmen, Halt of Hunters, 
Louvre ; Departure of Falconers, Dresden 
Gallery ; Landscape with Horsemen, Stock- 
holm Museum ; Winter Landscapes (2), 
Darmstadt Ma- y 

Michiels, ix. '•' 

846 ; Van den Branden, 1209 ; Ch. Blanc, 

licole flamande ; Jal, 561. 

JOSEPH, born in Toulouse, Sept 7, 1831. 
Genre painter, pupil of Jouffroy ; began as 
a sculptor, won the grand prix de Rome in 
1859 kb such, and modelled many fine 
works. Medal, 2d class, 1875 ; Mem. of In- 
stitute, 1882. Works: The Wrestlers (1874) 
Cain carrying away Abel's Body (1876) 
Susanna (1879); Slaughter of a Bull (1881) 
Fan and Poignard (1882), Luxembourg Mu- 
seum ; The Sphinx (1883) ; Hylas, Offer- 
ing to Diana (1884) ; Acis and Galatea 

gene Delacroix, Sir Richard Wallace, Lon- 
don ; canvas, H 4 ft. 9 in. x 3 ft 9 in. The 
body of the Doge Marino Faliero, condemned 
to death for having conspired against the 
Republic of Venice, lies decapitated at the 
foot of the Staircase of the Giants, in the 
Palazzo Dncale, Venice ; beside it stands 
the executioner and others, and at the top 
of the staircase are many spectators. Painted 
in 1826 ; Salon of 1827 ; Exposition TJniver- 
selle, 1856. Sold originally for 1,800 francs j 

bought for £4,000 at Pereire sale. Etched 
by Flameng. — Gaz. dee B Arte (1864), xvi 
198; L'cauvre de Delacroix (Paris, 1886), 

FALL OF BABEL, Wilhelm von Kaul- 
bach, New Museum, Berlin ; mural painting, 
staircase hall. The dispersal of the nations 
at the fall of Babel. Nimrod, seated on a 
golden throne in front of the Tower of Babel, 
which is falling in ruins, with his wife and 
children and overthrown idols at his feet, 
defies Jehovah, who is seen above in clouds, 
surrounded by angels, hurling thunderbolts; 
at right, bis servants and priests deride the 
Almighty ; below, the children of Shem, 
Ham, and Japhet dispersing. 

nich Gallery ; wood, H. 8 ft 11 in. x 6 ft 11 
in. St Michael, armed with lightning, ac- 
companied by angels, hurling the damned 
into the bottomless abyss. Engraved by 
Snyderhoef, 1642.— Smith, it 65 j Eastlake, 
Notes, 183. 

FALL OF MAN, Tintoretto, Scuola di S. 
Bocco, Venice; oval, on ceiling of upper 
room. The vegetation is rich, but faces 
coarse, and composition uninteresting. — 
Ruskin, Stones of Venice, Hi. 348 ; Bidolfi, 
Marav., ii 197. 

FALLEN ANGELS, Tintoretto, Dresden 
Gallery ; canvas, H 10 ft 6 in. x 7 ft 3 in. 
Sometimes called Overthrow of Babel. Re- 
stored and relined in 1838. 

FAME, Guido Reni, Turin Gallery ; wood, 
H. 1 ft. 2 in. x 1 ft, A winged female figure, 
draped, standing on one foot on the globe of 
the world, blowing a trumpet. Engraved 
by Lasinio.— Gal. di Torino, i. PI. 16. 

FAMULUS, painter. See Fabullus. 

Grenoble, Jan. 14, 1836. Genre and por- 
trait painter, pupil of Lecoq de Boisbaudran ; 
famous for his portraits. Medal, 1870 ; 2d 
class, 1875 ; L. of Honour, 1879. Works : 
Three Studies from Nature (1861); Reading, 
Fairy (1863); Delacroix and his Friends 
(1864); The Toast (1865); Dead Nature 
(1866); The Levfo (1869); A Studio (1870); 


One End of a Table (1872); Flowers and 
other objects (1874); Flowers, Birthday of 
Beriioz (1876); Reading (1877); Last Scene 
of Rheingold (1880); Woman Embroidering 
(1881); Spring Night, The Study (1884); 
Around the Piano (1885). 

FARINATI BATTISTA, bora at Verona 
in 1632, died in 1592. Venetian school ; 
history painter, nephew and probably pupil 
of Paolo ; was the fellow-Btudent and friend 
of Paolo Veronese, whom he assisted in his 
works in the Palazzo della Soranza at Castel- 
fraiico, and in public buildings in Venice. 
Works : Conversion of St PauL Miraculous 
Draught of Fishes, Vicenza Cathedral ; The 
Virtues, The Studies, Palazzo Ducale, Ven- 
ice ; Frescos in Villa Obizzo at Catajo ; 
Holy Family, Lochis-Carrara Gallery, Ber- 

FARINATI, PAOLO, born in Verona in 
1524, died in 1606. Venetian school He 
belonged to a famous Florentine family, the 
Farinati degli Ubevti, who in the 13th cen- 
tury were at the bead of the Ghibellinea of 
Florence. Dispersed by the Guelphs, a 
branch of the family settled in Verona, 
where Paolo became its most distinguished 
member. His first master was Niccold Giol- 
fino, on leaving whom be is said to have gone 
to Venice to study Oiorgione and Titian ; 
but his style resembles rather that of Giulio 
Romano than that of either of those masters, 
and it is certain that he spent some time in 
Mantua, where be painted a St Martin for 
the chapel of the Sacrament in the Duomo. 
Ten of his pictures are in the Museum at 
Verona. In S. Maria in Organo are four, 
of which the Massacre of the Innocents is 
dated 1566, and in S. Anastasia two, one of 
which, a Christ between SS. Peter and Paul, 
is dated 1589. In S. Giorgio Maggiore is 
the Multiplication of the Loaves, painted in 
1603, when Paolo was seventy-nine years 
old. Other examples of -his work are in the 
Duomo, in S. Giovanni in Finite, in S. Pi 
etro in Monasterio, in S. Tommaso, in S. 
Nazzaro e Celso, and in the Palazzi Carlotti, 
Serego, and Murari. Farinati painted much 

in fresco. His son and pupil, Orazio, was 
also a history painter ; works in S. Paolo, 8. 
M delParadiso, 
and S. Stef ano, 
Verona. — Va- 
sari, ed. Le 
Mon., xL 135, 139, 249 ; xiiL 109 ; Bernas- 
coni, Studij, 847 ; Burckhardt, 192, 746 ; 
Siret, 308 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole v£ nitienne. 

portrait, Titian, Naples Museum ; canvas, 
figure to knees, life-size. Painted in 1543. 
Bust of same, attributed to Titian, in Palazzo 
Corsini, Rome.— C. & C, Titian, ii. 89 ; Va- 
aari, ed. Mil., vii. 446. 

FARNE.SE, PIER' LTJIGL portrait, '1K- 
tian, Palazzo Reals and Museum, Naples ; 
wood, figure to knees, life- size. In silk 
doublet and velvet cap Painted in 1543, 
when Pier* Luigi was Duke of Castro. A 
second portrait in the Museum, painted in 
1546, when he was Duke of Parma, repre- 
sents him in armour, bareheaded, near a 
helmeted soldier, who bears the standard of 
Parma.— C. & C, Titian, ii 88, 130. 

FARNT, HENRY F., born at RibeauvUle, 
Alsace, 1847. Figure and genre painter; 
went to America in his seventh year. Pupil 
of Munkacsy in Diisseldorf and of Professor 
Diez in Munich. Sketched and painted in 
different parts of Europe in 1867-70. Stu- 
dio in Cincinnati. Works ; Silent Guest ; 
IdyL— Am. Art Rev. (1881), 1. 

FARRER, HENRY, born in London, 
March 23, 1843. Landscape and marine 
painter; self-taught. Went to America in 
1861. Paints in oil and water-colour, but 
is best known by his etchings. Has exhib- 
ited in London, Paris, and New York. 
Studio in New York. Works in oil : Quiet 
Pool (1878) ; Sunset— Gowanus Bay ; Road 
to the Landing (1881) ; Winter, Autumn 
(1882) ; Now came Still Evening on (1883) ; 
Sweet Restful Eve (1884). Water-Colours : 
Sunset, When the Silver Habit of Clouds 
comes down upon the Autumn Sun (1884). 
—Am. Art Rev. (1880), 55. 

FARRER, THOMAS C, born in London; 


contemporary. Landscape and architecture 
painter, younger brother of Henry Farrer ; 
lived several years in New York, where he 
was one of the early members of the Amer- 
ican Society of Painters in Water-Colours. 
Studio now in Loudon. Works : Twilight 
on the Hudson (1867) ; Beach at Hastings, 
English Farm (1871) ; Caernarvon Castle, 
Interior of Si Mark's — Venice, Rochester 
Castle (1872) ; Early Spring (1874) ; Sunset 
(1875) ; The Brook (1877) ; Yorkshire Trout 
Stream, Coming through the Lock (1878) ; 
Autumn Evening (1879) ; Evening Mists 
(1880) ; October Evening, Full Moon (1881); 
Land of Windmills, Evening in Holland 
(1882) ; II Traghetto— Venice, Venetian 
Fishing Boats waiting for Wind, Solitude 
(1883) ; Towers amid the Moonlight, Music 
and Moonlight — Venice (1884) ; "Soon as 
the Evening Shades prevail the Moon takes 
up the wondrous Tale," Morning on the 
Northern Coast (1885). 

San Giovanni in 1833, died in Milan in 
1870. History painter. Works : Archi- 
tects presenting to Cardinal Sforza a Model 
of the Duomo of Favia ; Dante in Youth ; 
Evening on the Ticino ; Titian and his 
Daughters in a Gondola ; Sala del Cambio ; 
Maccbiavelli and Caesar Borgia (1866, gold 
medal, Paris), which he also engraved. 

cenza in 1528, died in 1572. Venetian 
school ; history painter, pupil of B. Zelotti 
and of Paolo Veronese, whose manner he 
followed. Works : Pool of Bethesda, S. Boc- 
co, Vicenza ; Mutius Scsevola before Porsen- 
na, Horatius defending the Bridge, Marcus 
Curtius leaping into the Gulf, Prefect's Resi- 
dence, Vicenza. — Nagler, iv. 261. 

FASOLO, LORENZO, called Lorenzo da 
Pavia and Fasolo da Pavia, born at Pavia (?), 
died at Genoa before 1520. Lombard 
school, master unknown ; employed by Lo- 
dovico Sforza in 1490 in the decoration of 
the Porta Giovia Palace at Milan. Works 
Deposition from Cross (1508), Church of S. 
Chiara, Chiavari; Familyof the Virgin (1513), 

Louvre. By his son and pupil, Bernardino 
Fasolo, also called Fasola da Pavia, are pict- 
ures in the _ . 

leries and in ^' J 

the Louvre. 

FASSETT, C. ADELE, born at Owasco, 
N. Y., in 1831. Portrait painter, pupil of 
J. B. Wandesforde, English painter in New 
York, and of Castiglione, La Tour, and 
Matthieu in Paris. Studied in Paris and 
Rome two years, has since lived and painted 
in Chicago and Washington. Member of 
the Chicago Academy, and of the Washing- 
ton Art Club. She has painted the portraits 
of many distinguished people. Among 
them are : Chief Justice Waite ; the sculp- 
tor Vela, Corcoran Gallery, Washington ; 
Mrs. Lamb (1878) ; and Clara Barton the 
Philanthropist Her historical painting of 
The Electoral Commission in Open Session 
contains two hundred portraits. 

FATA MORGANA, George Frederick 
Walls, London. Subject from Boiardo's 
"Orlando Inamorato." Nude female figure, 
representing Opportunity, flitting through 
the woodland, preceded by the figure of a 
boy, is caught by her floating hair by a hel- 
meted and gauntleted knight, seen in back- 
ground. Royal Academy, 1870. — Art Jour- 
nal (1884), 2. 
FATTORE, IL, born in Florence 14S8 (?), 
died in Naples 
1628(f). Um- 
brian school 
Real name 
Penni, but 
' called as above 

because he 
was Raphael's 
(fattore). Next to Giulio Romano he was 
Raphael's favourite pupil, and they were 
joint heirs and executors of bis art property. 


Peuni assisted his master in the Vatican and 
in the Fornesina frescos, and he painted the 
greater part of the celebrated Cartoons from 
Raphael's designs. He made copies of Raph- 
ael's Transfiguration and Entombment, the 
former of which is in the Sciarrn Colon- 
na Gallery, Borne. Raphael's Visitation, 
Madrid Museum, and Madonna del Pasaeg- 
gio, Bridge water Gallery, are attributed to 
Penni, after Raphael's designs. His St. 
George and the Dragon and St. Michael are 
in the Dresden Museum. After Raphael's 
death Penni and Giulio Romano worked to- 
gether for a while, but they finally separated 
and the former settled at Naples. — Vasari, 
ed. Le Men., viii. 241 ; ed. Mil, w. 643 ; 
Burckhardt, 660, 671, 678, 663 ; Siret, 690 ; 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole ombrienne ; Lflbke, Gesch. 
itaL MaL, ii. 360. 

FATTORI, GIOVANNI, Cavaliere, born 
at Leghorn, Sept 28, 1828. Landscape, 
animal, and battle painter, pupil of Florence 
Academy, where be is now a professor. 
Medals at Vienna and Philadelphia. Works ; 
Brunelleschi's Plan for Construction of Cu- 
pola on Florence Cathedral, Battle of Ma- 
genta (1859), Florence Academy ; Gleaners 
(1866); Wounding of Prince Amadeo at 
Custozza, Brers, Milan ; Battle near La Ma- 
donna delle Scoperte, Leghorn Town-Hall ; 
Horse Market in Piazza Montanara, Rome. 
—Muller, 168. 

FAURE, EUGENE, born at Seyssinet, 
near Grenoble, in 1822, died in Paris, Feb., 
1879. Genre and portrait painter, pupil in 
Paris of David d'Angers and of Rude ; went 
to Italy in 1849 and studied in Rome, Flor- 
ence, and Venice ; settled in Paris in 1851. 
Medal in 1864 ; second class, 1872. Works : 
Landscape (1847), First Steps in Love 
(1861), Grenoble Museum ; Dreams of 
Youth (1857); Education of Cupid, Ten- 
fold (1859) ; Confidence (1863) ; Eve (1864), 
Due de Morny, Paris ; The Source (1878) ; 
Venus plucking her Pigeons ; Chlou with 
Kid ; Daphnis and Chios leading their 
Herds; Male and Female Portrait (1878).— 
KunstrChronik, xiv. 525; Meyer, Gesch., 602. 

FAUST WITH THE CUP, Ary Scheffer, 
Count Kucheleff ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 3 in. x 
3 ft 4 in. Faust, hearing the sound of the 
church bells, sets upon the table the cup of 
poison which he was about to swallow ; in 
background, the shadow of Mephistopheles 
dimly seen in the smoke of the lamp. Sa- 
lon, 1858. 

GARDEN, Ary Schefer, Samuel Aahton, 
England. The couple, young and hand- 
some, stand in a natural attitude, expressive 
of their newly awakened love. — Salon, 
1846. , 

fred Louis Jacomin, James H. Stebbins, New 
York , canvas. Faust seated behind a table 
in his study ; Mephistopheles, standing, at 
left, a study of the singer Faure as he ap- 
peared in Gounod's Faust at the Grand Op- 
era, Paris. Painted in 1869.— Art Treaa. of 
Amer., i 101. 

FAUST IN HIS STUDY, Ary Sckejfer, 
Rothschild Collection, Paris ; canvas, H. 3 
ft 8 in. x 2 ft 10 in. Instead of the old al- 
chemist of Goethe, the artist has painted a 
young and handsome man seated in bis 
study before a volume at which he looks 
with a melancholy air ; behind him, Meph- 
istopheles, smiling sardonically at the tor- 
ments of his pupil. Solon, 1831. 

Ary Scheffer painted a series of subjects 
illustrating the Faust legend. For others, 
see Margueriie, Subject also treated by 
Eugene Delacroix, Hans Makart, Gabriel 
Mas, Alexander Liezen-Mayer, and others. 

FAUST, HETNRICH, bom at Reinsdorf, 
Oct. 6, 1843. Genre and portrait painter, 
pupil of George Koch, of Professor Mailer, 
and of the Cased Academy. Studied under 
van Lerius in Antwerp ; visited Italy, where 
he was especially attracted by the old Vene- 
tian masters, and then settled in CasseL 
Paints in the style of Makart, Works : Por- 
trait of a Lady (1868); German Legends ; 
Children's Figures ; The Flowers' Revenge ; 
Egyptian Princess ; Titania ; Mediaeval Ger- 
man Lady.— Mailer, 169. 

ed by Google 

nich, Feb. 16, 1815, died there, April 1, 
1884 Architecture and landscape painter, 
pupil of Munich Academy, and of the ani- 
mal painter Moritz Louche ; then studied 
glass painting under Ainmiller, who em- 
ployed him in the royal manufactory of 
stained glass, and after whose death he was 
made its director. His highly esteemed oil 
paintings are mostly in private collections. 
His son Luitpold, bom in Munich, July 10, 
1845, is a good landscape painter, pupil of 
Munich Academy under Piloty. — Eunst- 
Ghronik, xix. 484. 

History and genre painter, pupil of the Dils- 
seldorf Academy in 1833-41, then studied 
three years in Munich, and two years in 
Paris under Paul Delaroche. After his re- 
turn to Dusseldorf he painted Italian sub- 
jects exclusively, though he did not visit 
Italy until the latter part of his life. Works : 
St Gangolf a Well (1837); Qenovefa (1838); 
Samson and Delilah (1839), Cologne Muse- 
um ; Cleopatra (1841); Scene from Faust; 
Borneo and Juliet (1846); Christmas, Kunst- 
halle, Hamburg — Allgem. d. Biogr., vi. 500 ; 
Blanckarts, 90 ; KunstOhronik, x. 697 ; W. 
Mailer, Dusseldf. K, 71 ; Wiegmann, 300. 

FATJVELET, JEAN, born at Bordeaux, 
June 19, 1819. Genre and flower painter, 
pupil of Lacour the younger. Has not ex- 
hibited in Salon since 1869. Medal, 2d class, 
1848. Works: Young Man Beading (1845); 
Concert, Two Roses (1847) ; Indifference 
(1848); Sculptor (1850), Luxembourg Muse- 
um;DrawingTeacher(1852);Garden (1853); 
Young Mothers, Two Female Musicians 
(1855), Luxembourg Museum ; Amateur, 
Fireside (1867); Van Loo, Agreeable Doc- 
tor (1859); Three Ages, Seamstress, Guitar- 
Player (1861); Smoker, Family Meal (1863); 
Book of Ruth, Pleaders (1864); Karel Du- 
jardin, Flowers (1866); Prodigal Son (1869). 

FAY, JOSEF, bom in Cologne, Aug. 10, 
1813, died in Dusseldorf, July 27, 1875. 

FEARNLEY, THOMAS, born at Fred- 
erickshall, Norway, Dec. 27, 1802 (Feb. 
1804?), died in Munich, Jan. 16, 1842. 
Landscape painter, trained in the art-school 
at Christiania (1821), at the Copenhagen 
Academy, and under Dahl at Dresden. 
Travelled in Italy, England, and Northern 
Europe, before settling at Munich in 1841. 
Works: View of Copenhagen (1823); The 
Marumelf, Justeldas Glacier, Duck-Shoot- 
ing on the Konigsee (1828-30); Romsdal- 
horn, Babrofall near Kongsberg, Grindel- 
wald Glacier (1836-38); Waterfall near 
Sawmill, View near Vindhellen, Gudvangen, 
Sorrento, View of Babrofall (1839); Ma- 
dumsfalL Castellamare, Moonlight (1840); 
Gravens Fjord (1839), Norwegian Land- 

ed byGoOglC 

scape (1840), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; La- 
brofoB Waterfall, Christiania Gallery. — All- 
gem, d. Biogr., vi 592. 

29), Paolo Veronese, Venice Academy ; can- 
vas, H. 19 ft. 8 in.x46 ft.; dated 1573. 
Table spread in a portico pierced by three 
arcades; Christ, seated in middle, facing 
the spectator, talks with SS. Peter and John 
beside him ; nearly opposite him sits Simon 
the Pharisee, master of the house, and at 

A palace with lofty halls and colonnades 
Christ, at table in middle of a vaulted room, 
points to the Magdalen prostrate at his feet ; 
a bare-armed servant looks on with surprise, 
while another peeps over Christ's shoulder ; 
Simon at left in turban and fur pelisse ; in fore- 
ground, a dwarf buffoon with an ape on bis 
shoulder, and near him a servant with cup 
and flask ; at right, two women. Painted 
for refectory of Convent of S. Fermo, Mon- 
selice ; Moretto's most important work and 

the ends of the table, seen through the side j 
arcades, are the other guests ; servants wait ! 
at the table and pass up and down stairs i 
at each end. Painted for Convent of SS. 
Giovanni e Paolo, Venice, to replace a Last 
Supper by Titian, which had been burned ; 
carried to Paris in 1797 ; returned in 1815 
and placed in Academy. — Felibien, i. 723 ;j 
Filhol, iv. PI. 247 ; Landon, Musee, svii. PI. 
25 ; Ridolfi, Marav., ii. 28 ; Zanotto, 535. I 
(Luke vii. 36), MoreUo, S. M. della Pietik, j 
Venice ; canvas, life-size ; signed, dated 1544. 

the prototype of the style elaborated by Pa- 
olo Veronese.— Ridolfi, Maraviglie, i. 848; 
C. & C, N. Italy, ii. 408. 

By Paolo Veronese, Brera, Milan ; canvas, 
H. 9 ft. x 23 ft. The guests seated at two 
L-shaped tables on each side of a grand 
hall, with an arch in distance leading into a 
garden with a landscape beyond ; Christ 
seated at left, with Mary Magdalen wiping 
his feet, the broken pot of ointment beside 
her. Painted in 1570 for S. Sebastinno, 
Venice.— Ridolfi, Marav., ii. 28. 

By Paolo Veronene, Louvre ; canvas, H 


14 ft 11 in. x 32 ft Christ, seated at the 
corner of a table, points out to Simon, seated 
opposite to him, Mary Magdalen, who, kneel- 
ing, is wiping his feet with her hair, after 
having anointed them ; Judas, at another 
table, is rising and speaking to Christ ; the 
two tables, spread in a circular portico 
adorned with columns, are filled with the 
disciples and others; spectators in balco- 
nies ; above, two angels in the air, bearing 
a scroll. Painted about 1570-75 for refec- 
tory of Convent of the Servites, Venice ; pre- 
sented by Republic of Venice in 1665 to 
Louis XIV. It was the first 
picture allowed by the gov- 
ernment to go out of Vene- 
tian territory. Engraved 
by V. Lefebvre. — Felibien, 
i. 723, 730; Ridolfi, Ma- 
rav., ii. 29; Landon, Musee, 
2d Col, iii. PI. 59 ; Burck- 
hardt, 748. 

By Paolo Veronese, Turin 
Gallery ; canvas, H. 10 ft 
4 in. x 14 ft 9 ia The 
table spread in the portico 
of a house of classic archi- 
tecture, from the balcony 
of which above three women 
and a man look down ; at 
the right end of the table 
Hits Christ, partly in shad- 
ow, conversing with a fe- 
male standing beside him, "' s ' ' 
while Mary Magdalen anoints his feet ; the I 
disciples and other guests are grouped 
around the table, Judas occupying a central . 
place in front next to a column. Painted 
about 1566; carried to Paris in 1797, but 
returned in 1815. Formerly in Palazzo 
Durazzo, Genoa ; sold for 100,000 francs by 
the Marquis Durazzo to King Charles Albert, 
who placed it in the gallery in 1838. Sketch 
at Stourhead House, England. Engraved 
by Mitelli— Reale GaU. di Torino, iv. PI. 
121 ; Felibien, i. 723 ; Ridolfi, Marav., ii. 28. 

Diirer, Prague Gallery ; signed, dated 1506. 

In centre of a landscape, in front of a dark- 
green curtain, the Virgin, enthroned with 
the Child, is about to be crowned by two 
angels ; on her right Pope Julius EL, with 
priests, kneeling ; on her left, Emperor Maxi- 
milian L, with knights; various members 
of the German Company are also kneel- 
ing, and all are being crowned with gar- 
lands of roses by the Virgin, the Child, St 
Dominic — who stands behind the Virgin — 
and by angels. In background, at right 
are Dttrer and his friend Pirckheimer, 
standing, the former holding an inscribed 

tablet Fainted by order of the Guild of 
German Merchants in Venice ; purchased 
by the Emperor Rudolph IL for his gallery 
at Prague ; sold in 1782 by Emperor Joseph 
IL; acquired in 1793 by the Premonstraten- 
eian Abbey of Strahow at Prague, whence 
removed in 1885 to Prague Gallery. It is 
injured and much over-painted. Copy, 
with changes, Lyons Museum ; do., Ambras 
Collection, Vienna — Kugler (Crowe), i. 159; 
Kunstblatt (1854), 200; Thausing (Eaton), i. 
344 ; Gnz. des B. Arts (1881), ixiv. 97. 

Wester - Schnatebull, Schleswig - Holstein, 


May 29, 1848. Landscape and animal 
painter, pupil of DQsaeldorf Academy and 
of Oswald Achenbach, then of the Weimar 
art-school; visited Poland, Russia, and a 
great portion of Germany, Austria, and Italy. 
Works : Russian Horse-Herds in the Steppe ; 
Roman Ghettos ; View in Roman Campagna ; 
Horse-Herd, Brealau Museum ; In a Roman 
Park (1883), Munich Ex.— Muller, 170. 

FEDE, LA (Faith), Titian, Palazzo Ducale, 
Venice ; canvas, figures life-size. Doge 
Grimani, attended by a page and soldiers, 
kneeling before Faith, who stands on a 

U F«d>, Thtan, Palraa Ducdi, Vwilo* 

cloud within a glory of angels, supporting 
the cross with one hand, and bearing a 
chalice in the other ; to left, St. Mark ; be- 
neath the cloud in distance the Venetian 
fleet at anchor and the Ducal Palace and 
Campanile. Begun in 1555, but did not 
leave the studio until Titian's death, when 
it was finished by his pupils. Deserves to 
rank amongst the most magnificent and ef- 
fective decorative pieces of Titian's later 
years (C. & C.).— C. & C, Titian, ii. 244 ; 
Ridolfi, Maraviglie, i. 2G9 ; Vasari, ed. MiL, 
vii. 457 ; Landon, Musee, xi. PL 29. 

called Alessandro del Barbiere, born at 
Florence in 1643, died there in 1592. Flor- 
entine school ; history painter, pupil of 

Ghirlandajo, of Piero Francis, and of Maso 
da San Frediano. He had a bold and fer- 
tile genius, adapted to the large historical 
frescos he executed, and in which he intro- 
duced fine architecture and grotesque fig- 
ures. One of his best works is the Flagel- 
lation in Santa Croce, Florence. 

FEH>, JOSEF, born in Vienna in 1807. 
died at Weidling, near Vienna, in 1870, 
Landscape painter, studied in Vienna, and 
from nature in the Austrian Alps. Works : 
Nymphs Bathing (1828), View near the 
Schneeberg, Wood Landscape (1841), Ap- 
proaching Storm (1847), 
Vienna Museum ; Wood 
Landscape (1853) ; Forest 
Mill (1855) ; Atter Lake 
(1866); Lake of Hallstadt, 
Gosau Valley, Grinding 
Mill, Wood Landscape 
(1857).— Allgem.d.Biogr., 
vi. 599 ; Wurzbach, iv. 159. 
See Fati&enberger. 

in Bermuda, latter half of 
18th century, aged about 
forty-four. Probably born 
on Long Island ; said to 
have learned to paint in 
Spain, whither he was 
taken as a prisoner. Worked in Newport, 
New York, and Philadelphia (1746). His 
portraits are in Bowdoin Collection, Bruns- 
wick, Me., and in the Rhode Island Histor- 
ical Society, Providence. One of the best is 
the portrait of Lady Wanton, in the Red- 
wood Library, Newport, R L 

Seville, canvas, H9ft8inx6ft.4in. 
The Saint kneeling, with infant Jesus in his 
is, beholds a vision of the Virgin, who, 
on clouds, accompanied by three cherubs, 
stretches out her arms to receive her Son. 
Painted about 1676 for Capuchin Convent, 
Seville.— Curtis, 230. 

FELIX, EDGEN, born in Vienna, April 
27, 1836. Portrait and genre painter, pu- 


pil of Waldm oiler, then in Paris of Cogniet 
travelled extensively, and settled in Vienna 
in 1868. "Works : The First Friend, Vi- 
enna Museum ; Painter's Studio ; Little 
Congratulators ; Falconer ; Pan with Bac- 
chantes ; Portraits of Professor Rokitansky, 
of Anton Rubinstein, and of Duke Philip of 
"Wurtemberg. — Meyer, Conv. Lex., xviii. 310; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K, viiL (Mittheilungen, i 43). 

FELTRE. See Morto da Feltre. 

FELU, CHAELES, born in Belgium in 
1820. Born without arms, but learned to 
draw with his right foot, and having made a 
fine sketch in pen and ink, was admitted hi 
1869 to the Antwerp Academy, where 
learned to paint Chiefly copies other mas- 
ters, but also paints good portraits, among 
which that of the actress Victoria Lafontaine 
is notable. "Works: Widow Wadman and 
Uncle Toby, William Warner, Philadelphia. 

FEMME COUCHEE, Jules Joseph Le- 
febvre, William Astor, New York ; canvas, 
BL 5 ft x 10 ft Female figure, full-length, 
node, lying, with back to the spectator, 
upon crimson cushions, the head resting 
npon the left hand ; only the profile of the 
face is seen, as she glances towards a per- 
fume-burner near her feet — Art Treasures 
of America, ii. 70. 

By Jules Joseph Lefebwe, Alexandre Du- 
mas, Paris ; canvas. Female figure, full- 
length, nude, lying, on right side, front to 
spectator, on cushions covered with drapery, 
the right hand doubled up under the chin, 
the left extended along the back of the 
lounge. Painted in 1866. Study in col- 
our {12 in. x 18 in.), John Wolfe, New York. 
— Art Treasures of America, ii 61, 66. 

FEND1 PETER, born in Vienna, Sept 
4, 1796, died there, Aug. 28, 1842. History, 
genre, and portrait painter, pupil of the Vi- 
enna Academy under Fischer, Haubert, 
Miiurer, and Lam pi ; visited Venice in 1821, 
and received the gold medal for his view of 
the Orotto of Gorgnole near Trieste. Works: 
Archduke Ferdinand and Philippine Welser; 
Eginhard and Emma ; Girl in front of Lot- 
tery Shop (1829), Vienna Museum ; Officer's 

Widow ; Seizures ; Cloister with Worship- 
pers ; Girl at Poet-Office ; Inundation Scene ; 
Emperor Francis and the Sentry ; Poor 
Fiddler ; Christmas Eve ; Milkmaid ; Morn- 
ing Prayer ; Portrait Group of Imperial 
Family (1834).— AUgem. d. Biogr., vi. 618. 

born at Padua, flourished in Venice about 
1630-60. Venetian school ; history and 
portrait painter, considered one of the best 
Venetian artists of his time. Especially ex- 
celled in portraits. "Works : Young Woman 
seized by the Hand of Death, Dresden 
Gallery ; David, Liechtenstein Gallery, Vi- 
enna.— Lanzi (Roacoe), ii. 252. 

FERG, FRANZ DE PAULA, born in Vi- 
enna, May 2, 1689, died in London in 1740. 
German school; genre and landscape painter, 
pupil of Joseph Orient and Hans Graf. Went 
to Dresden in 1718 and to London in 1724. 
Works: Two Italian Market Scenes, Vienna 
Museum ; Towerlike Buildings with Bridge, 
Ruins with Bridge and Figures, Buildings 
on Lake with Figures, Landscape with 
Bridge, Landscape with Figures, all in 
Dresden Gallery; Marine, Cassel Gallery; 
Four Seasons, Market Scene, Rural Feast, 
Brunswick Museum ; Landscapes with Ruins 
and Figures (2), Market Scenes (2), Kunst- 
halle, Hamburg.— Allgem. d. Biogr., vi. 
711; Ch. Blanc, Ecole allemande; Wurz- . 
bach, iv. 184 

FERGUSON, HENRY A., born at Glens 
Falls, N. Y., Jan. 14, 1842. Landscape and 
architecture painter, studied in Paris and 
Rome (1876-78), having previously spent 
three years in Chili (1870-73), where he 
painted local scenery with success. "Went 
from Venice to Egypt in 1878, returned to 
New York in 1879, visited Mexico in 1881, 
and Europe again in 1884. Elected A.N.A. 
in 1885. Studio in New York. Works: 
Baths of Caucanies (1873), replica. Lake 
Aculeo, View on Doule River — Ecuador ; 
Morning in Peruvian Andes (1874) ; Street 
of Bab-el-Nasr — Cairo, Chimborazo, En- 
trance to Rug Bazaar— Cairo (1880) ; Dogana 
and Ducal Palace— Venice (1882), Mm T. A. 



Walker ; Peaks of Eloniza (1882) ; River and 
Peak of Orizaba — Mexico, Franconia Val- 
ley (1884) ; Interior of St Mark's— Venice, 
Mosque of Mohammed Ali — Cairo (1885). 

FERNANDEZ, VASCO, commonly known 
as Gran or Grao Vasco (Vasco the Great), 
born at Vizeu, Portugal, in 1582. History 
painter, son of Francisco F. ; flourished dar- 
ing the reign of Dom Sebastian, and, ac- 
cording to Portuguese testimony, was one 
of the greatest painters that ever lived. 
Said to have followed the school of Perugi- 
no, but seems rather to have formed him- 
self under the influence of Albrecbt Durer. 
He has been variously cited as Ferdinand 
de Vizeu, Fernandez Vasco do Cazal, Gran 
Vasco de Vizeu, and Vasco Pereira. Works : 
Calvary, Pentecost, St Peter, Baptism of 
Christ, Martyrdom of St. Sebastian, Thirteen 
Half-figures of Saints, Vizeu Cathedral — 
The Christ on the Cross in the Misericordia 
at Oporto, attributed to Holbein, is also 
probably by him. — Raczynski, Lea Arts en 
Portugal, 117-190, 297-308, 365-374, 399, 
487, 505. 

FERNANDO, DON, brother of Philip 
IV., portrait, Velasquez, Madrid Museum ; 
canvas, H. 6 ft 3 in. x 3 ft 6 in. About 
nineteen years old, full-length, standing, in 
hunting costume, holding a gun with both 
hands ; a dog seated before him ; landscape 
background. Painted about 1635 ; second 
manner. Etched by F. Goya ; B. Maura ; 
J. J. Martinez ; C. Alabern ; Guentrd ; J, 
Burnet — Ch. Blanc, F-cole espagnole ; Gal 
Esp. ; Curtis, 60 ; Madrazo, 615. 

FERNANDO, SAN, Murillo, Madrid Mu- 
seum ; canvas, H. 1 ft. 11 in. x 1 ft 3 in. 
About thirty-five years old, three quarters 
left, wearing armour and an ermine mantle, 
kneels with hands joined in prayer ; above, 
two cherubs draw aside a red curtain ; a 
crown and sceptre on a red cushion beside 
him. Probably painted about the time of 
the canonization of King Ferdinand in 1671. 
Engraved by M S. Carmona, L. F. Noseret; 
lithographed by A. G. VilamiL — Curtis, 
232 ; Madrazo, 480. 

Waldkirch, near Freiburg, Breisgau, in 
1793, died in Munich in 1851. History 
painter, pupil of the Munich Academy ; in- 
ventor of a process of encaustic painting, 
used by Julius Schnorr, in decorating the 
great hall of the royal palace at Munich. — 
Allgem. d. Biogr., vi. 713 ; Meyer, Conv. 
Lex., vi. 703. 

FERON, FIRMIN ELOI bom in Paris, 
Dec. 1, 1802, died at Connans-Sainte-Ho- 
norine (Seine-et-Oiae) in 1876. History 
painter, pupil of Gros and of Ecole des 
Beaux Arts, where in 1823 he obtained the 
second and in 1825 the grand prix de Rome ; 
returned to Paris in 1833. Medal, 1st class, 
1836 ; L. of Honour, 1841. Works : Damon 
and Pythias (1825) ; Hannibal crossing the 
Alps (1833), Marseilles Museum ; The King's 
Promenade at Pienrefonds (1833) ; Raising 
of Lazarus (1835) ; Entry of Charles VDX 
into Naples in 1495, Skirmish near Gflntere- 
dorf, 1805 (1837), Battle at Fornono in 
1495 (1838), Conquest of Rhodes in 1310 
(1840), Battle of Arsur in 1191 (1844), Bat- 
tle of Putaha, 1159, Battle of Hanau, 1813, 
Portraits of Bertrand du Guesclin (1835), 
of MiraTmlH R&iz, Loheac, Praslin, Noaillea, 
of Counts Montgomery and d'Olivarea^ of 
Henri de Lorraine H, Due de Guise, Ver- 
sailles Museum ; Funeral of General Kleber 
(1843), Strassburg Museum; Victorious 
Gladiator dying in the Arena, Soldier of 
Pompey, Arras Museum. — Bellier de la 
Chavignerie, i. 544. 

born latter half 15th century, died in Bres- 
cia, July 3, 1528. Venetian school. While 
Brescia was being sacked by Gaston de 
Foix (1512) he worked on regardless of the 
assault until he was surprised by the plun- 
derers at his easel. Gaston compensated 
him for his losses and ordered a portrait of 
himself. Among Ferramola's few extant 
pictures, frescos, dated 1514, and parts of 
an organ screen (1518) in S. M. di Lovere, 
frescos in Casa Borgondio, Brescia, and a 
Christ carrying his Cross in the Tosi Collec- 


tbn, Brescia, are characteristic specimens. 
They show that he was educated under the 
influence of Foppa, Costa, and Francis, and 
hardly suggest that be was a contemporary 
of Titian and Pordenone.— C. & C, N. Italy, 
ii. 362 ; Vasari, xi. 263, N. 2. ; Liibke, Oesch. 
itaL MaL, ii 607. 


zotino, Lodovico. 

ished at Chivasso first half 16th century. 
Ijombard school ; history painter, perhaps 
pupil of Macrino d'Alba. Works: Altar- 
pieces (1519-21), Cathedral of Ivrea ; Christ 
in the Temple (1526), Stuttgart Gallery; 
Altaxpiece (1530), Marriage of St. Catherine, 
Altarpiece in several compartments, Turin 
Gallery ; Nativity with Saints (1531), Church 
of Ranverso ; Fieta, Cathedral of Chivasso ; 
Adoration of Shepherds, Bergamo Gallery ; 
St Catherine, Princess Charles of Darm- 
stadt— Morelli (Richter), 413 ; Turin Gal. 
Cat ; Liibke, Gesch. ital Mai, i. 505. 

called B Frari, bom at Modena (?) in 1447, 
died there, Feb. 8, 1510. Modenese school ; 
history painter, enjoyed great reputation in 
Modena, where some excellent works of his 
are still to be found. Supposed to have 
been Correggio's first master. Works: 
Madonna enthroned with Angels and Saints, 
Louvre; Annunciation (1510, finished by 
Scaccieri in 1512), Modena Gallery. — Oh. 
Blanc, Ecole lombarde ; C. A C, N. Italy, 
i 373 ; Lanzi (Roscoe), ii 346. 

duggia in 1481, died in Milan in 1546 or 
1547. Lombard-Milanese school Called 
by Vasari Gaudenzio Milanese ; asserted 
pupil of Stefano Scotto, Girolamo Giove- 
none, and Perugino, whose influence is un- 
mistakable in Gaudenzio's fine altarpiece 
(1514-15) in S. Gaudenzio, Novara. Af- 
fected also by Raphael whose fellow-student 
he had been, and by Leonardo da Vinci, his 
later style acquired life and energy. He 
had considerable power of expression, and 

used colour harmoniously, especially in his 
frescos, but he was at times capricious 
and extravagant, and bis compositions are 
often overcrowded and wanting in beauty 
of arrangement He painted many works 
at Varallo, in 1504, 1513, 1524, and 1531, 
the earliest of which are in S. M. di Loreto, 
and S. Marco, the best in S. ML delle Grazie, 
where he decorated the choir with scenes 
from the Passion, and painted the Presen- 
tation in the Temple, Christ among the 
Doctors, and other subjects in chapels at 
the Sacro Monte. In 1516 he went to Rome 
and is said to have worked in the Farnesina 
with Raphael after whose death he was as- 
sociated with Giulio Romano and Perino del 
Vaga. Other frescos by Ferrari may be seen 
in the Brera, Milan, and in the Pilgrims' 
Church at Saronno, where he painted in 
1534, as also a Flagellation in S. M. delle 
Grazie, Milan. His last fresco (1542) is in 
S. Giuliano, on an island in the Logo d'Orta. 
Among his pictures are tho Baptism of Christ, 
S. Celso, Milan ; Martyrdom of S. Catherine, 
Brera, Milan ; Christ bearing the Cross, Ca- 
nobbio ; Last Supper (1543, unfinished), S. 
M. dolls, Passions, Milan ; S. Peter and Do- 
nor, Entombment, Turin Gallery, Madonna, 
Oldenburg Gallery ; St George, and St 
Anthony of Padua, Historical Society, New 
York.— Vasari, ed. MiL, iv. 662 ; vi 618 
ed. Le Mon., vi 58; viii. 248; xi 275 
Burckhardt, 705 ; Lanzi, i 399 ; ii 496 . 
Ch. Blanc, ficole milanaise ; Liibke, Gesch. 
ital MaL, ii 461. 

bom in Genoa in 1598, died there in 1669. 
Genoese school ; pupil of Bernardo Castello 
and of Bernardo StrozzL Won reputation 
as an historical and portrait painter ; many 
works in the churches and palaces of Genoa. 
Became an ecclesiastic in old age. Was an 
able teacher and the master of Benedetto 
Castiglione, Valerio Castello, and Carbone. 
— Lanzi iii- 267 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole genoise ; 
Burckhardt, 779. 

Bologna in 1818. History and portrait 


painter, professor at Bologna Academy, won 
several medals. Works : Tasso reading his 
Poem to Leonora ; Daughter of Jephtha ; 
The brazen Serpent 

Porto Maurizio in 1641, died at Genoa in 
1726. Genoese school ; history painter, 
pupil of II Sarzana; studied in Parma 
works of Correggio, whom be imitated suc- 
cessfully ; was much employed, in Genoa, 
Turin, and Marseilles. Works : Apollo and 
the Muses, Plato and Aristotle with their 
Scholars, Genoa University ; St Michael, in 
Madonna delle Vigne, Genoa ; others in Pa- 
lazzo Balbi, Genoa. His son, Lorenzo (1680- 
1744), wasa still better imitator of Correggio, 
and excelled in fresco ; works in Palazzo 
Doria, Palazzo Carega, and in churches, 
Genoa. — Ch. Blanc, Ecole genoise ; Lanzi 
(Roscoe), hi. 258, 281 ; Nagler, it. 29L 
FERRARI LUCA, called Luca da Reg-- 
gio, born at 
Reggio, in 
1603, died at 
Padua in 1652. 
school; his- 
tory painter, 
pupil of Guido 
\ Beni;Iivedand 
I taught in Pad- 
ua, among his 
pupils being Minorello and Girello. Works : 
Pieta, S. Antonio, Padua ; The Plague (1630), 
The Dominicans, Padua; Magdalen, Death 
of Cleopatra, Tomyris with the Head of Cy- 
rus, Eaten se Gallery, Modena ; Painting 
crowned by Fame, Bordeaux Museum. — 
Lanzi (Roscoe), ii. 267, 363. 

called da Imola, born at Florence in 1692. 
Florentine school ; history painter, pupil of 
Giovanni Gioseffo del Sole; painted mostly for 
the churches and palaces of Florence, Pisa, 
Leghorn, Siena, Pistoja, and Imola. Among 
his best works are a Martyrdom of St. Bar 
tholomew in S. Bartolommeo, Pisa, and the 
cupola painting in S. FUippo Neri, Pistoja. 

FERRL CIKO, born in Rome in 1634, 
died there, Sept 13, 1689. Roman school; bin 
tory painter, 
pupil of Pietro 
da Cortona, 
whose style he 
imitated so 
closely that it 
is difficult to 
bis work from 
that of his mas 
— ter. He fin- 

ished Cortona's frescos in the Palazzo 
Pitti, Florence, and other uncompleted 
works in Rome. His best original works 
are the ceiling of the Annunziata, baroque 
style, and the cupola of 8. Agnese in the 
Piazza Navona, Rome, which he left unfin- 
ished at his death. Works : Repose in 
Egypt, Madonna with St Martina, Old Pin- 
akothek, Munich ; Christ appearing to Mag- 
dalen, Vienna Museum ; Marriage of the 
Virgin, Amsterdam Museum ; Rape of Helen, 
Darmstadt Museum ; St. Theresa, Oldenburg 
Gallery ; David and Saul, Copenhagen Gal- 
lery ; Christ on the Cross, Alexander reading 
Homer, Artist's portrait, Uffizi, Florence ; 
Coriolanus and his Family, Roman War- 
rior, Estense Gallery, Modena ; Vision of St 
Catherine of Siena, Hermitage, St Peters- 
burg ; Triumph of Bacchus, Hampton Court 
—Lanzi, i. 498 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole ombri- 
enne ; Burckhardt, 149, 768. 

TK) GABRIEL, born at Nimes, Sept 29, 
1847. French school ; history and portrait 
painter, pupil of Lecoq de Boisbaudran ; 
won grand prix de Rome in 1872. Medals : 
2d class, 1876 ; 1st class, 1878 ; L. of Hon- 



our, 1884 Works : Greek Lnproviser, rc, 
30 (1872); Abduction of Ganymede (1876); 
David Conqueror of Goliath, Nimes Museum ; 
David and Bathaheba (1876), Martyrdom of 


ifiiiou, Be- 

igofStBur- * . (f I) 

St Agnes (1878), Judith, Roaen Museum ; 
Inquisition in Spain (1879) ; Salammbd 
(1880); Springtime (1881); "Hail King of 
the Jews" (1882); Guardian Angel (1885). 
—Mailer, 172. 

FESELEN, MELCHIOR, born at Pasaau, 
died in Ingolstadt, April 10, 1538. German 
school ; history painter, evidently influenced 
in his later pictures by Albrecht Altdorfer, 
his contemporary. Works : Crucifixion, 
Darmstadt Museum ; Pot-senna besieging 
Borne (1529), Csesar besieging Alcoa (1533), 
Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Adoration of the 
Magi (1531), Nuremberg Museum ; Mary of 
Egypt (1523), Historical Society, Batisbon 
Crucifixion, Be- 
Our Lady, 
stadt— Allg< 
Biogr., ri. 723 ; W. A W., ii. 418. 

FEW, DOMENICO, born in Borne in 
1589, died in 
Venice in 1624. 
Roman school ; 
pupil of Cigoli 
in Florence ; 
afterwards went 
to Mantua, stud- 
ied works of 
Giolio Romano, 
and was made 
there by Duke 
Ferdinando Gonzaga, whence sometimes 
called H Mantovano. Painted many small 
pictures, chiefly Bible subjects, vigorous in 
colour and good in execution. "Works : 
Da-rid with Head of Goliath, Martyrdom of 
St. Agnes, Return of the Prodigal, Good 
Samaritan, and 7 others, Dresden Gallery ; 
Ecce Homo, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Market-Place, Flight into Egypt, Leander, 
Moses and the Burning Bush, Marriage of 
St Catherine, Triumph of Galatea, St Mar- 
garet, Vienna Museum ; David and Goliath, 
Dsadelua and Icarus, Adoration of Shepherds, 
Tobias healing his Father, Conception, Her- 

mitage, St Petersburg ; Visitation, Flight 
into Egypt, Stadel Gallery, Frankfort ; Ex- 
pulsion of Hagar, Return of Prodigal, Bruns- 
wick Museum ; Elijah in Wilderness, Berlin 
Museum ; Magdalen Penitent, Oldenburg 
Gallery; Sleeping Girl, Buda-Pesth Gal- 
lery; Meditation, Venice Academy; Arte- 
misia, Uffizi, Florence ; Lost Coin, Labourers 
in the Vineyard, Palazzo Pitti, ib.; Christ in 
Garden, Christ and Pilate, Crowning with 
Thorns, Entombment, Palazzo Corsini, ib.; 
Nero, Rural Life, Melancholy, Guardian An- 
gel, Louvre, Paris ; Beheading of John Bap- 
tist, National / ^-«y -» 

Gallery, Edin- n ] rf— ' 
burgh; David J J <-U + 
with Head of I J J TJLAs 
Goliath, Hamp- **' • ^ 
ton Court— Ch. Blanc, Ecole ombrienne; 
Burckhardt, 793, 800 ; Seguier, 68. 
FEUERBACH, ANSELM, born at Speyer, 
Sept 12, 1829, died 
in Venice, Jan. 4, 
1880. History 
painter, pupil of 
DuBseldorf Academy 
under Schadow, then 
in Munich under 
Rahl and Genelli; 
having frequented 
the Antwerp Acad- 
emy in 1850, he 
studied in Paris 
under Couture in 1851-52, went to Carls- 
ruho in 1853, to Venice in 1854, and to 
Rome in 1856 ; was appointed professor at 
the Vienna Academy in 1873 ; decorated the 
ceiling of the Museum of Casts with a fresco 
of the Titans. Works : Death of Pietro Are- 
tino (1853) ; SUenus with Young Bacchus 
and two Satyrs, Poetry (1854), Dante with 
the Ladies of Ravenna (1857), Carlsruhe 
Gallery; Iphigenia (1861); Franceses da 
Rimini and Paolo (1861), Pieta (1862), Ari- 
osto with Ladies in Ferrara (1863), Petrarch 
seeing Laura in Church (1864), Singing Boy 
and Girl overheard by Nymph, Madonna 
with Angels, Group of Bathing Children 


(1865), Hafiz at the Fountain, Idyl from 
Tivoli, Roman Family Scene, Portrait of 
Nanna, Schack Gallery, Munich ; Medea 
preparing for Flight (1870), New Pinako- 
thek, ib. ; Medea brooding over Infanticide 
(1871) ; Boys and Dryad (1865), Medea 
mourning over the Urn (1873) ; Banquet of 
Plato (1867); Orpheus and Eurydice (1870); 
Iphigenia (1871), Stuttgart Gallery ; Gyp- 
sies dancing in the Woods, Judgment of 
Paris (1870), Kunsthalle, Hamburg j Battle 
of Amazons (1872); Borneo and Juliet ; Mel- 
ancholy ; Prometheus ; Banquet of Plato 
(1873); Concert of Venetian Girls (1879). 
— Brockhaug, vi 751 ; Graph. &, iii. 1 ; 
KunsUChronik, xv. 238; xvii. 393, 429, 
459 ; UluBtr. Zeitg. (1880), i. 88 ; ii. 564 ; 
N. illuetr. Zeitg. (1880), i. 250 ; Schack, 
Meine Gemaldesammlung, 95; Zeitechr. f. 
D. K., viii 161. 

FEYEN, EUGENE, born at Bey-sur- 
Seille (Meurthe), Not. 13, 1815. Genre 
painter, pupil of P. Delaroche ; paints fish- 
ermen in a very attractive way. Medals : 
1866 ; 2d class, 1880 ; L. of Honour, 1881. 
Works : Street Musicians, Promenade in 
the Park (1866) ; Souvenirs, Idyl on a Wall 
(1868); Gleaners of the Sea (1872). Luxem- 
bourg Museum ; Oyster-Fishing atCancale, 
Bull-Head Fish, On the Shore (1874); Res- 
cued Child, Fisherman's Return (1879) ; Can- 
cale Fishwives returning in a Boat, Nurse 
Asleep (1880); Fishing on Foot for Oysters, 
Fishermen's Departure (1881); Harvesters 
Resting, Low Tide (1882); Fishing, Repair- 
ing the Nets (1883); Departure for Fishing, 
Fisherman's Wife (1884); Before the Storm, 
Bay of Cancale (1885). 

LAS) AUGUSTIN, born at Bey-sur-Seille in 
1829. Genre and portrait painter, pupil of 
L. Cogniet and Yvon. Medals : 1865 ; 1867 
Sdclass, 1874 ; L. of Honour, 1878. Works 
Return to the Cottage (1855); Charon's Boat 
(1857), Nancy Museum ; Dante's Circle of 
the Voluptuous (1859); Venetian Festival 
(1861); The Muse of Beranger (1863), Dr. 
Velpeau's Lesson in Anatomy, On the Beach 

(1864); The Elegy, Finding the Body of 
Charles the Bold after the Battle of Nancy 
(1865) ; Women 
of Batz Island 
waiting for the 
Ferry (1866) ; 
Woman winnow- 
ing Grain (1867); 
Wreck of the 
Evening Star 
(1868); Circle of 
the Stars (1869); 
(1870) j Spring- 
Time (1872) ; Cancale Women at the Spring, 
Return from Market (1873), Return of the 
Oyster-Fishers (1874), Luxembourg Muse- 
um ; Cancale Women (1876) ; Parisian 
Woman atCancale (1877) ; Death of Orphe- 
us (1878) ; Women knitting by the Sea 
(1879) ; Return from Fishing at Low Tide 
(1880) ; Astarte, Fishing on Foot (1881) 
Drunkenness, The Cornicbe Road (1882); 
Spring-Time, Dancing by Twilight (1883); 
Armorica, The Bath (1884); Remorse, The 
Bath (1885).— Meyer, Conv. Lex., xviii 318. 
FIACCO (Flacco), ORLANDO, born in 
Verona, flourished about 1560. Venetian 
school ; history and portrait painter, pupil 
of Francesco Torbido, ac- __ __ _, 
cording to others, of Badile ; | I H H 
praised by Vasari especially *^» ■!■ • *• • 
for his portraits. Worka : / £ O 7 
Ecce Homo, Crucifixion, S. * 

Nazario, Verona. — Lanzi (Roscoe), ii. 208 ; 
Nagler, iv. 310. 

FIALETTI, ODOARDO, born in Bologna 
in 1573, died in Venice in 1638. Venetian 
school ; history painter, pupil of Gio. Bat- 
tista Cremonini at Bologna and of Tinto- 
retto in Venice, where most of his paintings 
are to be found. Works : Crucifixion, S. 
Croce, Venice ; others in S. 
/K (r^ Marco, Venice, and S. An- 
(*J *Jy drea, Murano ; Senators of 
Venice in Senate House, 
Hampton Court Palace. — Lanzi (Roscoe), 
ii. 195 ; Nagler, iv. 310. 


FIALKA, OLGA VON, bom in Auatria ; 
contemporary. Genre painter and illustra- 
tor, pupil of Matejko and of Eisenmenger. 
Illustrated the works of Leasing. Girl Gar- 
dener (1880). 

FIA3E LLA, 1X)MENIC0. See Sarzana. 

in Paris, Aug. 30, 1826. French school; 
genre painter, pupil of P. Delaroche ; paints 
small pictures, carefully and skilfully exe- 
cuted, somewhat in Btyle of Meissonier. 
Medals: 3d class, 1857, 1861, 1869; L. of 
Honour,1870. Works: Holy Family (1849); 
Harvey proving the Circulation of the Blood 
(1851), Paris Medical School; Dressing, 
Levee (1853) ; Morning Intimacy (1855) ; 
Dramatic Matinee, Game of Chess (1857) ; 
Provincial Restaurant, A Smoker (1859) ; 
Camacbo's Wedding, Baptism of Mile. Clai- 
ron (1861) ; Library Corner, Lively Party, 
Arrival at the Iim (1863), bought by State ; 
Party of Smokers, Audience at the Minister's 
(1864) ; Napoleon L planning Manoeuvres, 
General Bonaparte returning his Father's 
Sword to Eugene Beauharnais (1865) ; Dide- 
rot and Bameau's Nephew (1866) ; Ama- 
teur at a Painter's, Open in the King's 
Name ; Cabinet of Medals in the Boyal Li- 
brary (1867); ChesB Player, Body Guard 
(1868) ; Night of August 24, 1572, Fool sell- 
ing Wisdom (1869) ; Party of Four (1870) ; 
Founding of the French Academy in 1635 
(1872) ; Buffon in his Study, Grand Recep- 
tion (1873) ; Lacepede writing his History 
of Fishes, Daubenton in his Laboratory 
(1873), Vienna Exposition ; Louis XVI. 'a 
Forge (1874) ; Departure of the Coach 
(1875) ; A Foreign Festival (1876) ; Tavern 
of Bamponneau (1877) ; Soldiers and Gri- 
settes (1878) \ Curate's Nephew, Master's 
Last Acquisition (1879) ; Restaurant, Sign- 1 
ing the Contract (1880) ; At the Tailor's, 
The Bill to Pay (1881) ; End of the Dinner, 
Last Throw of Dice (1882) ; Jaurat in the 
Tavern, Card Players (1883) ; Before the 
Receipt, After the Receipt (1884) ; A Game 
of Cards (1885). 


Gemignano in 1605, died in 1660. Floren- 
tine school ; history painter, pupil of Jacopo 
da Erapoli ; called Felice Biposo from his 
indolence, but bis few pictures are remark- 
able for elegance of design and harmony of 
colour. His copies of Perugino, Andrea del 
Sarto, and others have been mistaken for 
originals. Works : St Anthony, S. Maria 
Nuova ; Adam and Eve driven from Para- 
dise, Palazzo Rinuccini, Florence ; Tarquin 
and Lucretia, Dresden Gallery. — Lanzi (Ros- 
coe), i. 219 ; Nagler, iv. 316. 

FD3DLER, BERNHARD, born in Berlin, 
Nov. 23, 1816. Landscape and architecture 
painter, pupil of Berlin Academy, then of 
Gerst and of Krause. In 1855 he accom- 
panied the present King of the Belgians to 
Italy, Greece, and Asia Minor, and revisited 
Egypt in 1865-66. Member of Venice 
Academy. Lives in Trieste. Works : Am- 
phitheatre in Pola (1846), National Gallery, 
Berlin ; Cairo (1864), Vienna Museum ; 
Tower of Rhodes, Entrance to Mosque in 
Cairo, Granite Quarries near Siena, Cologne 
Museum ; Ruins of Baalbec (1872) ; Jerusa- 
lem (1879).— Brockhaus, vi. 795; Mnller, 174. 

at Pima, Saxony, in 1697, died at Darm- 
stadt in 1768. French school ; history and 
portrait painter, pupil in Paris of Rigaud 
and Largilliere ; became court-painter at 
Darmstadt Works : Burial of Christ, The 
Seasons, Artist's portrait, and others, Darm- 
stadt Museum. 


FIGINO, AMBROGIO, bom in Milun 
about 1548, died after 1595. Lombard 
school, pupil of Giovanni Paolo Lomazzo ; 
became an excellent historical and portrait 
painter, and was a tolerably successful imi- 
tator of Michelangelo's designs. Works : 
Madonna with Saints and Satan, and por- 
trait of the Marshal Foppa, Brera, Milan ; 
St Matthew, St Paul, S. Rafaello, ib. ; Vir- 
gin crushing Head of Serpent, S. Antonio 
Abate, ib.— Lanzi, ii. 503 ; Cn. Blanc, fioole 
milanaise ; Burckhardt, 709. 



FIKENT9CHER, OTTO, born at Aix-la- 
ChapeUe, Feb. 28, 1631, died in DOBseldorf, 
Nov. 12, 1880. Battle pointer and illus- 
trator, pupil of Dusseldorf Academy under 
Theodor Hildebrand ; spent several years in 
Stuttgart and Munich, then settled in Dus- 
seldorf. Works: Blftcher saved by his 
Adjutant at Quatrebras ; Attack of Cuiras- 
siers at Mars-la-Tour ; French Dragoons 
Repulsed.— Knnst-Chronik, xvi 122. 
Liverpool, Oct 14, 
1814 Genre painter, 
pupil of South Ken- 
sington schools and 
of Royal Academy. 
Made many drawings 
on wood for the Lon- 
don Graphic, Corn- 
hill Magazine, and 
other periodicals, and 
illustrated the last 
works of Dickens (Edwin Drood) and of 
Lever. Exhibited his drawing called Night- 
fall at Royal Academy in 1868, and his first 
oil picture, Fair Quiet and Sweet Rest, in 
1872. This was followed by Simpletons 
(1873) ; Applicants for Admission to a Cas- 
ual Ward (1874) ; Betty (1875) ; The Wid- 
ower (1876) ; Marianina, Playmates (1877) ; 
Return of a Penitent (1879) ; Doubts, Dolly, 
Venetian Girl (1881) ; (Nina 1882) ; Village 
Wedding (1883) ; Venetian Life, Venetian 
Flower Girl (1884); Venetians (1885). Mr. 
Fildes was elected an A.R.A. in 1870. Mrs. 
Fildes is also a genre painter. Among her 
works are : Cottage Door (1877) ; Peeling 
Potatoes (1878).— Meynell, 103; Portfolio 
(1878), 65 ; Century, Feb., 1884 ; Meyer, 
Conv. Lex., xviii. 319. 
ETUFEPL SANDRO. See Botticelli. 
FIUPPL SEBASTIANO, called Bastian- 
ino, born in Ferrara in 1532, died there, 
Aug. 16, 1602. Lombard school Called 
also Gratella (Gridiron), from his custom of 
covering large pictures with crossed lines to 
reduce them to a small scale. Son and pu- 
pil of Camillo Filippi, a painter of some 

reputation in Ferrara ; went when eighteen 
years old to Rome, and became a favourite 
disciple of Michelangelo, of whom he was a 
weak imitator. His best work is the fresco 
of the Last Judgment in the Cathedral of 
Ferrara, now greatly damaged by restora- 
tion. Works : Raising of the Cross, Cer- 
tosa ; Madonna with Saints and Annuncia- 
tion, Ferrara Gallery. — Lanzi, iii. 205 ; Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole ferraraise ; Burckhardt, 761. 

FILIPPINO, See Lippi, Filippino. 

FILIPPO, FRA. See Lippi, Filippo. 

Filippo d\ 

garth, Foundling Hospital, London. The 
march of the Guards to Scotland in 1746. 
While the straggling vanguard are winding 
away to the horizon, the foreground is filled 
with the confusion incident to departure. 
The most prominent figure is a young and 
handsome Guardsman hopelessly embar- 
rassed by the rival adieux of two ladies ; a 
drummer is drowning his grief by a vigor- 
ous attack on his drum ; an officer kisees a 
milkmaid, while a soldier pours her milk 
into his hat, and another steals the pieman's 
wares while directing his attention to the 
episode. Painted in 1750 ; engraved by L. 
Sullivan. The picture was dedicated to the 
King of Prussia, who made a handsome 
acknowledgment of the honour. — Dobson, 
Hogarth, 70. 

ton, John A. Mitchell, Milwaukee, Wis- 
consin ; canvas, H. about 3 ft x 4 ft A 
party of white-hooded Brittany women near 
a hamlet at sunset Painted in 1882 ; Se- 
ney sale, New York, 1885. 

FTNSONIUS (Finson), LOUIS, born in 
Bruges about 1680, drowned in the Rhone 
near Aries in 1632. Flemish school, his- 
tory and portrait painter ; passed his youth 
in Italy and followed the school of Caravsig- 
gio. Went to Naples in 1612, returned to 
Aix in 1613, and settled at Aries in 1614. 
Good colourist, style vehement scrupulous 
observer of material effects. Works : Resur- 


rectum (1610), St John's Church ; Incredu- 
lity of Thomas (1613), Church of the Saviour, 
Aii ; Female portrait (1624), Museum, ib. ; 
Martyrdom of St. Stephen (1614), Aries Mu- 
seum ; Magdalen, Marseilles Museum ; An- 
nunciation (1612), Naples Museum. — Biog. 
nat. de Belgique, vii. 70 ; Kramm, ii. 487. 

lantonio del Fiore. 

flourished 1400-1439. Venetian school. 

rugia about 1440-50, died after 1521. XJm- 
brian school, probably a pupil of Benedetto 
Bonfigli. In 1472 he contracted to paint an 
Assumption of the Virgin, the principal 
parts of which are now in the Perugia 
Academy. Though the figures are of com- 
mon type and the action is broken and ex- 
aggerated, the drawing is good and the ex- 
ecution careful The influence of Perugino 
upon Fiorenzo shows itself in a fresco (1475) 

m Hogarth, Foundling Hoipilnl, London. 

Son of Francesco del Fiore, president in 
1376 of the guild of painters in Venice, a 
position held also by Jacobello 1415-36. 
Painted in the method of the earlier Vene- 
tians ; work marked by incorrectness of 
drawing, harshness of colour, and tawdri- 
ness of ornament and of drapery. His Lion 
of St Mark (1415) in the Ducal Palace, 
Venice, his Madonna (1436) in the Venice 
Academy, and a large picture in the Sacristy 
of the Duomo at Ceneda, are fair specimens 
of his manner. — C. & C, N. Italy, i 2; 
Burckhardt, 588 ; Lermolieff, 395. 

of the Eternal in a circular glory between 
Saints, in S. Francesco of Diruta, one of the 
most important wall-paintings recovered in 
our day. There are other pictures by him 
in the Perugia Academy ; a Madonna on a 
gold ground, dated 1481, Berlin Museum ; 
Madonna, S. Giacomo, Assiai ; Altarpiece 
(1485), S. Francesco, Term" ; Head of Christ 
and Saints, Madrid Museum. — C. & C, Italy, 
iii. 151 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mod., vi 30, 56 ; 
Ch. Blanc, rtcole ombrienne ; Cibo, Niccold 
Alunno e La Scuola Umbra, 113 ; Lilbke, 
Gesch. ital. MaL, i. 424. 


FIOBI DA URBINO. See Baroooi, Fe- 


FISCHBACH, JOHANN, born in Cairtle 
Grafenegg, Nether Austria, April 5, 1797, 
died in Munich, June 15, 1871. Landscape 
and genre painter, pupil of Vienna Academy 
under Potter and Erafft. Extensively known 
by his charcoal drawings. In 1840 he 
moved from Vienna to Salzburg, lived there 
until 1851, then in the country, and from 
1860 in Munich ; was made member of the 
Vienna Academy in 1843. Works : Poach- 
ers, Bosenlauig Glacier in Switzerland 
(1838) ; Peasant Boy quarrelling with Girl 
about a Bird (1830), Widow in Graveyard 
(1838), Museum, Vienna ; Ideal Landscape 
(1830), Huntsmen Besting (1845), Liech- 
tenstein Gallery, ib. ; Anxious Expectation 
(1844), Children Found (1845), View near 
Salzburg (1858), New Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Salzach Valley and Watzmann (1851).— All- 
gem, d. Biogr., vii 47 ; Andresen, v. 78 ; 
Wurzbach, iv. 236. 

FISCHER, GOTTLOB, born in Stutt- 
gart, June 27, 1829. History and portrait 
painter, studied sculpture in Holland, and 
painting (1853-55) in Paris under Ary 
Scheffer ; returned to Holland, and in 1857 
settled in Stuttgart. Works : Bacchante 
(1856); Protestant Service in a Barn; 
(1859) ; Rembrandt in his Studio (1865) ; 
Spinoza and the Spiders (1866) ; King Lear 
and Cordelia (1873) ; Tasso in Prison (1876) ; 
Portraits of Kin g and Queen of Wurtem- 
berg (1875), of Prince Frederic, Baron von 
Thumb, Baron von Cotta, Count Taube. — 
MUller, 175. 

RICHARD, born in Dantzic in 1826. Land- 
scape painter, pupil of Dflsaeldorf Academy 
under Earl Sohn, Theodor Hildebrandt, and 
Schirmer. From 1854 to 1862 he lived 
alternately in Berlin and Dantzic, and then 
settled in the latter place. Works : Sultry 
Noontide, Early Morning, Noon in the Val- 
ley, Dantzic Museum ; Evening in the 

Woods, Under the Oak Trees, Solitude in 
Eifel Mountains, Vienna Museum ; Wood- 
border in Tyrol, Hamburg Gallery ; Hessian 
Landscape, Darmstadt Gallery ; On the 
Heights in Eifel Mountains ; Heath at Sun- 
set (1866); Evening on Baltic Sea.— Miiller, 

Augsburg in 1580, died in Munich in 1643. 
German school ; history painter, studied in 
Prague and Italy, imitated Albrecht Dflrer. 
Works : Taking of Christ, Old Pinakothek, 
Munich ; Twelve Apostles, 11 Battle Scenes, 
Schleissheim Gallery ; Ecoe Homo, Horitz 
Chapel, Nuremberg ; Trinity (after Dibrer), 
Pommersfelden Gallery. — Nagler, iv. 354. 

FISCHER, JOSEF, born in Vienna, Jan. 
30, 1769, died there, Sept. 5, 1822. Ger- 
man school ; landscape painter, pupil of the 
Vienna Academy, of which he became a mem- 
ber in 1815. In 1802 he was made director 
of the Eszterkazy Gallery, Vienna. Works : 
View of Vienna and the Danube, Vienna. Mu- 
seum ; Landscape, Vienna Academy ; Storm 
Landscape, Prague Gallery ; others in Na- 
tional Gallery, Pesth. — Allgem. d. Biogr., 
vii. 76 ; Wurzbach, iv. 240. 

Obersdorf, Allgau, Feb. 28, 1814. died in 
Munich, March 20, 1859. History painter, 
pupil of the Munich Academy under Schlott- 
hauer. Visited Italy with Forater and Schrau- 
dolph in 1832, and studied under Heinrich 
Hess in 1834-40. In 1843 he revisited Italy, 
studied Fra Angelico, and was influenced by 
Overbeck. Works : Flight to Egypt (1841), 
Adoration of the Magi (1844), Visitation 
(1845), Entombment (1848), New Pinako- 
thek, Munich ; Assumption ; Descent from 
the Cross ; Nativity ; Birth of Mary ; Adora- 
tion of the Magi. — Allgem. d. Biogr., vii 77 ; 
Begnet, 133. 

FISCHER, THEODOR, born in Schwerin 
in 1816, died there, March 30, 1873. His- 
tory and portrait painter, pupil in Schwerin 
of Schumacher, then in Dresden of Bende- 
mann and Richter. Pictures in Schwerin 
Gallery and Grand Ducal Palace, in Bos- 


lock University, and in many churches and 
chap* Is of Mecklenburg. — Kunst-Cbronik, 
Till 431. 

FISCHER, VINCENZ, born at Schmid- 
ham, Bavaria, April 2, 1729, died in Vienna, 
Oct 26, 1810. History, architecture, and 
landscape painter, first apprenticed with an 
obscure painter at Passau, then pupil of Vi- 
enna Academy; went to Italy in 1753 to 
study under Tiepolo and Cignaroli, and after 
bis return in 1760 became member of the 
Vienna Academy, and professor in 1764, as 
which he enjoyed considerable reputation. 
Works: Moses and Pharaoh's Crown (1760), 
Academy, Vienna ; Boman Colonnade with 
Procession (1762), Similar Subject (1769), 
Museum, ib.; in fresco; Agamemnon shoot- 
ing Diana's Sacred Doe, Castle Lazenburg, 
near Vienna ; others in Royal Palace at Buda- 
Peeth, Royal Chapel at Pressburg.— All- 
gem, d. Biogr., vii 82 ; Wurzbach, iv. 247. 

FISEN, ENGELBERT, born at Liege in 
1655, died there, April 15, 1733. Flemish 
school; history and portrait painter, pupil 
of FlemaeL then in Rome (from 1671) of 
Carlo Maratti, whose style he followed close- 
ly ; returned to Liege in 1679. Of the 653 
pictures and portraits he painted, only a few 
have survived. Works: Martyrdom of Si 
Bartholomew, Christ on the Cross, St Bar- 
tholomew's, liege ; Descent from the Cross, 
Chapelle desFemmes incurables, ib. — Bioj 
nat de Belgique, vii. 78 ; Michiels, x. 171. 

FISH-GIRL, Muritlo, Lady Cranstoun, 
London ; canvas, H. 3 ft 4 io. x 2 ft. 
Peasant girl, seated, full-length, looking 
front, holding up with left hand the end of 
the scarf which covers her neck ; right hand 
on handle of basket of fruit, beside which, 
on ground, is a dish of fish ; background, 
landscape. Probably Aguado sale (1843), 
6,900 fr.; bought about 1864 from Mr. Bur- 
ley. Engraved by Blanchard, in Gallery 
Aguado.— Curtis, 283 ; Ch. Blanc, Ernie 
espognole ; Art Union, 1846 ; Art Journal, 
Sept, 1864 ; Scott, Murillo. 

FISHER, KTITX, portrait, Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, Lord Crewe. Kitty Fisher, the 

Phryne of her day, daughter of a German 
itaymaker. She married in 1766 Mr. Nor- 
ris, son of the M.P. for Rye, and died in 
1771. Half-length, sitting, with a white 
dove in her lap and another fluttering from 
the back of the sofa to join its mate. 

Kitty Flthir, Sir Jothui R>ynslt!», Lord Cow*. 

Painted in 1759 ; repetitions in Munro Col- 
lection, London, and in Lenox Gallery, New 
York. Another portrait, at Petworth House, 
represents her half-length, full face, sitting 
behind a table on which she rests her arms, 
with an open letter before her ; a third de- 
picts her as Cleopatra dissolving the pearl 
(engraved by Fisher); a fourth, Lord Lans- 
downe, in profile, with a parrot on her fin- 
ger ; a fifth, Lord Carysfort, an unfinished 
head in powder, and a fly-cap, perhaps the 
loveliest of all One sold by Chrystie (1874), 
114 gs.— Leslie <fc Taylor, Life, L 163 ; Pull- 
ing, 22. 

sachusetts, contemporary. Landscape paint- 
er, pupil of George Inness, and afterwards 


studied in Europe. Opened a studio in 
Boston, but, meeting with little success, re- 
moved to London. Lived in 1881 at Stoy- 
ning, Sussex. Works : Noon (1872); Earl? 
Summer (1875) ; Scotch Hillside, On the 
Cam (1876) ; The Meadows (1877); Pas- 
torals (1878) ; Pevenaey Castle, Spring, 
Weaned Calves, Spring Labour (1879) ; 
Coast Pastures, Last of Autumn, Normandy 
Orchard (1880); Milking Time (1881); Sun- 
light and Shade, Melancholy Days, Mar- 
guerites (1882); Timber Wagon, Early 
Summer (1883); Sussex Pasture, Homewards 
(1884); Low Tide, A Sketch in Ireland, A 
Kerry Pastoral (1885). 

Robert, Neuchatel Museum ; canvas, dated 
1834. Paturle sale (Paris, 1872), £3,320. 

FITCH, JOHN L, born in Hartford, 
Conn., in 1836. Landscape painter, pupil 
in Hartford of George F. Wright ; went to 
Europe in 1855 and studied under Albert, 
Max, and Richard Zimmerman in Munich 
and Milan. Exhibits at the National Acad- 
emy, of which he is an Associate. Studio 
in New York since 1866. Works : Mountain 
Brook (1870); Outlet (1871); In the Canon 
Granville (1873); Stray Sunbeam (1875); In 
the Woods, Autumn (1876); Twilight 
Gill's Brook (1878); Study on Long Island 
(1879); On Spruce Creek (1880); Study of 
Beeches (1881); Path near Blue Mountain 
Lake (1882); Study on the Croton, Pastoral 
(1883); Study on the Raymond skill, Neg- 
lected Road (1884). 

FITGER, ARTHUR, born at Delmen- 
horst, Oldenburg, Oct. 4, 1840. History 
painter, pupil of Munich Academy, where 
he was much influenced by Cornelius and 
Genelli In Antwerp he studied Rubens, 
and in Italy (1863-65) the old Venetian mas- 
ters. Settled in Bremen in 1870. Works : 
Fisher-Boat attacked by Mermaids ; German 
Saga on Giant's Grave ; Erlking'sDaughters; 
Procession of Witches ; Waking of Barba- 
rossa ; Night and Dreams ; Prodigal Son, 
Good Samaritan, Remberti Church, Bremen ; 
Development of German Civilization, Ruten- 

hof, Bremen ; Brema with her Children, 
Feast of Bacchus, Four Praisers of Wine, 
Roland and Rose, Rathskeller, Bremen ; 
Five Continents, Four Winds, Bremen's Sea- . 
Trade (1880), Exchange, Bremen.— Hollar, 
175 ; EunstrChronik, x. 291, 312 ; xiiL 489 ; 
xiv. 569. 

FLACCO. See Piaoco. 

FLAGELLATION (Fr., Christ a la 
Colonne ; ItaL, Nostro Signore flagellato 
alia Colonna ; Sp., Cristo a la columns ; Gcr., 
Geisselung Christi), the scourging of Christ 
previous to crucifixion (Matt, xivii. 26; 
Mark xv. 15; Luke xviiL 16 ; John xix. 1). 
Sometimes called Christ at the Column. 

By Murilkt, Duke of Wellington, London; 
canvas, H. 1, ft 4 in. x 10 in. An execu- 
tioner scourges the Saviour while another 
prepares the crown of thorns ; in back- 
ground, a wall and a grated window. Three 
figures, full-length. Companion to Pieta, 
also in possession of Duke of Wellington. 

Subject treated also by Sodoma, Siena 
Gallery; Antonello da Messina, Venice 
Academy; Paolo Morando, Verona Gallery ; 
Murillo, Louvre ; Gaudenzio Ferrari, S. M. 
delle Grazie, Milan ; Sebastian del Piorabo, 
S. Pietro in Montorio, Rome ; Lodovico- 
Carracci, Bologna Gallery ; Alonso Cano, 
Madrid Museum ; Zurbaran, Berlin Ha- 
seum ; David Teniers, younger, Madrid 
Museum ; Pelegrino Tibaldi, ib.; Th. van 
Tulden, Brussels Museum ; Fr. Vanni, 
Vienna Museum ; Ambrogio Borgognone, 
Brera, Milan ; Pedro Ruiz, Dresden Gallery ; 
Joseph Heinz, ib.; Earl Lehmann, Church 
of St Nicholas, Boulogne-eur-Mer ; Hans 
Holbein, elder, Munich Gallery ; Hans Hol- 
bein, younger, Basle Museum. 

New Haven, Conn., June 26, 1816. Subject 
painter, pupil of his uncle, Washington All- 
uton ; later studied three years in Europe. 
Painted six years in London before settling 
; finally in New York ; elected N.A. in 185L 
WorkB : Jacob and Rachel at the Well ; Por- 
trait of Mme. Pico as Cenerentola ; Good 
Samaritan ; Landing of the Atlantic Cable ; 


Murder of the Princes in the Tower ; Young 
Greek ; Landing of the Pilgrims ; Washing- 
ton receiving bis Mother's Blessing (often 
engraved) ; Mouse Boy ; Match Girl ; Haidee ; 
Scarlet Letter ; Columbus and the Egg (1867); 
Tennyson's Maud (1881); Hester Prynne, 
Portrait of Dr. Ebeu M. Flagg (1883); Por- 
trait of a Lady in Fancy Dress, Mrs. S. P. 
Cleveland, Boston. — Tuckerman, 407. 

New Haven, Conn., June 16, 1820. Genre 
and portrait painter, pupil of bis brother, 
George W. Flagg, and a short time of Wash- 
ington Allston. Elected N.A. in 1849, on 
exhibiting Angelo and Isabella. Mr. Flagg, 
who was instrumental in organizing the 
Yale College Art Gallery, became a clergy- 
man of the Episcopal Church in 1854, since 
which time he has rarely exhibited, though 
he still paints. Ideal works : Measure for 
Measure (1849) ; Paul before Felix (1860) ; 
Grandfather's Pet ; Poet's Captive (1877) ; 
Intercepted Letter; Holy Thoughts. Por- 
traits : Of his Father (1836) ; Commodore 
Vanderbilt (1876) ; Bishop Littlejohn (1880); 
Beverdy Johnson ; Henry Stanbery ; Judge 
Peckham ; Chief -Justice Church (1884). 
His sons, Montague and Charles Noel, both 
pupils of the Eeole des Beaux Arts, are 
genre painters in New York. — Tuckerman, 

FLAHAPT, LEON, born in Paris, Dec. 
6, 1831. Landscape painter, pupil of L. 
Fleury and of Corot Medal in 1869 ; 2d 
class, 1878 ; L of Honour, 1881. Works : 
Canal of Briare ; Sheepfold at Salles, The 
Biver Loing ; Beach of Berneval ; Land- 
scape ; Evening ; Under the Wood, Souve- 
nir of the Normandy Coast (1869) ; Farm at 
Sunset, The Loing (1874) ; High Sea at 
Puys, Environs of Montbouy (1878) ; Even- 
ing (1879); Bridge at Mortuaille, The 
Croisie (1880) ; Ee turning to the Farm 
(1881) ; Solitude (1882); The Biver Loing 
(1883); Ferme de la Brosse (1884); October 
Morning, On Shore of a Pond (1885). 

FLAMENG, FRANCOIS, born in Paris 
in 1859. History painter, son of the en- 

graver Leopold Flameng; pupil of CabaueL 
Edmond Hedouin, and Jean Paul Laurens. 
Medal, 2d class, 
1879; prix du 
Salon, 1879. 
Works: Beading 
Desk (1875); 
Portrait of aBish- 
op, BarbaroBsa 
visiting Charle- 
magne's Tomb 
(1876); Portrait 
of his Father 
(1877); The Gi- 

rondins Summoned (1879) ; Capo di Monte 
Road at Naples, Conquerors of the Bastile 
(1881) ; In the Woods, Camille Desmoulins 
(1882) ; A Duel (1883) ; Massacre of Macho- 
coul, Behearsal in 18th Century (1884) ; 
Bowlers, Marie Antoinette going to Execu- 
tion (1885). — LarouBse. 

Metz (Lorraine), July 17, 1843. Landscape 
and marine painter, pupil of Palianti, K Yer- 
rier, Dubufe, Mazerolle, E. Delaunay, and 
Pavis de Chavannes. Medal, 3d class, 1881. 
Works : Village in Lorraine (1870) ; Valley 
of Yancotte, Normandy (1872) ; Low Tide at 
Cancale (1874); Fishing Boat at Cancale 
(1876) ; Oyster Women in the Bay of Mont 
Saint Michel (1876); Fishermen at Cancale 
(1878) ; Banks of the Seine at Ivry, Yport 
(1879) ; A Comer of the Sea at Saint-Vaast- 
la-Hougue, Sea-weed at Low Tide in La 
Manche (1880) ; Fishing Boat at Dieppe 
(1881), Luxembourg Museum ; Three-Mast- 
er leaving Havre, Schooner at Wharf (1882) ; 
Bassin Vauban at Havre (1883) ; Fishing 
Bark (1884) ; Cale de messageries maritimes 
at Bordeaux (1885). 

FLAMM, ALBERT, born in Cologne in 
1823. Landscape painter, pupil in DUssel- 
dorf of Andreas Achenbach ; later much in- 
fluenced by Oswald Achenbach (1840-41), 
with whom be travelled through Italy. 
Works : Wood Landscape in Sunset (1845) ; 
Morning Landscape (1846) ; View in North 
Italy (1850) ; Approaching Storm in the 


Campagna (1862) ; Cartel Gandolfo (1867) ; 
Pilatus on Lake Luzerne ; Grave-Ruins near 
Borne ; Outlook on Bay of Naples ; View 
near Norma in Volsker Mountains ; Via Ap- 
pia near Rome, Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; View 
of Cudibb, National Gallery, Berlin ; Siebcn- 
gebirge (1880) ; Coast of Sorrento (1884).— 
MOller, 177 j Wiegmann, 381. 

in Naples, Aug. 15, 1809, died in 1876. 
Landscape and marine painter, studied in 
Italy, accompanied the French expedition to 
Constantino in 1836, visited Persia in 1840- 
41, and Assyria in 1844 ; published, with the 
architect Pascal Coste, " Voyage en Perse," 
(Paris, 1843-51), which made him famous, 
followed by several other publications on 
his travels, notably "L'Orient" (1856-64). 
Medal, 2d class, 1837 ; L. of Honour, 1842. 
Works : View of Venice, Bridge of Sighs 
(1836) ; View of Hotel de Ville in Algiers 
(1837) ; Storming of Constantino (1838) ; 
View of Golden Horn and of Stamboul, Great 
Mosque of Ispahan, View of Constantinople, 
Entrance of the Bosporus (1855) ; Interior 
of St. Mark's, Venice, View of Tripolis (1857); 
Corner of Doge's Palace, Venice (1866). — 
Larousse, viit. 431. 
in LyonB, March 23, 
1809, died in Borne, 
March 21, 1864. His- 
tory and portrait 
painter, son of a poor 
miniature painter ; 
studied under the 
sculptor Legendre 
1 and under Revoil in 
the Lyons Academy ; 
brother, Paul, a pupil 
of Ingres in Paris. Won in 1832 the grand 
prix de Borne with his Theseus recognizing 
his Father, and after living in Rome six 
years returned to Paris (1838) and executed 
many decorative works, especially in St. 
Germain des Pres (1842-61), St Paul, 
Nlmea (1847-49), Si Vincent de Paul, Paris 

(1850-54), Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers 
(1854), and Church of Ainay, near Lyons 
(1855). L. of Honour, 1841 ; Officer, 1853 ; 
Member of Academy, 1853 ; professor of 
painting, 1857. Works: St. Clair healing; the 
Blind (1836), Nantes Cathedral ; Reverie, 
Nantes Museum ; Euripides (1835), Dan to 
and Virgil in Purgatory (1836), Lyons Mu- 
seum; Christ blessing Little Children (1837), 
Lisieux Museum ; Savonarola preaching in 
Florence (1840) ; Mater Dolorosa (1844) ; 
Study of Figure (1855), portrait of Young 
Girl (1863), Louvre, Paris ; Tower of Babel 
(1861), Lille Museum ; portraits of Cheru- 
bim after Ingres, Marie Anne de Bourbon, 
Marie Francoise de Noaillea, Cardinal de 
Tournon, Diana of Poitiers, Versailles Mu- 
seum ; and portraits of Napoleon UL, Je- 
rome Napoleon, Comte Duchutel, Comtesae 
DucMtel, Comte Walewski, and M. Say. — - 
Delaborde, Lettreset Pensues (Paris, 1865) ; 
Christian Painter of 19th Century (London, 
1875) ; Ch. Blanc, Artistes de mon Temps, 
263 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1864), xviL 105, 
243 ; (1865), xviii. 66, 187 ; (1868), xxiv. 20. 
FL ANDRTN, JEAN PAUL, born in Lyons, 
May 8, 1811. Landscape painter, brother 
of Hippolyte, pupil of Ingres. Medals : 2d 
class, 1839 ; 1st class, 1847 ; 2d class, 1848 ; 
L. of Honour, 1852. Works: Exile's Fare- 
well (1839); Shepherds' Brawl, Lioness Hunt- 
ing (1847); Penitents of the Roman Cam- 
pagna (1840); Solitude, Sabine Mountains 
(1852), Luxembourg Museum ; Nymph's 
Grotto, Gorge of Atlas, The Archers (1855); 
Jesus and the Canaanite Woman, The Rhone, 
(1857); Environs of MaraeDles (1859), Angers 
Museum; Flightin to Egypt, Ministry of State; 
Park of Vaux-le-Peng (1861); Valley of Mont- 
morency (1863) ; Souvenir of Yeres, Souvenir 
of Southern France (1865); View in Langue- 
doc, Souvenir of Bugey (1866); Solitude 
(1867); By the Water, Abandoned Race- 
Course (1868); Idyl, During the Harvest 
(1869); Grove of Green Oaks, Palace of the 
Popes at Avignon (1870) ; Souvenir of Pro- 
vence (1873); Souvenir of Provence, Idyl, 
Meadow near Nantua (1874); Souvenir of 


Baa-Breau, Border of a Pine Wood at Por- 
nic (1875); Landscape, Id the Woods (1876); 
Garden near Nimes (1877); View near Etre- 
tat (1878); View in Provence, View at Bogey 
(1879); River Alberine, Road of Etroits near 
Lyons (1880); Souvenir of Bugey, Provence 
(1881); Road near Montmorency, View from 
the Heights above Sevres (1882); Landscape, 
Autumn near Montmorency (1883); In Au- 
tumn, Diggers at Work (1884); Autumn 
Reminiscence, Shades (1885). Pictures in 
the Museums of Nimes, Lyons, and Langres. 
His elder brother, Augusts Rene (1801-43), 
pupil of Ingres, was director of Lyons Acad- 
emy. — Bellier de la Chavignerie, i. 656. 

FLATZ, GEBHARD, bom at Wolffurt* 
Vorarlberg, June 11, 1800. History painter, 
pupil of Vienna Academy ; then studied at 
Munich, and went to Rome, where, except- 
ing a short stay at Innsbruck, he has since 
lived, forming himself after the works of 
Fra Angelico and Raphael, allied in close 
friendship with Overbook, and, like him, 
among the foremost modern painters of re- 
ligious subjects. Most of his works have 
been bought for England and America. 
Works : Paris challenged by Hector (1827), 
Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck ; Allegory on In- 
carnation of Christ (1842); Madonua (1843); 
Transfiguration of St Francis (1845) ; Abra- 
ham and the Angels ; Madonna adoring the 
Infant ; Fiesole after a Vision painting the 
Madonna ; Mary with Martha, John and 
Lazarus listening to the Lord ; Christ be- 
stowing upon Souls in Purgatory the Boon 
of his Sacrifice (1854); Bishop of Lodi, 
the Founder of Figlie del sagro Cuvre at 
Trent ; Mary and Joseph adoring the new- 
born Saviour, Imperial Chapel, Vienna ; St. 
Frauds Xavier on his Death-bed ; Cycle of 
Five Scenes in Life of Christ (1858). In 
fresco : Cycle representing the Teaching of 
Christ— Wurzbach, iv. 264 ; xxvi. 379. 

born at liege, May 23, 1614, died there, 
July 10, 1675. Flemish school ; history 
and portrait painter, son of Renier Fle- 
maeL glass-painter ; pupil of Gerard Douf- 

fet and of Jordaens ; went to Italy in 1638, 
stayed principally at Rome and Florence, 
and on his way homeward painted with 
great repute in the Carmelite and Augus- 
churches in Paris, where, on a second 
visit in 1670, he was made member and pro- 
fessor of the Academy. Returned to Liege 
in 1647, and two years later took up his 
abode temporarily at Brussels. Shows the 
influence of Nicolas Poussin. Works : Chas- 
tisement of Heliodorus, Brussels Museum ; 
Flight of iEneas from Troy, Dresden Gal- 
lery ; Alexander leaving for Asia, Death of 
Lucretia, Cassel Gallery ; Raising of the 
Cross, Crucifixion, Liege Museum ; Nativ- 
ity, Caiin Museum ; Mysteries of the Old 
and New Testa- ^ 

ments, Louvre. — |) \~i ' _,„l 
Biog. nat de Bel- /) TUUtf^^ 
gique, vii. 96 ; Hel- '•*• 
big, Hist de la peinture a Liege ; Fetis, Lea 
Artistes beiges a l'etranger, ii. 374. 

FLERS, CAJOLLE, born in Paris, Feb. 
15, 1802, died at Annet (Seine-et-Mame), 
June 27, 1868. Landscape painter, pupil 
of Paris. Bred in the old school of land- 
scape painting, but became a leader of the 
new in 1831. His best works were painted 
before 1855. Medals : 3d class, 1840 ; 2d 
class, 1847 ; L. of Honour, 1819. Works : 
Cascade of Pissevache (1831); Mill on the 
Marne ; View of the Meilleraye ; Road in 
Normandy, Environs of Dunkirk ; Animnls 
in a Pasture, Castle of Arques ; Environs of 
Compiegne ; Mill of Toucque, Island of Sa- 
mois (1838); Banks of the Marne (1848); 
Four Seasons (1855); eight views and in- 
teriors (1857); WUIowb on the Beuvronne ; 
Mill of CoUlour (1859); Hazel Trees on 
Banks of the Bresle ; Orchard at Aumale ; 
Henrietta Island at Annet ; Tuileries duPer- 
rey at Havre ; Water- Mill near Qiiilleboeuf ; 
Washing-Places on the BreBle ; Mill at An- 
net (1861); The Allier at Vichy after an In- 
undation ; Mill at Auuay (1863). — Bellier de 
la Chavignerie, i. 557. 

born in Paris, Dec. 18, 1804, died Oct 19, 


1858. Landscape and history painter, son 
and pupil of Claude Antoine F., history and 
portrait painter of beginning of 19th cen- 
tury; later pupil of Hersent and Boron. 
Subjects usually taken from central France. 
Medals : 3d class, 1841 ; 2d class, 1837 ; 1st 
class, 1845; L. of Honour, 1851. Works: 
Baptism of Christ, Si Marguerite, Paris; 
Saint Genevieve, St Etienne du Mont, ib. ; 
Ischia (1833); Environs of Maubeuge, View 
of Clermont, Hell's Hole, The Bridge of 
Arche (1840); Village of Cagnes (1845), for- 
merly in Luxembourg Museum ; Monte Calvo, 
near Nice, Mill of Coutivert (1847); The 
Grove, Pasture in Normandy, Environs of 
Tronville (1852), bought by the Emperor ; 
View on Coast of Genoa, Orleans Museum ; 
Landscape, Nantes Museum. — Gaz. des B. 
Arts (1859), i. 302. 

FLICKEL, PAUL, born in Berlin, April 
8, 1852. Landscape painter, pupil of Wei- 
mar Art School under Theodor Hagen, went 
in 1874 to Dttsseldorf , and settled in 1876 in 
Berlin ; travelled in Germany and Austria, 
and in 1877 in Italy. Works : Garden near 
Naples ; Villa dTSste ; View of Naples from 
Capo di Monte.— Mailer, 178. 

Egypte ; It., Fugs in Egitto ; Sp., Huida a 
Egipto ; Ger., Flucht nach Egypten). The 
flight of Jesus, Mary, and Joseph into 
Egypt to escape the pursuit of Herod. 

By Claude Lorrain, Dresden Museum ; 
canvas, H. 3 ft. 8 in. x 4 ft 4 in. The Virgin, 
with Jesus in her arms, is mounted upon an 
ass, which is preceded by an angel ; behind, 
Joseph, leaning on his staff. The landscape, 
one of the most beautiful by the painter, has 
a cascade in the middleground, which forms 
a rivulet crossed by a bridge; in background, 
a city and mountains. Other figures, besides 
the Holy Family, are two travellers in an 
tique costume, and a shepherd and shep- 
herdess. From the Mazarin Collection. An- 
other Flight into Egypt by Claude, engraved 
by Morel, is in the Ashburton Collection, 

By Alexandre Decamps, private gallery, 

Paris ; canvas, H. 9 in. x I ft, 1 in. The 
Holy Family about to cross a torrent at 
evening ; an angel leads by the bridle the 
upon which the Virgin and Child are 
sitting. Salon, 1850 ; Pereire sale (1872), 
15,150 francs. 

By Edwin Long, London ; canvas, H. 8 
ft x 16 ft. Called by the painter Anno 
Domini The Holy Family in foreground, 
the Virgin and Child seated upon an ass, 
beside which walks Joseph ; beyond, issu- 
ing from the gate of an Egyptian temple in 
background, at the left of which the Pyra- 
mids are seen, marches a procession — min- 
strels followed by bearers of the golden im- 
age of Ms, by priests, by a Roman officer 

a chariot, and by the sacred bull Apia. 
In the foreground, near the Holy Family, 
are a young lover fastening an amulet around 
the neck of his betrothed, a negro carrying 
for sale a tray of Egyptian gods, and a 
mother holding in her arms a sick child, 
before whose unconscious face three girls 
and a negro girl-slave hold up images of 
the gods. 

By Holman Hunt See Triumph of the 

By MuriUo, Duchesse de Galliera, Paris ; 
canvas, H. 7 ft x 5 ft 6 in. The Virgin, 
mounted on an ass walking to right, ten- 
derly regards the Child, who lies with his 
head on her right arm ; St Joseph, in broad- 
brimmed hat and mantle, walks leading the 
animal : night scene — landscape of arid 
country with tree on left First manner. 
Painted about 1648 for convent of La Mer- 
ced Calzada, now the Seville Museum ; car- 
ried off by Soult ; sold at his sale for 51,500 
fr. — C. Bermudez, it 59, Carta, 55; Pone, 
Viage, ix 107 ; Curtis, 167. 

By Rubens, Louvre ; wood, H. 2 ft 6 in. 
x 3 ft 3 in. Night scene, the stars and the 
moon reflected in the water of a river which 
the Holy Family are about to cross. Mary, 
holding Jesus in her arms, is seated upon 
an ass led by an angel, while a second angel 
flies at her right ; Joseph, walking with his 
staff, turns and looks with anxiety at two 


horsemen galloping to right on the river- 
bank ; in background, left, under a rock 
shaded by trees, shepherds and their flocks 
around a fire. Collection of Louis XIV. 
Engraved by L C. Marinus ; C. Galle ; R. 

Ftiftrt into Egypt, M 

Lowry. Same composition with changes, 
Caasel Gallery, to which it was returned in 
1815 from Paris. 

By Tintoretto, Scuola di S. Bocco, Venice ; 
canvas. A lovely landscape, with the Ma- 
donna and St Joseph pacing along a shady 
path on the banks of a river. The Virgin's 
bead is very beautiful ; the head of the ass 
is wonderfully painted. — Buskin, Stones of 
Venice, iii. 328. 

By Adrian van der Werff, Hague Museum ; 
wood, H. 1 ft. 6 in. x lft. 3 in.; signed, dated 
1710. The Virgin, with Jesus in her arms, 
is seated upon an ass led by Joseph beside 
a stream, near which are trees and the ruins 
of a portico. Painted by the artist for his 
daughter, who sold it for 4,000 florins to 
J. van Schuylenburg, at The Hague, from 
whom it passed through several other hands 

to the Hague Museum. Carried to Paris 
under the empire ; returned in 1815. En- 
graved by Avril in Musee francais. — Filhol. 

Subject treated also by Guido, Brussels 
and Naples Museums; Carlo Maratti, Vi- 
enna Museum ; U Scarsellino, Dresden Mu- 
seum ; Alessandro Turchi, Madrid Museum ; 
Luca Cambiaso, Palazzo Barberini, Borne ; 
Oaudenzio Ferrari, Church of Minorites, 
Varallo ; Lodovico Card!, Louvre ; L. Bas- 
sano, Madrid Museum ; Murillo, Hermit- 
age, St Petersburg ; id., Pesth Gallery ; 
id., Mrs. Culling Hanbury, Bedwell Park, 
Herts ; Adam Elsheimer, Munich and Dres- 
den Galleries, Louvre, and Liechtenstein 
Gallery, Vienna; Domenico Feti, Vienna 
Museum ; Filippo Latin, ib. ; Herri de Bles, 
ib. ; Joachim de Patinir, Munich and Madrid 
Museums and London Gallery ; Velvet Brue- 
ghel, Besancon Museum ; Frans Francken, 
elder, Dresden Museum ; Frans Francken, 
younger, TJifizi, Florence ; Francois Boucher, 
Hermitage, St Petersburg ; Eugene Deveria 
(Salon, 1838); P. A. Jeanron (Exposition 
Universe lie, 1856); Joseph Beaume (ib.); J. 
J. Bellel (ib.); Paul Flandrin (Salon, 1861). 

FLINCK, GOVAEBT, born at Cleves, 
Jan. 25, 1615, 
died in Amster- 
dam, Feb. 2, 1660. 
Dutch school; 
history and por- 
trait painter, pu- 
pil of Lambert 
Jacobzen at Leeu- 
warden, then of 
Rembrandt, un- 
der whom his 
talent developed 

so rapidly that after one year his pictures 
could scarcely be distinguished from those 
of the master. He left Bembrandt in 1638, 
and took the freedom of Amsterdam in 1652. 
After Eeckhout, he was the scholar who ap- 
proached nearest to Bembrandt His best 
pictures are of the period 1640-50 ; later, 
having studied the old Italian masters, he 
aimed at precision of form rather than at 


chiaroscuro effects, and lost ground. He 
enjoyed the favour of the Elector William 
of Brandenburg, and of Prince Maurice of 
Nassau, for whom he executed many pict- 
ures. Works : Annunciation to the Shep- 
herd, Portrait of a Young Girl (1641), 
Louvre ; Female portrait (1640), Brussels 
Museum ; Loving Couple (attributed), Ant- 
werp Museum ; Isaac blessing Jacob (1688), 
Fete of the Civic Ghiard (1648), National 
Museum, Amsterdam ; Marcus Curius Den- 
tatus, Solomon praying for Wisdom, Royal 
Palace, lb, ; The Archers (1642), City Hall, 
ib. ; Portrait of a Man and his Sister (1646), 
Rotterdam Museum ; Solomon and Queen 
of Sheba (with Dirk van Delen), Lille Mu- 
seum ; Female portrait (1636), Brunswick 
Museum ; do., Stadel Gallery, Frankfort ; 
Woman and Child, Darmstadt Museum ; 
Guard Boom, Old Pinakothek Munich ; 3 
male portraits (two dated 1639, 1643), David 
and Uriah, Dresden Gallery ; Female por- 
trait (1641), Expulsion of Hagar, Berlin Mu- 
seum ; 2 portraits, Copenhagen Gallery ; 3 
portraits (one dated 1637), Hermitage, St 

Petersburg ; Portrait of Old Man (1661), 
Vienna Museum ; Portrait of a Lady 
(1648), Marquis of Bute, London ; Bath- 
sheba's Appeal to David, National Gallery, 
Dublin.— Allgem. d. Biogr., viL 122 ; Cb, 
Blanc, Ecole hollandaise ; Havard, A. & A. 
hoL, iL 73 ; Bepertorium I K, iv. 108 ; 
Riegel, Beitrage, il 269 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, 
x. 224, 381. 

FLORA, See Columbine. 

FLORA, Titian, Uffizi, Florence ; canvas, 
life-size figure, seen to hip. A woman, 
lightly clad, her hair looped with a silken 
cord and falling in waves to the bosom, 

strives with one hand to hold the muslin 
falling from her shoulders while presenting 
roses, jessamines, and violets with the other 
to Borne unseen person. Painted about 
). Once owned by Don Alfonzo Lopez, 

who also owned the Ariosto of Cobham 
Hall ; first exhibited in Florence in 1793, 
when taken from the Duke's Guardaroba. — 
C. & C, Titian, i. 270 ; Lavice, 63. 

FLORA, TRIUMPH OF, Nicolas Pousein, 
Louvre, Paris ; canvas, H. 5 ft 5 in. x 7 ft 
11 in. At right, Flora, seated upon a char- 
iot, drawn by two loves or zephyrs, and pre- 
ceded by women and men singing and danc- 
ing, is accompanied by nymphs, youths, and 
loves bearing Sowers ; two loves, flying, are 
about to crown her; a warrior, standing, 
offers flowers in a buckler. Painted about 
1630 for Cardinal Omodei, whence passed to 
collection of Louis XIV. Engraved by E 
Fessard (1770), Audran, Marie Horthemels. 
— Filhol, iii. PI. 199 ; Villot, Cat Louvre. 

FLORE. See Fiare, 




banel, J. H. Warren, Hooaic Falls, N. Y. A 
young poet reading one of his compositions 
to youthful listeners, seated on a marble 
bench in a garden. Salon, 1861. Engraved bj 
A. Huot Replica, Israel Cone, New York. 

bom about beginning of 16th century, died 
after 1513, Venetian school ; pupil and 
sod -in-law of Pellegrino. In 1525 be painted 
an altarpiece for S. M. di Villanuova near 
San Daniele, and later the Conception, now 
in Venice Academy. The St George and 
the Dragon in S. Giorgio of Udine 
ordered in 1529. He afterwards painted in 
Padua until 1533. In 1539 he killed a man 
in a quarrel at Udine and fled to Cividale, 
where be remained until 1543, when he re- 
turned to Udine.— G & C, N. Italy, ii. 300 ; 
Vasari, ix. 30 ; Lubke, Gesch. ital Mai, ii. 

FLORIS, FRANS (Frans de Vriendt), 
born in Ant- 
werp about 
1517-18, died 
there, Oct. 1, 
1570. Flem- 
ish school; 
history and 
portrait paint- 
er, son and 
pupil of Cor- 
nelia de V., a 
stone - cutter, 
then at liege pupil of Lambert Lombard ; 
also studied in Italy under influence of 
Michelangelo. In 1540 admitted into the 
guild at Antwerp, where he opened a school, 
frequented by many scholars, among whom 
were several afterwards great masters. Led 
a very wild life, which prevented his attain- 
ing the fame and fortune that bis great tal- 
ent and the patronage of his friends offered 
him. His eons, Jean Baptiste and Frans, 
were both painters. Works : Fall of the 
Angels (1554), Adoration of the Shepherds, 

St Luke painting the Virgin, Antwerp Mu- 
seum ; Nine Muses, Christ and Little Chil- 
dren, Water-Wedding at Middelburg, Am- 
sterdam Museum ; Last Judgment (1566), 
Adoration of the Magi (finished 1571 by 
Hieronymus Francken), Brussels Museum ; 
Falcon Hunter (1558), Mars and Venus 
surprised by Vulcan, Venus and Cupid, 
Brunswick Museum ; Taking of Christ, Cas- 
ed Gallery ; Cain and Abel, Copenhagen 
Gallery ; Venus and Mars (1547), Lot and 
his Daughters, Berlin Museum ; Figure of 
a Woman, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Adam 
and Eve under the Tree, Adam and Eve 
driven from Paradise, Holy Family, Vienna 
Museum ; Deluge, portraits (2), Madrid Mu- 
seum. — Ch. Blanc, Ecole flamande ; Biog. 
nat de Belgique, vii. 120 ; Cat. du Musee 
d'Anvers (1874), 139 ; Dohme, lii. ; FStis, 
Cat du Mua royal, 317 ; Michiels, v. 292 ; 
Riegel, Beitrage, ii. 17 ; Booses (Reber), 98; 
Van den Branden, 173. 

Leslie, South Kensington Museum ; canvas, 
H. 1 ft 9 in. x 2 ft. 5 in. Scene from Win- 
ter's Tale, Act IV., Scene 3. Perdita, stand- 
ing, presenting flowers to Polygenes and 
Camillo, seated at right in shepherd's cot- 
tage ; behind her is Florizel, and at her side, 
at left, Dorcas, a true shepherdess. Royal 
Academy, 1837. Engraved by L. Stocka— 
Art Journal (1867), 4. 

FLOWER GIRL, MuriUo, Dulwich Gal- 
lery ; canvas, II. 3 ft 11 in. x 3 ft 2 in.; has 
been enlarged, original size 3 ft 5g x2 ft 
9j. In white turban, yellow robe, white 
sleeves, seated on a atone bench, holding 
with both hands the end of a brown em- 
broidered scarf which falls from her left 
shoulder, and smilingly offering to the spec- 
tator the four roses it contains ; on left a pi- 
laster ; at right a landscape with cloudy sky. 
Countess de Verrue sale, 1737 ; Blondel de 
Gagny sale, Paris (1776), 12,000 liv.; Ca- 
lonne sale, London (1795), £672, to Mr. 
Desenfans, whose heir, Sir Francis Bour- 
geois, bequeathed it to Dulwich College. 
Old copy in Akademie der Bildenden Kunst, 


Vienna. Engraved by J. H. Robinson, P. 
Lightfoot, a a Hall, R Graves, A. H. 
Payne, R Cookburn, C. Cousen. — Curtis, 
281 ; Art Journal, 1877 ; Art Union, 1841 ; 
Scott, Murillo ; Waagen, ii. 346 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Murillo, 16 ; Jameson, Public Galleries, 183; 
Richter, Dulwich Cat, 99. 

FLOWER MARKET, Pirmin Girard, T. 
R. Butler, Now York Scene on the qua; 
where the flower-market of Paris is held, 
with groups buying and selling; in back- 
ground, the Seine and architecture. Salon, 
187G. Etched by Guetave Grenx.— L'Art 
(1876), ii 300 ; iii. 240. 

FLUGGEN, GISBERT, born in Cologne, 
Feb, 9, 1811, died in Munich, Sept 3, 1859. 
Genre painter, pupil of Ddsseldorf Acad- 
emy. In 1835 he settled in Munich. Has 
been called the German Wilkie on account 
of the similarity in subject and character of 
hia works to those of the Scotch master. 
Works : Servants Surprised (1839), Hermit- 
age, St Petersburg ; Chess Players, Inter- 
rupted Marriage Contract (1810); Unlucky 
Player (1841), Mentz Museum ; Deciding 
the LawBuit (1847); Betrothal, Tasting Wine, 
Morning Kiss, Opening of Will, Money 
Changers (1850); Seizure for Debt at Young 
Musicians (1854); Disappointed Legacy 
Hunters (1848), Hanover Gallery ; Specula- 
tors ; Last Moments of King Frederic Au- 
gustus of Saxony ; Anteroom of a Prince 
(1859), Mow Pinakothek, Munich.— AUgem. 
d, Biogr., vii 140 ; Brockhaus, iv. 982. 

FLUGGEN, JOSEF, born in Munich, 
April 3, 1842. History and portrait painter, 
son of Gisbert, pupil of Munich Academy 
and of Piloty, went in 1866 to Paris, Lon- 
don, Brussels, and Antwerp, where he was 
influenced by Leys. Now professor in Mu- 
nich Academy. Works : Elizabeth of Thu- 
ringia(1867); The Hostess' Daughter (1869); 
Family Happiness ; On Coast of Genoa ; 
Pouting Love-Couple ; Milton dictating 
Paradise Lost ; Landgravine Margaret tak- 
ing Leave of her Children ; Regina Imhof 
(1877); Baptism of Emperor Maximilian L 
(1879); First Booty (1881); Last Jewel 

(1884); King Earl's Sea-trip (1885), Royal 
Palace, Bucharest — Brockhaus, vi. 929 ; 
Ulustr. Zeitg. (1882), L 9 ; N. illuetr. Zeitg. 
(1880), ii 503 ; Land und Meer (1870), L 
212 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, six. 136. 

first half of 16th century. Venetian school ; 
a native of the district of Friuli, he was ap- 
prenticed at Vicenza, and spent some of his 
later years in San Vito ; painted also in Por- 
denone and in Trent His early work is in 
the manner of Verlas and Speranza, but his 
later pictures show the influence of Raph- 
aelesque models. Among the latter are the 
Virgin crowned by Angela in the Santissima 
Trinita, Trent, and the Madonna and Saints 
in the church of Bovo, near Trent. — C. & 
C, N. Italy, i. 443. 

FOHR, DANIEL, born at Heidelberg, 
May 13, 1801, died at Baden-Baden, June 
25, 1862. Landscape painter, brother of 
Earl Ph. F, self-taught, came in 1829 to 
Munich, where he rapidly gained reputation. 
Works: Wood Landscape with Mazeppa, 
View of Konigsee (1836); The Steinberg 
near Berchteagarten (1837), Four Seasons 

Four Epochs of German History, Carls- 
ruhe Gallery. 

FOHR, EARL PHHIPP, born at Heidel- 
berg, Nov. 26, 1795, died in Rome, June 29, 
1818. Landscape painter, pupil of Munich 
Academy. Influenced by Josef Anton Koch 
at Rome, where he was drowned while bath* 
ing in the Tiber. Works : In Carlaruhe 
and Darmstadt Museums, and Stadel Gal- 
lery, Frankfort — Allgem. d. Biogr., vii. 
147 ; Dieflenbach, Leben des Malers K F. 
(Darmstadt, 1823). 

FOLTZ, PHUJPP, born at Bingen, May 
11, 1805, died in Munich, August 5, 1877. 
History and genre painter, pupil of DQssel- 
dorf and Munich Academies under Corne- 
lius, whom he assisted in the decoration of 
the Glyptothek. After painting some fres- 
cos in the new Royal Palace, he went to 
Rome in 1835, and on his return became 
professor at the Munich Academy in 1839, 
and director of the Central Gallery in 1855. 


Works : Suliote Woman keeping Watch for 
her Father, Huntsman on Rocky Cliff, Fiah- 
ermaiden on Strand, Fisherman's Family 
expecting Father, Fisherwoman on Aohen 
Lake, Two Chamois Hunters, Hunter and 
Shepherdess, Knight and his Sweetheart, 
Greek Women on Battlefield all in (1826- 
35); Two Madonnas, Holy Family, The 
Diver, The Princess, Count of Hapsburg 
(1836-38); Minstrel's Curse (1838), Cologne 
Museum ; Scene on the Isar near Munich, 
Darmstadt Museum ; Madonna (1839); Em- 
peror • Sigismund, Romersaal, Frankfort ; 
Frederic Barbarossa kneeling before Henry 
the lion (1852); Age of Pericles, Maximili- 
aneum, Munich ; Italian Mother with Chil- 
dren by the Sea, Pilgrimage in the Moun- 
tains, Peasant Woman and Child ; Scene 
from Defence of Tyrol, Brera Gallery, Mi- 
lan ; two great Hunting Scenes ; Rhine Le- 
gends, Schonborn Palace, Munich ; Gotz 
Ton Berlichingen and the Monk, Vienna 
Museum ; King Louis I and Family look- 
ing at Painting, Madonna, Frauenlob. Fres- 
cos : Foundation of Academy of Science, 
and four Allegorical Figures, Arcades, royal 
garden, Munich ; twenty-three scenes from 
Schiller's and nineteen from Burger's Bal- 
lads, Royal Palace, Munich ; Times of Day, 
Gods of Greece instructing Man, Schonborn 
Palace, Munich. — AUgem. d. Biogr., vii. 
150 ; Brockhaus, vi. 943 ; Kunst-Chronik, 
xii. 771 ; Dlustr. Zeitg. (1881), L 333. 

Noisy-le-Grand ( Seine- et^Oise), May 8, 1814 
Portrait, genre, and landscape painter, pu- 
pil of Leon Cogniet Medal, 3d class, 1852. 
Works: Ibrahim Pasha at the Military School 
of Saint Cyr (1847-85); Supreme Courtat 
Versailles (1850-55) ; Visit of Napoleon DX 
to School of Saint-Cyr (1853) ; The Let- 
ter (1857) ; Attack of Selinghinsk Earth- 
work, February 23, 1855 (1859) j Mass at 
Pont l'Abbe, Studio Interior (1861) ; Cesar 
and his Fortune (1863) ; Bay of Audierne, 
Finistire, Villa of Quintilian on the Via Ap- 
pia (1875) ; Studio Interior (1878). -BeUier 
de la Chavignerie, i 561. 

ciso Diaz de la Pona, T. W. Walters, Balti- 
more ; canvas, H. 2 ft 6 in. x 2 ft 1 in. ; 
dated 1871. Autumn scene. Diaz painted 
many views of the Forest of Fontainebleau, 
some of which are in the following collec- 
tions : W. H. Vanderbilt, New York ; Sam- 
uel Hawk, ib.; M Graham, ib.; J. W. Drexel, 
ib.; J. T. Martin, Brooklyn; R, C. Taft, 
Providence ; H. P. Kidder, Boston ; Mrs. 
W. P. Wilstach, Philadelphia. 

By Theodore Rousseau, Louvre; canvas, 
H. 4 ft. 7 in. x 6 ft. 5 in.; signed. Sunset 
scene on the border of the forest Salon of 
1855 ; formerly in Luxembourg. Rousseau 
spent many years in the Forest of Fontaine- 
bleau, which supplied him with numerous 

FONTANA, LAVINIA, born in Bologna, 
Aug. 26, 1552, 
died in Rome 
in 1614. Bo- 
lognese school ; 
daughter and 
pupil of Pros- 
pero Fontana; 
married Paolo 
Zappi, son of a 
rich merchant 
of Iniola, who 
aspired to be a 

painter, but without success. Lavinia went 
to Rome about 1592, and won considerable 
reputation as a portrait painter. She also 
executed several altarpieces like her father's 
in colour, but inferior in design and execu- 
tion. Works at Bologna : Virgin and Saints, 
S. Giacomo Maggiore ; do., La Madonna del 

/OiJ./'OH . Hiv*., 

$ontaNa£ Vac 

Baracano ; Miracle of Loaves and Fishes, 
Chiesa dei Mendicanti ; Crucifixion, S. Lu- 


cia ; Birth of Virgin, S. Trinita ; Madonna, 
Asceoaion, Pieve di Cento. — Malvasia, i. 173; 
Lansd, iii 42 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole bolonaise ; 
Gualandi, Guida, 138, 140, 166. 

logna in 1512, died in Borne in 1697. Bo- 
lognese school, pupil of Innocenzo da Ira 
ola ; went to France to aid Primaticcio at 
Font&inebleau, but was taken ill and had to 
return. Painted chiefly in Bologna and in 
Rome. He was devoted to pleasure, and 
his many (chiefly historical) works are exe- 
cuted with little care. His best pictures are 
his portraits. Among his works are : Dec- 
orations in Vigna di Papa Giulio near 
Borne ; Altarpiece, S. Salvatore, Bologna ; 
Entombment, Bologna Gallery ; Charity of 
8. Alexis, S. Giacomo Maggiore, Bologna ; 
Holy Family, Dresden Gallery ; Annuncia- 
tion, Bt era, Milan ; Visitation, Estense Gal- 
lery, Modena, — Malvasia, L 173 ; Lanzi, iii. 
42 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole bolonaise ; Vaaari, ed. 
Le Mon., ix. 95 ; xii. Ill ; xiil 6, 183. 

FONTANA, ROBERTO, bom in Milan in 
1844. Genre painter, pupil of Milan Acad- 
emy. Medal Milan, 1876. Works : Scene 
in Robert le Diablo ; Wooing ; Meop relat- 
ing bis Fables (1876). 

born in Paris, April 29, 1813. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Watelet and Heraent Has 
won a good reputation as a faithful deline- 
ator of nature. Medals : 3d class, 1841 ; 
2d class, 1844, 1861, and 1863. Works: 
View on the Grimsel Road (1811) ; View on 
Road to the Maladetta, Pyrenees (1843), 
Marseilles Museum ; Environs of Luz (1844); 
Great Sulphur Mine (1846); Fort Royal 
(1847) ; Bernese Oberland (1848) ; Road 
from Bastia to Ajaccio (1852) ; Isle of Elba 
(1852), Montanban Museum; Farm and 
Castle (1855), Nantes Museum ; Valley of 
Lauterbrunnen (1857), Montpellier Museum ; 
Gulf of Ajaccio (1859), Straasburg Museum ; 
Wetterfaorn and Grindelwald (1861) ; Castle 
of TJnspuonen (1863), Saint-Quentin Muse- 
am ; View in Bernese Oberland, Gallery at 
Monaye (1863) ; View near TJnterseen, Cas- 

tle of Gaillard (1864), Lisieux Museum ; 
Seine near Ruins of the Castle of Tancsr- 
ville, Top of the Sulphur Mine in Guade- 
loupe (1865) ; Village of TJnterseen, Church 
of St Bernard de Comminges (1866) ; Vil- 
lage of Vezillon, High Tide between Havre 
and Honfleur (1868), Laval Museum ; Seine 
between Rouen and Havre (1869) ; View in 
Valley of the Touque (1870) ; Road from 
Meyringen to Goutan (1872) ; Farm near 
Rouen (1874) ; Seine at Les Andelys (1875) ; 
Ruins of Castle in Valley of Lauterbrunnen 
(1876); Farm on Heights of Avranches (1877); 
Villiers (1878) ; Farm near Pontorson, Pic 
du Midi near Pan (1879) ; Coast of Honfleur, 
Farm in Normandy (1880) ; Farm in Pi- 
cardy, View near Villiers -sur-Mer (1882) ; 
Squall on the Coast of Normandy, Cliffs at 
Puy (1883) ; Cliffs near Chateau of Dieppe 
(1884); Last Judgment, Entrance to Dieppe 

FONVDLLE, HORACE, bom at Lyons in 
1832. Landscape painter, pupil of his 
father and of Appian. Works : Chateau de 
la Pape near Lyons (1833) ; View of Lyons 
(1840); Landscape intheHaut-Bugey (1864); 
At Rossillon, Am (1870) ; Road in Moun- 
tains of Haut-Bngey (1874), Luxembourg 
Museum ; Ain River at Neuville (1876) ; 
Souvenir of Virieux-le-Grand (1877) ; Land- 
scape in Bogey (1879). 

FOPPA, VfflCENZO, the elder, bom at 
Foppa, province of Pavia, died in Brescia in 
1492. Lombard school ; a disciple probably 
of Squarcione, but nothing known of Mm 
before his engagement in Milan in 1456, 
when he called himself a citizen of Brescia. 
In 1461 he was in Pavia, where he painted 
in 1462 frescos in the Carmine, and in 1465 
a chapel in the Certosa. At a later date be 
worked in Savona and in Brescia. His 
earlier pictures show the prominent charac- 
teristics of the Paduan school, but in the 
course of years he shook off Mantegnesque 
peculiarities and gained the mastery which 
comes from long practice. Among his best 
extant works are the St Sebastian, Brera, 
Milan, and the altarpiece in six panels in S. 


M. di Castello, Savona, dated 1489. Other 
examples are : Adoration of the Magi, Na- 
tional Gallery, London, ascribed to Barto- 
lommeo Suardi, and frescos in the Carmine, 
Brescia, also St Jerome, Crucifixion, Ber- 
gamo Gallery.— C. & C., N. Italy, ii 2 ; Va- 
aari, ed. Le Mon., iii. 285 ; vL 84 ; Siret, 
323 ; Calvi, Notizie, etc., 65 ; Ch. Blanc, 
£cole milanaise ; Burckhardt, 607 ; Lubke, 
Geach. ital. Mai., i 487. 

FOPPA, VTNCENZO, the younger, of 
Brescia, 16th century. Lombard school ; 
probably son and pupil of above, in hia fres- 
cos in S. Giulia, S. Salvatore, and S. M. 
in Solario, Brescia. In his later works, in 
8. M. delle Grazie and S. Nazzaro e Celso, 
Brescia, he shows himself a follower of Mo- 
retto and Bomanino. — C. &, C, N. Italy, ii. 
432 ; Burckhardt, 610. 

FORABOSCO. See Feraboaco. 

FORBES, EDWIN, born in New York in 
1839. Landscape and genre painter, pupil 
of A. F. 'fait in 1869. During the American 
civil war he acted as special artist for Frank 
Leslie's illustrated paper, and subsequently 
painted his Lull in the Fight His life 
Studies of the Great Army, etchings ou cop- 
per, were presented to the United States 
Government by General Sherman, and are 
preserved in the "War Office at Washington. 
In 1877 he was elected an honorary member 
of the London Etching Club. Studio in 
Brooklyn. Works : Early Morning in an 
Orange County Pasture (1879); On the Skir- 
mish Line, Stormy March, Houghing, On 
the Meadows (1880); Evening in the Sheep 
Pasture (1881). 

AUGUSTS, Comte de, born at Chateau de 
la Boque d'Antheron (Bouches-du-Rh6ne), 
Aug. 19, 1777, died in Paris, Feb. 23, 1841. 
Landscape and interior painter, pupil in 
Lyons of Boissieu and in Paris of David ; 
took part in the several campaigns between 
1795 and 1809, when he resigned, and in 
Rome devoted himself to art ; returned to 
Paris in 1814, and after the restoration was 
made member of the Institute and director 

of the royal museums. He reorganized the 
Louvre, and founded the Luxembourg Mu- 
seum. In 1817-18 he visited Syria, Greece, 
and Egypt, and in 1819 published a splen- 
did work, "Voyage dans le Levant" The fig- 
ures in his pictures were supplied by Granet 
Chamberlain ; L. of Honour, 1809 ; Officer, 
1817 ; Commander, 1822 ; Order of St Mi. 
chad; member of many Academiea. Works: 
Interior of Ancient Monument (1800) ; Death 
of Pliny at Eruption of Vesuvius (1806); 
Nun in Prison of Inquisition (1817); Death 
of King Andrew of Hungary, Inez de Castro 
(1819); Interior of Monastery (1824); Pro- 
cession of the League (1831); Vestibule of 
Monastery (1830), Chapel in Coliseum (1834), 
with Granet, Louvre ; Moor accused of aid- 
ing Flight of a Nun. — Larousse, viii. 586 ; 
Villot, Cat Louvre ; Meyer, Gesch., 148. 

Paris in 1636, 
died there, 
March 17, 1712. 
French school ; 
landscape paint- 
er, son and pupil 
of Pierre Forest, 
then in Borne 
pupil of Pietro 
Francesco Mola; 
having also 
formed himself after Titian and Giorgione, 
he returned from Italy after a sojourn of 
seven years, and was received into the Acad- 
emy in 1674. Visited Italy a second time, 
commissioned by M. de Seignelay, Minister 
of State, to buy pictures by old masters, of 
which he was a great connoisseur. Some of 
his worka are in the Museum at Tours, but 
most of his pictures have become blackened 
from his use of perishable pigments. — Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole francaise, i; D'Argenvflle, v. 

Santo Domingo in 1787, died in Paris, Dec 
23,1874. Historyand genre painter, pupil of 
Vincent and David, then of Ecole des Beaux 
Arts ; won grand prix de Rome in 1813 and 


went to Borne ; after his return also painted 
genre scenes. L. of Honour, 1832. Works: 
Anacreon and Cupid; Ecce Homo (1819); 
Christ healing a Young Man Possessed {182 7), 
Louvre ; Calling of St Fronto (1831), Min- 
istry of Public Works; Good Samaritan 
(1835), Prefecture de la Seine ; Funeral of 
William the Conqueror (1855). — Larouase. 

FORMANN, HELENA, Rubma, Blen- 
heim Palace ; canvas, H. 6 ft, 6 in. x 4 ft 
6 in. Rubens' Becond wife, full-length, in 
a black silk dress, with white satin sleeves 
adorned with pearls, and a black velvet cap, 
walking in the open air, followed by a page 
with his hat in his hand. Engraved by 
Earlom. Other portraits of her by Bubens 
at Windsor Castle, and in Dresden, Munich, 
Berlin (St Cecilia), Vienna, The Hague, 
Louvre, and Hermitage Galleries. — Waagen, 
Art Treasures, iii. 126 ; Smith, ii 242. 

FOKNARINA, LA, Sebastian del Piombo, 
Blenheim, England ; wood, life-size. A beau- 

tiful woman sitting, turned to left, her head 
almost facing the spectator ; her hair, bound 
in a mass at the back of the neck, set off by 

a striped cloth tied over the crown of the 
head ; low white dress showing neck ; right 
hand supporting the for collar of s red vel- 
vet mantle, the left holding a basket of fruit 

.* Fumirina, Riphnii Paluio Burimrtni, Ron*. 

and Sowers. Called also Dorothea. Attrib- 
uted to Raphael ; engraved as a Raphael by 
Bernardi, T. Chambers, and others. Infe- 
rior replica in Casa Parsioo CittedeUa, Ve- 
rona.— C. & C, N. Italy, ii 820 ; Waagen, 
Treasures, iii. 125. 

By Sebastian del Pumibo (attributed to 
Raphael), Uffizi, Florence ; canvas, H. 2 ft 
2 in. x 1 ft 10 in-; dated 1512. The bast 
of a young and beautiful lady of rank, nearly 
full face, with a wreath of gold leaves on 
her head ; dress, a blue velvet bodice with 
muslin chemisette, and a green velvet man- 
tle with panther-skin collar. The gold chain 
on her neck is by some restorer. In posses- 
sion of the Medici, Florence, since 1689. 
Kugler thinks it a portrait of Vittoria Co- 
lonna ; others, of the Improvisatrice Beatrice 
da Ferrara. Copy attributed to Giulio Ro- 
mano in Palazzo Corsini, Borne. Engraved 


as it Raphael by R. Morghen and others. — 
Vasari, ed. Mil, iv. 367 ; t. 567 ; C. A C, N. 
Italy, ii. 319 ; Pa&savant ; Kugler (Eaatlake), 
ii 166; Roflini, iv. 241; Burckhardt, 660, 

By Raphael, Palazzo Barberiui, Borne ; 
figure to the knees. A half-nude woman, 
seated in a myrtle and laurel wood, with a 
striped yellow cloth about her head and her 
hah* bound with a circlet of gold with leaves 
and flowers, garnished with precious stones ; 
her right hand holds light gauze against her 
breast, her left lies carelessly on the red gar- 
ment over her kneea. On a bracelet on her 
left arm is inscribed Baphael TJrbinas. Com- 
monly called Raphael's Mistress ; name For- 
narina (bakeress), given about middle of last 
century. Many copies. Painted about 1509 ; 
in 1696 was in the Casa Santa Fiora, Borne ; 
acquired about 1612 by Barberiui family. 
.Engraved by Cunego, Deanoyers, Godefroy, 
Aubert — Vasari, ed. MiL, iv. 356 ; Rumohr, 
Ital. Forsch., iii 113 ; Posaavant, ii 99 ; 
Mllntz, 387, 606 ; Grayer, Portraits de la 
Fornarina ; Arcnivio della Societa Romans 
di Storia Patria, ii (1878) 46 ; iii (1879) 
234 ; Eugler (Eaatlake), ii 465 ; Springer, 
251, 509. 

FORNASO, IL. See Oiverehio. 

near Altenburg, April 
«, 1800, died in Mu- 
nich, April 29, 1885. 
History and portrait 
painter and art writ- 
er, pupil in Berlin 
of K. Zimmermann ' 
and W. Schadow, 
studied then in Dres- 
den, and from 1632 

in Munich under Cornelius. In 1824-25 
he painted frescos in the Hall of Bonn 
University. He twice visited Italy, and in 
1837-40 discovered and restored Altichieri s 
wall paintings in the Chapel of St George 
in S. Antonio, Padua. Lives in Munich. 
Works : Hellas Liberated ; -Giotto and Cim- 


abue ; Portraits of Duke and Duchess of 
Altenburg and Children. Frescos : The- 
ology (1624-25), Aula, Bonn University; 
Liberation of German Army 
through Otto von Wittelsbach, 
sear Verona, Arcades, Royal 
Garden, Munich ; Scenes from 
Goethe's Poems and Scenes from §t. Jx 
Wieland's Musarion and Grazien 
(1833), Royal Palace, Munich.— KunatChro- 
nik, xx. 603 ; Meyer, Cony. Lex., vi 948. 

FORSTEBLTNG, OTTO, born in Berlin, 
June 16, 1843. Genre and landscape paint- 
er, pupil of Berlin Academy and of Julius 
Schroder, settled in 1867 at Klein Zschach- 
witz, near Dresden, whence he visited Ger- 
many, Austria, and Italy. Works: Morning 
Dew; Nymph of the Spring; Woodland 
Tale ; Snow-Drop ; Water-Sprite in Grotto ; 
Fight between Centaurs and Tigers ; Judas 
in the Storm during the Crucifixion (1885). 
— Mailer, 180. 

called Simeon-Fort, born at Valence (Drdme), 
Aug. 28, 1793, died in Paris, Dec. 24, 1861. 
Landscape painter in water-colour, pupil of 
C. Bruno, Was employed with Morel and 
Puissant to continue Bagetti's water-colours 
in Versailles. Medals : 2d class, 1831 ; 1st 
class, 1836; L of Honour, 1842. Works: 
Study near Marly ; Falls of the Doubs ; Mill 
of Dugny ; Convent of the Virgin del Sasso; 
Town and Palace of St Cloud (Comte Pozzo 
di Borgo) ; Wolf's Gorge ; Bottoms of Bo- 
chat ; Slopes of Bellevue ; Banks of the 
Meuse ; Manufactory in Dauphinu ; Banks 
of Lake Maggiore ; Chateau d'Eu ; views in 
Africa ; Oaks of the Doubs ; Simplon Boad ; 
Maritime Alps ; Hollow Road, Valley of the 
Meudon ; Smugglers ; Young Woman of 
Nivernois, Portrait of a Child (1824 to 1853). 
— Lorousse. 

FORTTN, CHARLES, born in Paris, June 
12, 1815, died there, Oct 19, 1865. Land- 
scape and genre painter, pupil of Beaume 
and Camille Roqueplan ; painted chiefly 
subjects of peasant life in Brittany. Medals : 
1st class, 1849, 1857, 1859, and 1861 ; L 


of Honour, 1861. Works : Sailors making 
Merry, Bag-Dealer, Return to the Cottage, 
Cobbler's Shop, Corner of the Hearth, Vil- 
lage Barber (1835 to 1847) j Cottage in 
Morbihan, Butcher's Shop, At the Castle of 
Baz (1849) ; The Country Tailor (1850) ; 
Chouans (1853), Lille Museum ; The Bless- 
ing (1855), Luxembourg Museum ; During 
Vespers (1855), Grenoble Museum ; Hut in 
Morbihan, Music Lesson, Smoker (1855) ; 
Grandfather's Festival, Whip-Lash, Cancans, 
Country Interior (1859) ; Storm, Country 
Tailor, Old Story, Interior, Pap (1861) ; Be- 
tween two Dilemmas (1864).— Larousse. 

FORTUNE, Guido Reni, Acoademia di S. 
Luca, Rome ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 11 in. x 4 ft 3 
in. Fortune personified by a female figure, 
nude, with light drapery floating from her 

shoulders ; she holds in her left hand a kind 
of purse from which gold pieces drop, and 
in her right a sceptre and palms. Under 
her feet is the world, and from behind a 
winged boy grasps her hair, which floats in 
the wind. In some copies Fortune bears 
instead of a purse a crown. Carried to 

Paris in 1796 ; returned in 1815, and in Vat- 
ican until 1826.— Filhol, vL PI 397, Muses 
francais, i. ; London, viii. PL 32. 

FORTUNE CHASE (Jagd nach dem 
Gluck), Rudolf Friedrich Henneberg, Na- 
tional Gallery, Berlin ; canvas, H. 6 ft 3 in. 
x 12 ft 6 in. A youth, in the costume of 
a German nobleman of the 16th century, 
chases on horseback the phantom of Fort- 
une, who flees before him strewing gold in 
the path and holding up a crown ; the Devil, 
who accompanies him, changes into Death, 
and with a scornful grin unfolds his flag ; 
at a bridge leading over a ravine lies the 
youth's guardian angel, over whom he has 
ridden, hiding her face on the ground ; in 
background, beyond the ravine, the battle- 
ments of a mediaeval town. 

FORTUNE-TELLER, Michelangelo da 
Carauaggio, Capitol Gallery, Rome. One 
of his earliest works. — Meyer, Kiinst Lei., 
L 614. 

By Michelangelo da Garavaggio, Louvre ; 
canvas, H. 3 ft 3 in. x 4 ft 3 in. A gypsy 
holding the right hand of a young man ele- 
gantly clad, who appears to listen atten- 
tively. Bellori says that Caravaggio painted 
this picture to prove that one can be a good 
painter without having studied the antique 
and Raphael, his theory being that the ex- 
act imitation of nature should be the sole 
aim of art Collection of Louis XIV. En- 
graved by E Audran. — Yillot, Cat. Louvre ; 
Filhol. viii. PL 537 ; Cab. Crozat, ii. PL 93. 

By Sir Joshua Reynolds, Duke of Marl- 
borough, Blenheim ; canvas. Lady Char- 
lotte Spencer, as a little gypsy girl, telling 
the fortune of her brother, Lord Henry 

By Sir Joshua Reynolds, Earl Amherst, 
Knowle Park, near Sevenoaks, Sent. Young 
girl seated, with her right hand held out, 
by a young man with a red cap, to a gypsy, 
who is telling her fortune ; background, 
landscape. Painted in 1776 ; sold to Duke 
of Dorset for 300 guineas. Engraved by 
Sherwin. Copy by J. B. Powell at Somerby, 
seat of Earl of Normantou, mistaken by 


Waagen for an original — Waagen, Art Trea- 
sures, iv. 340, 370 ; Athenaeum (1863), 539. 

FORTUNE, WHEEL OF, Burne-Jones, 
Arthur Balfour, Esq., MP., London ; large 
upright picture. The goddess Fortune, a 
tall, sad figure, clad in grayish-blue, stands 
at left, turning round in a listless way the 
terrible wheel, on which are bound three 
nude figures, the laurel-crowned poet, the 
sceptred king, and the slave,. alike cowed 
and wretched, the victims of a cruel and all- 
powerful chance. Grosvenor Gallery, 1883. 

at Bens in Catalonia, 
June 11, 1838, died 
in Rome, Nov. 21, 
1874. Genre paint- 
er, pupil of Palau, of 
Claudio Lorenzalez, 
and of the Barcelona 
Academy, where he 

won the prixde Rome . 

in 1856. At Rome, 
which became thence- 
forth his principal residence, he studied 
Raphael and made sketches of Roman life. 
In 1869 he was sent to Morocco by the gov- 
ernment to paint the incidents of General 
Prim's campaign, and during this and a 
second visit painted a large picture of the 
Battle of Tetuan, besides making many 
sketches of Moorish life. In 1866 he went 
to Paris, where through Zamacols he entered 
into business relations with Goupil ; and 
then to Madrid, where (1867) he married the 
daughter of Madrazo, director of the Madrid 
Museum, and studied the works of Velas- 
quez, Ribera, and Goya. With the excep- 
tion of a year in Paris (1869-70) and three 
years in Spain, he spent the rest of his life 
in Rome. His vigorous and original style, 
correct drawing, and fine colour gained him 
a great reputation, and the auction sale of 
the contents of his studio after his death 
brought 800,000 fr. ($160,000). Works : A 
Glory (1854), original destroyed, sketch be- 
longs to Mr. Galceran, Barcelona ; Virgin of 
Pity (1855), Mr. Soberano, Reus ; St. Paul 

before the Areopagus (1865), Charles of An- 
jou on the Shore of Naples, Beronger HL 
nailing the ArmB of Barcelona to the Cas- 
tle of Foix (1857, won the prix de Rome), 
Odalisque, The Little Count, 17 faces from 
Nature, Studies in Morocco (1862), Battle 
of Tetuan, Barcelona Museum ; View of the 
Tiber, Nereids on a Lake (1858) ; St Mari- 
ano, Church of Reus ; Bacchantes (1859) ; 
studies in Morocco (oil and water-colour, 
1860) ; Arabs Dancing, Mr. Chartrand, 
Cuba ; Head of a Negro (1861), the Col- 
lector of Engravings (1863), The Masks, 
Roman Countrywoman, Old Roman Peasant, 
Fruit Shop in Granada, Study of Chickens, 
Academicians of St Luke choosing a Model, 
Street in Morocco, Arab Reclining (18G9), 
Stairs of Casa de Pilatos in Seville, The 
Drunkard, Arquebusier, Tribunal of the Al- 
hambra, Returning to the Convent, Cafe des 
Hirondelles (1866), Arab Fantasia, The An- 
tiquaries, Mr. W. Stewart, Paris ; Arab Sen- 
tinel, Mr. d'Arthez, Tarragona ; Three Oda- 
lisques, Arab shoeing a Donkey, Mr. Sanz, 
Madrid ; Pond near Tangiers (1865), Man 
with Helmet, Mr. Goupil, Paris ; Collectors 
of Engravings, Woman in a Garden, Roman 
Peasant Woman, Departure of the Proces- 
sion, The Library, Carpet Merchant (1870), 
Arab on a Rug, Mr. Murrieta, London ; The 
Masks, The Butterfly (1867), Arab Seated, 
A Concert, Mr. de Goyena, Seville ; Stand- 
ard Bearer, Mr. Hazeltine, Rome ; Faust 
dand Marguerite, Persian, Idyl, Old Man, 
Arab on Horseback, Mr. Ramon Errazu, 
Paris ; An Arab, Mr. Cusino, Peru ; De- 
parture of the Procession, Arabs feeding a 
Vulture, A Fan, The Butterfly (1868), Mr. 
Gargollo, Madrid ; Bull Ring at Seville, 
Bull-Fighter's Salute, the Butterfly, Door of 
the Church of San Gines, Mr. F. De Ma- 
drazo, Madrid ; The Carnival, Mr. Ayala ; 
Spanish Marriage (1869), Mme. de Cnaain, 
Paris ; Snake Charmers, Mr. Ed. Andr6, 
Paris ; Bull-Fighter, Mr. Le Roy, Paris ; 
Arquebusier, Mr. d'Epinay, Rome; Court 
of the House of Chapiz in Granada (1871) ; 
Arab Praying (1872), Mr. Oppenheim, Paris ; 


Via Giulia in Borne (1873) ; Recitation in a 
Garden, Mr. Hoeren, Paris ; Shore of Por- 
tici, Two Children in a Japanese Boom, 
The Butcher, water-colour portraits of Mme. 
Fortuny and of Mine. Agrasot (1874). Works 
in United States : Camels at Best, Miss C. 
F. Wolfe, New Tort ; portrait of Mme. Gar- 
cia, Pifferari, J. H. Stebbins, New York. ; 
Santa Lucia — Naples, Seney sale, New York, 
(1885) ; Dead Donkey, A. J. Antelo, Phila- 
delphia ; Mandolin Player, C. S. Smith, 
New York ; Tfite-4-Tete, Court of the Myr- 
tles, Horsemen of Morocco, Arab and Dogs, 
R L. Cutting, ib. ; Arab Fantasia at Tan- 
gier*, Court Fool, W. H. Tanderbilt Collec- 
tion, ib. ; Snake Charmers, Mrs. A. T. Stew- 
art, ib. ; Breakfast in Garden of Alhambra, 
Arabs hunting Frogs, La Manola, Seraglio 
Sentinel, Borie Collection, Philadelphia ; 
Council House in Granada, H. C. Gibson, 
» ib. ; An Ecclesi- 

Vl astic, Don Quix- 

ta ote (1869), The 

\4t\*I\\\ Mendicant W. 

A|*H T. Walters, Bal- 
™ timore. — Davil- 

lier, Fortuny, Vie et (Euvrea (Paris, 1875); 
Gaz. des B. Arts (1875), xii. 267, 351; 
L'Art (1875), i. 361, 385 ; Kunst-Chrcnik, 
x. 120, 219 ; Zeitschr. I b. &, ix 341 ; Old 
and New, xi 357. 

FOSCARL TWO, Eugene Delacroix, Due 
d'Aumale, Chantilly ; canvas, H. 3 ftx4 
ft 3 in.; signed, dated 1855. The Doge 
Foscari, obliged to be present at the execu- 
tion of the sentence of torture and banish- 
ment of his son, Jacopo Foscari, falsely con- 
victed of treason to the Republic, is seated 
on his throne at left, clad in his splendid 
robes of office, while the executioners do 
their duty at the right, before many spec- 
tators. Jacopo, writhing with torture, holds 
up his wounded hands for the kisses of his 
wife. Salon, 1855 ; Faure sale (1873), 79,- 
500 fr.; Oppenheim sale (1877), 70,500 fr. 
Engraved by Charles Courtry. — L'GSuvre de 
Delacroix (Paris, 1885), 340 ; Gas. des B. 
Arts (1881), xxiv. 324, 331. 

FOSSANO. See Borgognone. 

FOSTER, BIBKET, bora at North 
Shields, Feb. 4, 1825. Landscape and genre 
painter, pupil of E. Landells, engraver, 
from whom he learned to draw on wood ; 
after illustrating many books, began about 
1859 to draw in water-colours. He was 
elected an associate of the Water Colour So- 
ciety in 1860, and a member in 1861. Later 
has painted somewhat in oil-colours. Many 
works engraved and lithographed. Water- 
colours: Holmwood Common, Race down 
Hill, Feeding the Ducks, Arundel Mill, The 
Beach — Hastings, Weald of Surrey, Prim- 
rose Gatherers, Race up Hill, Castle of Rhein- 
f els, Sailing the Boat Works in oil : Thames 
near Eton, Bass Rock, A Brook (1877).— Art 
Journal (1871), 157; Meyer, Conv. Lex., xvii. 

FOUBERT, fiMTLF, LOUIS, born in 
Paris ; contemporary. History painter, pu- 
pil of the ]£cole municipale at Bayonne, then 
of Bonnat, Busson, and H. Levy. Medals : 
3d class, 1880 ; 2d class, 1885. Works : 
St John in the Desert (1875) ; Chastise- 
ment of Caiphas (1876) ; Heaiod and the 
Muse (1877); Christ at the Pillar (1878); 
Nymphs and Faun (1879); Satyr teased by 
Nymphs (1880); The Spring (1881); Satyr 
and Traveller (1882); Eclogue (1883); Start 
for the Chase (1884); Temptation (1885). 

FOUCQUET, JEHAN, born at Tount 
about 1415-20, died about 1177 or 1480. 
French school. At Rome, about 1443, be 
painted the portrait of Pope Eugenius IV., 
and in 1461' in Paris be painted a life-size 
portrait of the deceased Charles V1L He 
was afterwards in the service of Louis XL 
Payments were made to him for large paint- 
ings as well as miniatures as late as 1475. 
Eoucquet stands at the head of the Italo- 
Flemish school of miniature painting in 
France. Works : Madonna, Antwerp Mu- 
seum ; St Stephen (the other half of the 
Antwerp altarpiece), Forty Miniatures in 
Prayer-Book (1641), Brentano Collection, 
Frankfort; male bust portrait, Liechtenstein 
Gallery, Vienna; portraits of Charles VH. 



and Chancellor Guillaume Juvenal, Louvre ; 
miniatures in Josephus' History of the Jewa, 
Bibliotheque nationals, Paris ; miniatures 
in Boccaccio, Court library, Munich. — 
PattUon, Renaissance of Art in France, i. 
254 ; Schnaase, viil 300 ; W. & W., ii. 77 ; 
Revue de Paris, Aug. and Nov. (1857); Gaz. 
des B. Aria (1867), xxhi. 97 ; (1868), xxiv. 

born at Rouen, March 26, 1821. History, 
genre, landscape, and portrait painter, pupil 
of Delaroche and of Gleyro. Medal, 1869. 
Works : Sermon on the Mount (1855); Bu- 
rial at La Trappe (1857); Victims sacrificed 
by the Druids in Gaul (1859); Violet Seller 
(1863); Harvest Evening (1866); Last Mes- 
sage (1867); At a Spring (1869); Erigone 
(1870); Naiads (1872); Daphnis and Chlo6 
(1874); Mowers, The Toilet (1875); Morn- 
ing in the Meadows (1876); Souvenir du 
Trieux (1878).— Bellier de la Chavignerie, i 

born in Ant- 
werp about 
1600, died in 
Paris in 1659. 
school ; laud- 
scape painter, 
pupil of Joost 
de Momper 

and of Velvet i \ 

Brueghel, and 

perhaps also of Rubens, for whom he painted 
backgrounds ; master of the guild at Ant- 
werp in 1614. Invited by the Elector Pala- 
tine Frederick V., he went about 1616 or 
1618 to Heidelberg to decorate the castle, 
and in 1621 to Paris, where his art found 
much favour in the eyes of Louis XDX, who 
employed him to paint views of the chief 
French cities. Jealous of the favour shown 
to this painter, Poussin left France. After- 
wards Fouquicres fell into disgrace, and died 
in great misery. He was the master of Phi- 
lippe de Champaigne. Works : Stag Hunt, 

Berlin Museum; Wood Landscape with 
Horseman, Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; A Hunt, 
Copenhagen Gallery ; Landscape (1620), 
Valenciennes Museum ; do. in Bordeaux, 
Grenoble, Nantes, Darmstadt Museums, and 
Historical Society, New York. — Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole flamande ; Biog. nat. de Belgique, vii 
210 ; Fetis, Les Artistes beiges a l'6tran- 
ger, i. 335 ; Michiels, viii. 198. 

FOURMOIS, THEODORE, born at Pres- 
les, Hainaut, Oct. 14, 1814, died in Brussels, 
Oct. 16,1871. Landscape painter and illustra- 
tor, self-taught ; took his subjects chiefly from 
environs of Brussels and the Ardennes. Or- 
der of Leopold, 1851 ; Officer, 1863. Works: 
Hut in the Campine ; Old Mill ; View in 
Baden (1848); Pool, Road across Heath 
(1860), Brussels Museum ; Views in Park of 
Count d'Outremont (1862). — Brockhaus, vii 
47 ; Larousse, viii. 680. 

FODRNTER, EDOTJARD, bora in Paris ; 
contemporary. Genre painter, pupil of Ca- 
banel ; now at the French Academy in 
Rome. MedaL 3d class, 1885. Works: 
Djanileh, Son of the Gaul (1885). 

FOWLER, FRANK, bora in New York ; 
contemporary. Portrait and figure painter, 
pupil of E. White in Florence and of Caro- 
lina Duran in Paris ; in 1878 he assisted the 
latter in painting the fresco of the Apothe- 
osis of Marie de M&dicis in the Luxembourg 
Museum. Studio in New York. Exhibited 
Young Bacchus in 1878 ; portraits in 1878, 
1883, 1884 ; Fatima (1885). 

ISTE, born at Grasse, Provence, Oct., 
1780, died in Paris, Nov. 10, 1850. French 
school ; history painter, son of Jean Hon- 
ored pupil of David, and for a long time one 
of the most distinguished adherents of the 
classical school. Also a sculptor. Medals : 
4 ; L. of Honour, 1819. Works : Citizens 
of Calais before Edward ; Entry of Maid of 
Orleans (1822), Orleans Museum ; Maria 
Theresa showing her Son to the Hungarians 
(1822), formerly in Luxembourg Museum ; 
Queen Blanche liberating the Prisoners of 
Chatenay (1824), Blois Museum ; Francis I. 



knighted by Bayard (1819), Francis I. and 
bis Sister looking at Pictures brought by 
Primaticcio, Fine Arts crowned by Genius 
(1827), ceilings in Louvre ; Battle atMarig- 
nano. Wall paintings in the Luxembourg, 
and at Versailles and Orleans. — Larousse, 
viii. 700 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1881). 
at Grasse, 
April 5, 
1732, died in 
Paris, Aug. 
22, 1806. 
Genre and 
painter and 
v pupil of 
Chardin and 
Boucher. In 1752 obtained the grand prix 
de Borne for his Jeroboam, now in the Ecole 
deB Beaux Arts. In Italy studied especially 
Tiepolo ; after his return, received into the 
Academy in 1765. He treated the same class 
of subjects as his master, Boucher, with sur- 
prising fidelity and unbridled license. His 
step-sister, Marguerite Gerard (born 1751), 
assisted him in many works. Works : The 
High-Priest Coresus sacrificing himself to 
save Callirrhoe (1765), Landscape, Music 
Lesson, Nymphs at their Bath, The Shep- 
herd's Hour, Storm, Bacchante Asleep, 
Young Woman and Cupid, Guitar Player 
(1769), Study, Inspiration, Fancy Figure of 
Young Man, Woman and Child, Louvre, 
Paris ; Portrait of a Boy, Nantes Museum ; 
Plutarch's Dream, Rouen Museum ; Portrait 
of Bayard, Versailles Museum ; Adoration 
of Shepherds, Lille Museum ; The Dinner 
on the Grass, Amiens Museum ; Young Girl 
at Fountain, Grenoble Museum ; Young 
Boy, Nancy Museum ; The Woes of Love, 
Orleans Museum ; City of Marseilles pro- 
tected by Mercury, Marseilles Museum; The 
Swing, Fountain of Pleasure, Garden of 
Fontai neb lean, Hertford House, London ; 
Fanners Children, Hermitage, St Peters- 

burg ; Sacrifice of CaUirrhoo, Aoademia S. 
Fernando, Madrid ; The Kiss, Larienski 
Gallery, Warsaw ; family portraits, Due 
d'Aumale ; Oath of Love, Narischkine sale 
(1883), 42,000 fr.; Return to Lodgings, do., 
17,000 fr.— Gaz. des B. Arts (1865), xviii. 
32, 132 ; (1885), xxxii 481; Portfolio (1873), 
iv. 2 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole f rancais ; Dohme, 
3 ; Goncourt, L 'art du xviii. Siecle, ii. 311 ; 

Jfcjujonarv iftf 

Houssaye, Hist, de l'Art francais, 325 ; JaL, 
605 ; Wurzbach, Fr. Maler dea xviii. Jahrh., 
Plombicres (Vos- 
gea), Nov. 17, 
1814. Landscape 
painter, pupil of 
Gigoux and Co- 
rot. Paints 
_ French and Ital- 
ian scenes. Med- 
als : 3d class, 
1841; 1st class, 
medal of honour, 1878 ; L. of Honour, 
1853 ; Officer, 1867. Works : Song under 
the Willows (1837) ; Old Garden (1841), 
View near Paris (1844), Plombicres Museum; 
Under the Willows (1852), Tours Museum ; 
End of Winter (1853), Orpheus (1863), 
Daphnia and Chloe (1872), Setting Sun, Lux- 
embourg Museum ; Ravine of Nepi, View 
near Rome (1853) ; Path through the Wheat 
(1855) ; Brook of Neuf-Prc (1857) ; River 
Gapeau, Beech Trees on Coast of Grace 
(1859), Bordeaux Museum ; View at Lower 
Meudon, Prince Napoleon ; Evening (1861), 
Epinal Museum; By the Water (1861), 
Nantes Museum ; Sacred Woods, Italian 


Villa (1864) ; New Ruins of Pompeii (1865) 
Environs of Rome, Environs of Paris (1866) 
Country-House (1867) ; Harvest, Valley of 
Munster (1868) ; ML Blanc from St Cergues 
(1869) ; View at Vaux de Cernay (1872) ; 
Souvenir of Nice (1873) ; Spring, Terrace at 
Nice (1874) ; Ravine of Puita-Noir (1875) ; 
Mirror of Scey (1876) j Mont Cervin, Lake 
Nemi (1878) ; Valley of HossiUon, Morning 
(1879) ; Highway at Combs- la- Villa, Evening 
(1880); Castle of Oandolfo on Lake of 
Albano, 'Washing-Place near Pierrefonds 
(1881); Villafelipa, Villefrancho (1882); 
Beach at Capri, Part of a Villa at Nice 
(1883) ; Morning at Clisson, Last Days of 
Autumn (1884); Lake of Nemi, Shady River 

CXDO, born at Valencia ; contemporary. 
Genre painter, pupil of Valencia art school. 
Medals : 1st class, Saragossa ; 3d class, Ma- 
drid. Works : The King's Order, What is 
she thinking of? (1879) ; Proclamation of 
Boabdil (1884).— La Bustracion (1879), ii. 
69; (1884), 1362. 

Cabanel. See Paolo and Franoesca. 

Ry Dominique Ingres, Angers Museum ; 
canvas. Illustration of the mediseval story 
of Francesca da Rimini, as related by Dante 
and Boccaccio. Francesca, the wife of Gio- 
vanni Malatesta, called from his lameness 
from birth Gianciotto (commonly made into 
Lancelotto), fell in love with her handsome 
brother-in-law, Paolo Malatesta, a liaison 
which ended in the death of the two at the 
hands of the enraged Gianciotto. In the 
picture the couple are represented as just 
having finished reading the story of Lancelot 
and Guinevere. The book has fallen from 
Francesca' s hands ; Paolo, bending forward, 
gives her the fatal kiss, and Lanciotto, lifting 
the drapery, advances with drawn sword to 
take his revenge. Painted in Rome in 1819 ; 
bought by M Turpin de Crissee, who be- 
queathed it to Angers Museum. Original 
sketch, Mme. Montett-Gilibert Litho- 
graphed by A Lecomte, 1834. Replica 

painted by Ingres for Prince Salerno, Naples 
- -larousse, ziii 1218. 

By Ary Sckeffer, Sir Richard Wallace, 
Manchester House; canvas (Dante, Inferno). 
Salon of 1835, under title : Dante and Virgil 
encountering in Hell the Spirits of Fran- 
cesca da Rimini and Paolo. Francesca, her 
eyes closed, her hair dishevelled, hangs ten- 
derly on the neck of Paolo as they float 
through the air, while the two poets con- 
template the touching scene in silence. 
Painted for Due d'Orleans ; bought in 1853 
by Prince Demidoff for 48,000 fr.; DemidofT 
sale (1870) to Lord Hertford for 100,000 fr. 
Engraved by Calamatta; etched by Vey- 
rassei Replica, painted 1855, exhibited 
1859, owned by Mme. Marjolin, the artist's 
daughter. — Larousse, xiii. 1218. 

By George Frederick Walts, London; 
canvas, H. 5 ft x 4 ft. 1 in. Francesca and 
Paolo, phantoms pale and death-like, clasped 
in a loving embrace, are swept onward be- 
fore the wind against a background of clouds 
and fiery rain. Painted in 1879. Exhibited 
in New York in 1884. 

Rorgo San Sepolcro 
in 1416 (?), died 
there, Oct 12, 1492. 
TJmbrian school. 
Real name Pietro di 
Benedetto degli 
Franceschi ; first 
master unknown. In 
1439 he assisted Do- , 
menico Veneziano 
in painting the fres- 
cos in S, M. Nuova, 
Florence, where he was brought into con- 
tact with many eminent painters, and laid 
the foundation of his great scientific knowl- 
edge of linear and aerial perspective. In 
the projection of shadows, the perfecting of 
mediums for oil painting, the delineation 
of architecture in backgrounds, and the 
correct balance of light and shade, he had 
few rivals. So perfect was his rendering 
of nature, that had he been guided by a 



principle of selection in form, he would 
have ranked with the greatest Italian paint- 
ers. Between 1447 and 1452 Hero worked 
at Loreto, and at Rimini for Sigismond Pan 
dolfo Malatesta, for whom he painted, In the 
Chapel of the Relics, S. Francesco kneeling 
before his patron saint, with two couchant 
greyhounds at his heels. The fresco, dated 
1451, is an admirable piece of quattrocento 
work. Wo next find Fiero at Arezzo paint- 
ing the Legend of the Cross around the 
choir of S. Francesco, between 1453 and 
1454, and then at Borgo San Sepolcro, em- 
ployed upon an altarpiece on panel for the 
Confraternity of the Miaericordia, which 
still exists in the Church of the Hospital, 
formerly occupied by the Brothers. Other 
works by this painter in his native town are 
a fresco of the Resurrection, in the Monte 
Pio, and another of St Louis (1460), in the 
Municipal Palace. His Baptism of Christ, 
National Gallery, London, is pure in outline, 
and, like all his works, most carefully elab- 
orated in every detail. In same gallery are 
a Nativity, portrait of Isotta da Rimini, and 
portrait of a Lady. In 1469 Piero went to 
Urbino, ■ where he painted a Flagellation, 
now in the Cathedral, and an Apotheosis, 
with portraits of the Duke and his wife, 
Battista Sforza. The well-known profile 
portraits of this same ducal pair, in the 
TJfnzi Gallery, are masterpieces of their 
kind, painted about 1472. Piero was the 
author of a highly esteemed Treatise on 
Perspective, the MS. of which belongs to the 
Saibanti Library, Verona. — Vasari, ed. Mil., 
ii. 487 ; C. & C, Italy, ii. 526 ; Burckhardt, 
657 ; Cibo, Scuola Umbra, 26, 66 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole ombrienne ; Lubke, Gesch. itaL MaL, 

Francesco Paolo de' Frescki, Paolo Fiam- 
ruingo), born at Antwerp in 1540, died in 
Venice in 1596. Flemish- Venetian school ; 
landscape, animal, history, and portrait 
painter, pupil and assistant of Tintoretto in 
Venice, whither he went when very young, 
and where he acquired reputation as one 

of the best landscape painters of the time. 
By order of the Venetian Senate he painted 
the large picture in the Ducal Palace, and 
for the Emperor Rudolph H. two Alle- 
gories. Works: Pope Alexander HI. bless- 
ing the Doge Ziani, Ducal Palace, Venice ; 
Descent from the Cross, St John preaching, 
Adam and Eve, Cain and Abel, S. Maria dei 
Frari, ib.; Landscape with Prodigal Son, 
Academy, ib. ; Pieta, Old Pinakothek, Mu- 
nich. — Fetis, Lea Artistes beiges a l'etran- 
ger, i. 377. 
valiere, born at Bolog- 
na in 1648, died there 
in 1729. Bolognese 
school ; history paint- 
er, pupil of Gio. Maria 
Galli, and of Cignani, 
whose assistant he be- 
came. Called to Ge- 
noa, in 1702, to deco- 
' rate the Hall of Public 

Counsel with pictures 
on the history of the 
Republic (destroyed by fire in 1777) ; invited 
to Rome by Pope Clement XI, in 1711, to 
Genoa in 1714, and to Crema in 1716, to 
execute fresco paintings. He was the head 
of a school in Northern Italy similar to that 
of Cortona in Lower Italy ; adhered at first 
to manner of Cignani, but later developed a 
remarkable style of his own. Works : Mag- 
dalen, Birth of Adonis, Dresden Gallery ; 
Charity, Magdalen, St Borromeo during the 
Plague in Milan, Museum, Vienna ; Venus 
and Cupid, Czemin Gallery, ib. ; Jacob and 
Rachel, and others, Liechtenstein Gallery, 
ib. ; Joseph and Potiphars Wife, Brunswick 
Museum ; Diana at the Chase, Copenhagen 
Gallery ; S. Tommaso da Villanova dispens- 
ing Alms, Agostiniani of Rimini ; Pieta, 
Agostiuiani of Imola ; BB. Fondatori, Ser- 
viti of Bologna. Frescos: Recess in Palazzo 
Rannzzi, Cupola and Ceiling in Church of 
Corpus Domini, Tribune of S. Bartolommeo, 
Bologna ; Corbels of Cupola, Piacenza Ca- 
thedral — Brockhaus, vii. 61; Lanzi (Bos- 



ooe), iii. 167 ; L&rouBse, yiiL 752 ; Burck 
hardt, 773, 785 ; Seguier, 70. 

Zaganelh, Francesco. 

(FranceBCO Rizo), born about 1480, at 
Santa Crooe, near Bergamo, flourished there 
and in Venice in 1504-1511. Venetian 
school ; history painter, pupil of Giovanni 
Bellini ; developed probably under the in- 
fluence of Carpaccio and Bellini's followers. 
Works : Adoration of Magi, Berlin Museum ; 
replica, Hermitage, St Petersburg ; Ma- 
donna with Saints, Count Paul Stroganoff, 
ib. ; Annunciation (1504), Madonna and 
Saints, Bergamo Gallery ; Adoration of the 
Magi, Muaeo Civico, Verona ; Madonna with 
Saints (1507), S. Pietro Martire, Murano ; 
Christ appearing to Magdalen (1513), Ven- 
ice Academy. — Lubke, Geach. ital. Mai, ii. 

FRANCHOYS (Francois), LUCAS, the 
elder, born at Mechlin, Jan. 23, 1574, died 
there, Sept 16, 1643. Flemish school ; his- 
tory and portrait painter, master of the guild 
in 1599, and elected dean six times ; went 
to Paris and Madrid, in both of which places 
he was made painter to the king, and re- 
turned to Mechlin in 1605. Worts: De- 
scent of the Holy Ghost, St John's, Mech- 
lin ; Male Portrait (1619), Museum, ib. ; 
Dead Christ on his Mother's Lap, St Sa- 
von's, Ghent — Biog. nat. de Belgique, vii. 
235 ; Michiels, viii. 223. 

FRANCHOYS, LUCAS, the younger, 
born at Mechlin, June 28, 1616, died there, 
April 3, 1681. Flemish school ; history and 
portrait painter, son and pupil of Lucas 
Franchoys, the elder ; then pupil of Ru- 
bens at Antwerp, where he remained some 
years after his master's death; spent several 
years in France, in favour at court, before 
returning to Mechlin, where he became 
master of the guild in 1655, and dean in 
1663. Works : Pope Honorius sanctioning 
the Rule of the Carmelites, St OnophriuB 
fed by Angels in the Desert, Prophet Eli- 
jah, St Paul the Hermit, St Andrew heal- 

ing the Blind, The Virgin followed by 
Carmelites, Christ in his Mother's Lap, 
Museum, Mechlin ; St Roch healing the 
Plague stricken, St John's, ib. ; Martyrdom 
of St Lawrence and of St, John, Holy Fam- 
ily, St Catharine's, ib. ; Decapitation of 
St John (1660), St Quentin's, Tournay ; 
Resurrection (1657), Cathedral, ib. ; Educa- 
tion of the Virgin, The Virgin appearing to 
St. Simon Stock (both attributed to Lucas 
the elder), Antwerp Museum. — Biog. nat 
de Belgique, vii. 236 ; Kramm, it 610 ; Mi- 
chiels, viii. 227 ; is. 239 ; Neefs, Hist de la 
peint a Malines, i. 347 ; Van den Branden, 

FRANCHOYS, PAUL. See FranceschL 

FRANCHOYS, PEETER, born at Mech- 
lin, Oct 20, 1606, died there, Aug. 11, 
1654. Flemish school ; portrait painter, 
son and pupil of Lucas the elder, and stu- 
dent at Antwerp of Geeraard Zegers ; re- 
turned to Mechlin in 1635, then painted at 
the court of France, spending four years in 
Paris, and was in great favour with Arch- 
duke Leopold at Brussels ; settled at Mech- 
lin in 1646, where he became master of the 
guild in 1649. His works on a small scale 
were compared to those of Gonzales Coques, 
and his large portraits valued equally highly. 
Works : Portrait of a Prior, Tongerloo Ab- 
bey ; do. of Luc Fay d'herbe, Mechlin Mu- 
seum ; do. of Gilbert Mutaaerts (1645), Lille 
Museum; Male Portrait (1650), Cologne 
Museum ; Man with Pistol, Dresden Muse- 
um. — Biog. nat de Belgique, vii. 238 ; Im- 
merzeel, i. 252 ; Kramm, ii 511 ; Michiels, 
viii 226. 


FRANCIA, ALEXANDRE, born in 1813, 
died in Brussels, Aug. 24, 1884. Marine 
painter ; took his subjects from Holland, 
Ireland, and Italy. Gold medal, Brussels, 
1855 ; Orders of Leopold, Christ, Mauritius, 
Lazarus, Oak Crown, and Medjidie. Works 
On the Meuse ; Strand of Scheveningen 
Riva dei Schiavoni ; Lake of Eillarney 
Harbour of Calais; Wreck of the Amphitrite. 


logna in 1450, died there, Jan. 5, 1517. 
Bolo gn e s e 
school. Real 
name Frances' 
co di Marco di 
Giacomo Rai- 
bolini ; son of 
poor parents, 
apprenticed to a 
goldsmith, ma- 
triculated in 
, 1482, became 
steward of the 
guild in 1483, and afterwards Master of the 
Mint under Bentivoglio. He was painter, en- 
graver, and medallist, as well as goldsmith. 
His master was Lorenzo Costa, but he may 
have studied under Marco Zoppo. His 
Madonna, Berlin Museum, and his St 
Stephen, Palazzo Borghese, Rome, are ex- 
amples of his pre-Peruginesque manner, 
which show the hand of the goldsmith 
trained to careful finish and precision. In 
1490 Francia had become the ablest draughts- 
man and master of composition in North 
Italy. An Umbrian character, derived from 
the study of Perugino's works, shows itself 
from this time ; aa in his fine Madonna 
with Saints, Nativity (1499), Madonna oi St 
George, Annunciation (1500), Bologna Gal- 
lery; Madonna with Angels and Saints (1499), 
S. Jacopo Maggiore, Bologna ; Madonna 
with St Joseph, Dudley Gallery, London ; 
The Deposition, Parma Gallery ; Madonna 
with Angels (doubtful), Madonna in Adora- 
tion, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Madonna 
with Saints (1502), Holy Family, Berlin Mu- 
seum ; Madonna, do. with Saints and An- 
gels, Hermitage, St Petersburg. Francia's 
third manner, uniting Umbrian softness 
with Florentine energy and power, was in- 
fluenced by Raphael, whom he may have 
seen in 1505 or 1506 at Bologna, with whom 
he corresponded, and for whom he had 
a deep admiration. His portraits show a 
gradual change from the style of Perugino 
to that of Raphael, and the frescos by Fran- 

cia (1509) in S. Cecilia, Bologna, are Raph- 
oelesque. Other works are: Coronation 
of the Virgin, Duomo, Ferrara ; Annuncia- 
tion, Brora, Milan ; da, Gallery Eatense, 
Modena ; Assumption, 3. Frediano, Lucca ; 
Pieti, Virgin enthroned with Saints, and 
Madonna with Saints, National Gallery, Lon- 
^^ don; Baptism of 

/(U*-t/c(JueV* sari, ed. Ma, hi 

s ywKJ N Iuly> t 566; 

Burckhardt, 112, 387, 583 ; Baldinucci, i 
598 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole bolonaise ; Lflbke, 
Gesch. ital. Mai, i. 447. 

born before 1486, died in 1557. Bolognese 
school. Was the most noted, aa a painter, 
of Francesco Francia's sons. In the fresco 
of the Baptism of St Valerian, Oratory of 
S. Cecilia, Bologna, by Giacomo, the figures 
are lifeless, coarse in outline, and of short 
proportions. His Martyrdom of St Cecilia, 
ib., was probably painted after his father's 
design. Other works by Giacomo are : 
Christ on the Cross adored by Saints, Ma- 
donna with Saints (1526), Saints and the 
Painter, Bologna Gallery; Angels, S. Pe- 
tronius, Bo- » 

throned, -w« » 

Florence Academy; Virgin and Saints (1544), 
Brero, Milan.— C. & C, N. Italy, L 574 ; Va- 
sari, ed. Mil., iii. 658 ; La vice, 12, 150. 

June 13, 1533, died May 13, 1575. Bologn- 
ese school. Son of Giulio and grandson of 
Francesco Francia ; a poor painter, though 
a rich man, none of whose works can be 
authenticated. Many inferior pictures which 
pass under the name of his grandfather, 
Francesco Francia, may safely be attributed 
to him.— C. & C, N. Italy, L 574; Vasari, 
ed. Mil, iii. 558. 

born in Bologna (?), Aug. 20, 1487, diedf?) 


Bolognese school, Bon of Francesco Francis. 
The St Margaret and the Dragon, signed 
and dated July 10, 1518, in the church of 
the Almo Collegio di Spagna, Bologna, is a 
joint work of Giulio and Qiacomo. The 
only picture by Giulio alone is a Descent of 
the Holy Ghost, Bologna Gallery.— C. & C, 
N. Italy, i. 574 ; Vasari, ed. Mil, iii. 558 ; 
Gualandi, 64. 

FRANCIS I, portrait, Titian, Louvre ; 
canvas, H. 3 ft 6$ in. x 2 ft. 11 in. Painted 
in 1533 from a medal, for Titian probably 
never saw the king. Original in Palazzo 
Giustiniani, Padua. Titian painted a third, 
which Vasari saw in the palace of TJrbino. 
Engraved by G. E. Petit ; J. B. Massard ; 
M. Leroux.— Vasari, ed. Mil, viL 437 ; C. 
& C, Titian, i. 383 ; Ridolfi, Maraviglio, i. 
262 ; Cab. Crozat, ii PL 142 ; Filhol, vi PL 
431 ; Musee francais, ii ; Mflndler, 209 ; Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole venitienne. 

FRANCIS OF ASSIS1 ST., Muriilo, Se- 
ville Museum ; canvas, H. 9 ft. x 6 ft The 
Saint, standing with Ms right foot on a 
globe, embraces the crucified Saviour, who 
has released his right hand from the cross 
to place it on the shoulders of the Saint ; 
at right, two cherubs in clouds hold an 
open folio. In his vaporoso (vaporous) or 
last manner. Painted about 1676 for Cap- 
uchin Convent, Seville. Engraved by M 
Gutierrez, Mme. Soyer (outline) ; litho- 
graphed by Jacott ; etched by L. Flameng. 
Repetition, George Salting, London; sketch, 
Henry G. Bohn, Twickenham, Middlesex. — 
Curtis, 234. 

CrONCULA, Muriilo, Madrid Museum ; can- 
vas, H 6 ft 9 in.x4 ft 9 in.; figures a little 
less' than life-size. The Saint, kneeling on 
right before an altar placed on left, looks up 
to the Saviour who is seated on clouds, one 
hand in benediction, the other supporting a 
cross ; the Virgin is seated on the right, with 
the left hand extended; above, heads and 
cherubs; beneath the Saviour, three cher- 
ubs ; all showering roses on St Francis. 
In the painter's second or calido (warm) 

manner. Appraised in 1831 at 70,000 reals. 
—Curtis, 234 ; Madrazo, 471. 

By Muriilo, Heirs of the Infant Don Se- 
bastian, Pau, France ; canvas, H. 14 ft 1 
in. x 9 ft. 8 in. The Saint, kneeling at left 
at an altar placed in centre, with out- 
stretched arms, looks up to the Saviour, 
seated on clouds above the altar, who sup- 
ports with his left hand a cross and extends 
his right in benediction ; on the left, the 
Virgin, kneeling on clouds, intercedes with 
her Son for the grace of Jubilee of the Por- 
ciuncula, whence called also La Porciuncula ; 
above the altar, a group of cherubs scatter 
on the Saint rosea which have sprung from 
the thorns he has used as a scourge ; a lay- 
brother faintly seen on the left of the altar ; 
above, many angels and cherubs. Painted 
about 1676 for Capuchin Convent, Seville. 
Given to D. Joaquin Bejarano for restoring 
church and its pictures after French occu- 
pation ; sold for 18,000 reals to D. Jose de 
Madrazo, from whom Infant Don Sebastian 
bought it for 90,000 reals. Lithographed by 
V.Camaron. — Palomino, iii. 422;G. deLeon, 
ii. 260 ; Ford, Handbook, 708 ; Curtis, 233. 

FRANCIS BORGIA, ST., VeUwquez, Staf- 
ford House, London ; about 5 ft 10 in. x 4 
ft 2 in. ; eight figures, life-size. St Francis, 
in white dress, with plumed hat in hand, 
presents himself to St Ignatius Loyola, who, 
in black dress, advances to receive him ; be- 
hind former, two attendants and head of a 
black horse ; behind latter, three priests in 
a doorway. Captured in Spain by Soult, 
who sold it (1835), with Murillo's Abraham 
and Angels and Prodigal Son, to Duke of 
Sutherland for 500,000 francs. Copy in 
Chapel of S, Francisco Borgia, Church of 
Logrono. — Stirling, iL 678 ; Curtis, 11. 

George Perkins, Chipstead Place, Kent, 
England ; a large picture. The Saint, kneel- 
ing in prayer, looks up at the word Caritas 
in the sky above ; cherubs hover over him. 
Perhaps picture sold at Ajshburaham sale 
(1850) for £1,050. Repetition, without the 
cherubs, Madrid Museum. — Curtis, 239. 


FRANCIS XAVD3R, ST., Murilh, John 
S. W. Erle-Drax, Olantigh Towers, Kent, 
England ; canvas, figures full-length, life- 
size. The Saint kneeling with eyes upraised ; 
a stream -of light falls on his breast, from 
which issues a flame ; in background, group 
of Indiana in a landscape. Belonged to D. 
Francisco Artier, from whom purchased 
about 1809 by Mr. Campbell, Buchanan's 

agent in Spain ; passed to Mrs. Grant, who 
sold it to C. 0"NeiL whence purchased by 
Mr. Dras. — Palomino, iii. 421 ; Davies, Mu- 
rillo, lxiii,; Passavant, Tour in England, ii 
20 ; Curtis, 241. 

By Rubens, Vienna Museum ; canvas, H. 
17 ft x 12 ft 6 in. St Francis Xavier, 
standing upon a high pedestal, habited in 
the black robes of hie Order, is healing the 
sick and the dying, who are grouped in va- 

rious positions around ; behind the multi- 
tude rises a splendid temple with idols, one 
of which is falling upon ita affrighted wor- 
shippers ; above, in clouds, the Virgin with 
a chalice, surrounded by angels bearing a 
cross, in a stream of celestial light Painted 
for Jesuits' Church, Antwerp ; bought in 
1774 by Empress Maria Theresa for 18,000 
florins. Original sketch also in Vienna Mu- 
seum. Engraved by Marinus ; J- 
Blaschke.— Smith, ii. 18 ; GaL de 
Vienne, iii. PL 136. 

FRANCISCA, daughter of Ve- 
lasquez (?), Velasquez, Madrid Mu- 
seum ; canvas, H. 1 ft. 11 in. x 1 ft 
6 in. About seven years old, half- 
length, standing, in grayish dress 
with slashed sleeves and bow of 
red-and-whito ribbon on breast; 
holds a bunch of flowers on a white 
cloth, her hands touching each 
other. Etched by B. Maura. An- 
other portrait, resembling this, 
except that the hands do not touch 
and bow of ribbon is red, also in 
Madrid Museum. — Curtis, 103 ; 
Madrazo, 622. 

FRANCISQUE. See Millet. 
RTCH, born at Augsburg in 1627, 
died there in 1687. German 
school ; history painter, son and 
pupil of Hans UlrichF. (1603-80). 
Works: Jacob and Esau, St Ann's, 
Augsburg ; Job and the Orphans, 
Esther, David (all of 1674), Or- 
phan Asylum, ib. ; St Francis Dy- 
ing, Obermunster Stift, Ratisbon ; 
Arrival of Jacob at Joseph's in Egypt, St 
Ann's, ib. ; Table with Musical Instruments 



(2), Gotha Museum ; Portraits of Han and 
Wife (1674), Nuremberg Museum ; Mats 



Portrait, Vienna Museum. — Allgem. d. 
Biogr., vii 211. 

elder, born at Herentbals in 1644, died in 
Antwerp, Oct 16, 1618. Flemish school ; 
history and portrait painter. Son of Nico- 
las (died 1596), a mediocre painter ; pupil 
of Frans Floris ; when twenty-five years old 
went to Fontaine bleau to study the great 
frescos of II Rosso and of Primaticcio. In 
1573 free master of St Luke's Guild at Ant- 
werp, and in 1581-82 its dean. Works : 
Madonna with Angels (wreath of flowers by 
Jcronimus van Kessel), Dresden Gallery ; 
Martyrdom of St Crispinus, Miracle of the 
Loaves (1598), Last Supper, Martyrdom of 
8t George, four episodes from life of St 
Sebastian, twelve others, Antwerp Museum ; 
Christ and the Adulteress, Raising of Jairus's 
Daughter, Christ on Mount of Olives (1600, 
masterpieces), The Trinity (1608), several 
Portraits, St Jacob's Church, Antwerp ; Exit 
from the Ark, Valenciennes Museum. Am- 
brosius, the younger (died 1632), who was 
a master in the Antwerp guild n~% 

in 1624, was son and pupil of ~^rj* 
Frans the elder. — Biog. nat. 
de Belgique, vii. 243 ; Cat du Musee d'An- 
vers (1874), 159 ; Michiels, vL 318 ; Booses 
(Beber), 110 ; Tan den Branden, 351. 

Antwerp, baptized April 5, 1661, died there, 
Jan. 12, 1717. Battle painter, grandson of 
Frans Francken, the younger ; went to 
France at an early age, worked for years in 
Paris and Versailles, and after his return to 
Antwerp entered the guild in 1695. Works : 
Battle of Eekeren, Retreat of General Mar- 
ten van Rossum, City Hall, Antwerp. — Van 
den Branden, 97a 

FRANCKEN, FRANS, the elder, born at 
Herentbals about 1540, died in Antwerp, 
Oct 6, 1616. Flemish school ; history paint- 
er, brother of Ambrosius the elder ; pupil of 
Frans Floris; obtained the citizenship of 
Antwerp in 1667, and in the same year was 
admitted as free master to the guild of St 
Luke, of which in 1588-89 he was the dean. 

Works: Eteocles and Polynices, Museum, 
Antwerp ; Triptych, with Jesus among Doc- 
tors (1587), Cathedral, ib.; Burial of Christ, 
Jesus appearing to Mary Magdalen, St Ja- 
cob's Church, ib. ; Destruction of Pharaoh's 
Army, Blenheim, England ; History of Es- 
ther, Louvre ; Flight into Egypt, Christ led 
to Golgotha (1597), An Allegory, Creation 
of Eve, Creation of Animate (landscape of 
last two by J. Brueghel), Dresden Gallery ; 
Banquet with Music, Old Pinakothek, Mu- 
nich; Curiosity Shop, Assembly of Ladies 
and Gentlemen, Ecce Homo, Vienna Mu- 
seum. — Biog. nat de Belgique, vii 242 ; 
Cat du Mus. d'Auvers (1874), 166 ; Mi- 
chiels, vi 315 ; Biege!, Beitrage, ii. 74 ; Van 
den Branden, 342. 

FRANCKEN, FRANS, the younger, called 
Don Francisco, 
born in Ant- 
werp, May 6, 
1581, died 
there, May 6, 
1642. Flemish 
school; history, 
landscape, and 
interior painter, 
son and pupil of > 
Frans Francken, 

the elder ; went at an early age to Italy, and 
studied after the old masters in Venice, where 
he is said to have acquired his surname. 
Master of the guild at Antwerp in 1605, dean 
in 1616. Painted the foreground figures in 
pictures of Velvet Brueghel, Neefs the elder, 
and Josse de Momper. His various modes 
of signature have caused the greatest diffi- 
culties in attributing certain works to him 
or to bis father, but it seems now sufficiently 
certain that in his father's lifetime he signed 
" den jon. F. F.," after the death of the elder 
Frans (1616) signed his name without ad- 
dition, occasionally prefixed "Do., D*." (Doo, 
Dominus?), but also still "Den jon.," and 
after 1630, " D, Do.," or " D'ouden" (the 
elder), as then his son, Frans HL, may have 
begun to work independently. He is the 
most famous of this numerous family of ar- 



tiste ; bis works are distinguished for grace- 
ful treatment, remarkable harmony, spirited 
touch, and capital drawing. "Works ; Christ 
Sentenced, St. John Preaching, Ecce Homo, 
Taking of Christ, Neptune and Amphi trite, 
Interior of Church in Flanders, Madrid Mu- 
seum ; Passion of Christ, Prodigal Son, 
Prince visiting Treasury of a Church, Lou- 
vre, Paris ; Christ bearing the Cross, Lille 
Museum ; Magdalen washing Christ's Feet 
(1628), Notre Dame, Bruges; Croesus and 
Solon, Brussels Museum ; Martyrdom of the 
Crowned (1624), Works of Mercy (1608), 
Miracle of St Bruno's Grave, Interior of Art 
Cabinet, Antwerp Museum ; Ball at Court of 
Albert and Isabella (1611), Parable of Prod- 
igal Son, Adoration of Christ and Virgin 
(1616), National Museum, Amsterdam ; Mu- 
sical Company in a great Hall, Botterdam 
Museum ; Galatea, Adoration of the Magi, 
Joseph's Coffin and Destruction of the Egyp- 
tians (2), King Midas, The Royal Banquet, 
Brunswick Museum ; Homage to Flora, Cas- 
sel Gallery ; Destruction of the Egyptians 
(1621), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; do., Mann- 
heim Gallery ; da, and Parable of Prodigal 
Son, Carlsruhe Gallery ; the World doing 
Homage to Apollo (1629), Oldenburg Gal- 
lery ; Apelles pointing Campaspe, The Five 
Senses, Copenhagen Gallery ; Rape of Hel- 
en, Stockholm Museum; Feeding of the 
Five Thousand (1631), Dessau Gallery; 
Neptune and Amphitrite, Belshazzar'a 
Feast, Triumph of David, Solomon and the 
Queen of Sheba, Solomon showing his 
Treasures to the Prophet, Martyrdom of St. 
Andrew, Solomon seduced to Idolatry, 
Sword of Damocles, Gotha Museum ; Christ 
on Mount ot Olives, Washing of Feet, Solon 
and Croesus, Temptation of St. Anthony (?), 
Berlin Museum ; Christ bearing the Cross 
(1597), Christ and the Woman taken in 
Adultery (1606), Dresden Gallery ; Martyr- 
dom of St Lawrence, Aschaffenburg Gal- 
lery ; Seven Works of Mercy (1630), Cav- 
alry Skirmish (1631), An Allegory, Old 
Pinakothek, Munich ; Christ and Nicode- 
mus, Crucifixion (1606), Witches' Sabbath, 

do. (1607), Croesus and Solon (attributed to 
Frans the elder), Vienna Museum ; Witches' 
Sabbath, St. Elizabeth nursing the Sick, 
Berne Museum ; Executions in the Nether- 
lands by order of Duke of Alva, Musee 
Bath, Geneva ; Seven Works of Mercy, Her- 
mitage, St. Petersburg ; Dives, the Bich 
Man of the Gospel, Museum, New York ; 
Passage of the Bed Sea, Crucifixion (both 
attributed to Frans the elder), Historical 
Society, ib. ; Artist's portrait, and three 
others (?), Uflba, Florence ; others in Pa- 
lazzo Pitti, ib., Augsburg, and Schleissheim 
Galleries, in Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna, 
f f and Bor- 

U.A' ifif" 1£Z 



t deBelgique, 

AtfA/. vii.249;Ch. 

Blanc, Eoole 
flamande ; Cat du Musee d'Anvers (1871), 
167 ; Meyer, Gemalde d. Kongl Mus., 167 ; 
Biegel, Beitrage, ii 71 ; Booses (Belter), 153 ; 
Van den Branden, 615. 

FRANCKEN, FRANS HI, called de Ru- 
bensche Francken, born in Antwerp in 1607, 
died there, Aug. 21, 1667. Figure painter, 
son and pupil of Frans Francken, the 
younger, with whom he worked conjointly 
probably until 1639, when he became mas- 
ter of the guild; afterwards greatly influ- 
enced by Rubens, whence his surname. 
Works : St John Baptist preaching, Liech- 
tenstein Gallery, Vienna ; Figures in Church 
Interior by Neefs the elder (1651), National 
Museum, Amsterdam ; do. (1652), Schwerin 
Gallery ; St John's Head given to Herodias, 
Mr. Theodoor van Lerius, Antwerp ; Scourg- 
ing of Christ, Miss Verschuylen, ib.; Conti- 
nence of Scipio, Mr. Dufraisne, Cambrai. — 
Michiels, viii 265 ; Van den Branden, 618. 

tist?), born at Antwerp in 1581, died there, 
Dec 24, 1621. Flemish school ; history 
painter, nephew and pupil of Ambrosius 
Francken, the elder, then studied in Paris, 
and returned to Antwerp in 1608 ; formed 


himself after Rubens and Tan Dyck ; mas- 
ter of the guild in 1611. His portrait by 
Van Dyck is in the Amsterdam Museum. 
Works : Christ among the Doctors, Descent 
of the Holy Ghost, Bruges Museum. Copies 
after Rubens : Visitation of Mary, Assump- 
tion, Adoration of the Shepherds, ib. ; De- 
capitation of St. John, Brussels Museum ; 
Christ and Magdalen (in Landscape by Vel- 
vet Brueghel), Rotterdam Museum ; Heads 
of Seven Apostles (attributed), Dresden Mu- 
seum. — Van den Branden, 339, 622 ; Kramm, 
ii. 608 ; Fetis, Cat. du Mus. Royal 322. 

the elder, born at 
Herenthals in 1512, 
died in Paris (?), 
May 1, 1610. Flem- 
ish school ; history 
and portrait painter, 
brother of Frana and 
Ambrosius the elder; 
pupil of Frans Floris, 
went to France, be- 
came portrait paint- 
er to Henry HL, and, continuing in favour 
at court under Henry IV. and Louis XDX, 
was called the painter of kings. Visited 
Italy either before or after having first set- 
tled in Paris. In 1590 he retired to Ant- 
werp, where he attracted all the pupils of 
his old master, Floris, lately deceased, but 
soon returned to Paris. Works : Abdication 
of Charles V., National Museum, Amster- 
dam ; Charles V. taking Orders, Lille Mu- 
seum ; Decapitation of St John the Bap- 
tist (1600), Dresden Gallery; Assembly of 
the Sea-Gods, Stockholm Museum. — Biog. 
nat de Belgique, vii. 241 ; Jal, 612 ; Mi- 
cHela, v. 317 ; vi. 312 ; Van den Branden, 

younger, born in Antwerp, baptized Sept 
12, 1578, died there, March 17, 1623. Flem- 
ish school, son of Frans the elder ; histori- 
cal figure painter, pupil of Ambrosius 
Francken ; master of the guild in 1607. 
Works : Horatius Codes at the Sublician 

Bridge (1620), Antwerp Museum ; Esther 
before Ahasuerus. 

werp about 1500 (?). Flemish school ; his- 
tory and landscape painter, supposed pupil 
of Jacob van Utrecht; seems to have left 
Antwerp at an early period, and in 1550 set- 
tled in Naples, where he was called Franco, 
and where Wenceslaus Cobergher lived with 
him, and married his daughter. Work : 
Adoration of the Magi (1556), Franciscan 
Church, Naples.— Biog. nat de Belgique, 
vii 253 ; ImmerzeeL i 247. 

FRANCKEN, P. H. (H. P.?), flourished 
about the middle of 17th century. Flemish 
school ; history painter, recalling in his works 
the school of Rubens. Works : St Francis 
of Assisi, The Poisoned Cup, St Louis as a 
Crusader, St Anthony of Padua (1652), Ant- 
werp Museum. — Cat. du Musee d'Anvers 
(1874), 171. 


FRANCO, BOLOGNESE, end of 13th 
and early part of 14th century. Bolognese 
school ; mentioned by Dante as a miniatur- 
ist in connection with Oderisio (Purgatory, 
cxi. 79). Malvasia says that he founded in 
Bologna the school out of which arose Vi- 
tale, Lorenzo, Simone, Jaeopo, and Crista- 
f&no, but there are no authentic records of 
him. Perhaps a pupil of Oderigi d'Agob- 
bio, when that painter was working at Bo- 
logna in 1268. A Madonna Enthroned, in 
the collection of Prince Ercolani, Bologna, 
bears his name and the date 1312. It has 
been repainted, but it seems a picture of 
the 14th century with some of the affected 
grace of movement peculiar to the artists of 
Gubbio and Fabriano. — C. & C, Italy, ii. 
j 206 ; Siret, 333 ; Cibo, Scuola Umbra, 12 ; 
Malvasia, Felsina Pittrice, i. 25. 

at Udine in 1510, died in Venice in 1580. 
TJmbrian school ; family name Semolei, ac- 
cording to Zanettl Went early to Borne 
and studied works of Michelangelo ; became 
a very able designer, but was less success- 



fal as a colourist He executed frescos in 
Rome, Urbino, Venice (1556), and other 
places, and made many designs for architect- 
ural decorations. Was also an engraver, 
and Bartach enumerates ninety-three of hia 
etchings. Works : Battle of Montemurlo, 
Palazzo Pit.ti, Florence ; Baptism of Christ, 
S. Francesco della Vigna, Venice, Madonna, 
S. Giobbo, ib. — Ch. Blanc, Ecole ombri- 
enne ; Vasari, ed. La Hon., xL 317 ; Bartach, 
xvi lit 

TIN, born at Namur, March 19, 1759, died 
in 1851. Flemish school ; history painter, 
pupil of Andreas Lena ; visited Italy is 
1778-81 and 1789-92, and France and Ger- 
many repeatedly. Among his pupils were 
Navez, Decaisne, and Madou. Order of Leo- 
pold in 1845. Works : St Germain bless- 
ing St. Genevieve (Church du Sablon), and 
Four Evangelists (Church des Minimes), 
Brussels ; Mariua amid the Ruins of Car- 
thage, National Gallery, ib. ; Sylla Tiburius, 
Portrait of Mme. Du Barry, Arenberg Gal- 
lery, ib. ; Assumption, Ghent Academy ; 
Physician consulted by two old Women, 
Haarlem Museum. — Immsrzeel, i. 251 ; 
Reamm, ii. 611. 

FRANCDCC1 See Imola. 

FRANK, JULIUS, bom in Munich in 
1826. History painter, son of the glass 
painter, Michael SigUmund Frank (died 
1817), pupil of Schraudolph. Works : St 
George, Dunkelsbtlhl ; The Good Shepherd, 
The Guardian Angel, Saalfelden ; Mater 
Dolorosa, St Sebastian, Cycle of wall paint- 
ings from sacred and profane history of Ba- 
varia, National Museum, Munich ; do. from 
New Testament, Philippine Congregation 
in Gostyn, Posen. Many easel pictures, 
chiefly Madonnas. — Muller, 182. 

SEPH, twin brothers, born at Buis (Drome) 
in 1774. French school ; history painters, 
pupils of David, enjoyed reputation under 
the empire, and often worked conjointly. 
Pierre painted pictures of large dimensions 
in the style of his master, and was employed 

at the Louvre and in making copies and 
restorations in Versailles Museum. Medal, 
2d class, 1812 ; L. of Honour, 1836. Joseph 
went to Naples in 1813, where he became 
professor at the Academy. Works by Pierre: 
Battle of Zurich (1812, with Joseph, gold 
medal) ; Josabeth saving Joash from Fury 
of Athaliah (1817), Nimea Museum ; Con- 
version of St Paul (1819), Dijon Museum ; 
Angelica and Medor (1822), Besancon Mu- 
seum ; Jupiter and Juno on Mount Ida 
(1822), Montauban Museum; Crossing the 
Rhine (1635) ; Siege of Lille (1836), Battle 
of Lens (1841, with Alaux), Versailles Mu- 
seum. Works by Joseph : France in Anar- 
chy appearing to Bonaparte on Banks of 
Nile (formerly in Luxembourg Museum). — 
Larousse, viii. 787. 

in Paris, Sept 1, 1798, died there, Jan. 4, 
1839. French school ; history and genre 
painter, pupil of Regnault Medal, 2d class, 
1827. Works: Christ leaving the Temple 
(1819), Tours Cathedral ; Death of Malvina 
(1819), Fontainebleau Palace ; Daughter of 
Jairns (1822), Amiens Museum ; Baptism of 
Christ (1824), Prefecture de la Seine, Paris ; 
Conquest of Brisach, 1703, Versailles Mu- 
seum ; Young Woman with her Child and a 
Dog, Grenoble Museum ; Mother at Cradle 
of sick Child, Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Bra- 
gella, the Sailor's Wife (after Byron), Italian 

JirayujiulCh. mo 

Woman with Sick Child praying before 
Madonna, Leipsic Museum.— Belli er de la 
Chavignerie, ii. 586. 

FRARL IL See Biancki, Francesco. 

FRASER, ALEXANDER, born in Edin- 
burgh, April 7, 1786, died at Hornsey, Feb. 
15, 1865. Genre painter, studied at Trus- 
tees' Academy, Edinburgh ; went in 1813 to 
London, where he became assistant to Wil- 
kifi, and painted the details and still-life in 
his pictures for twenty years. His own 
works, mostly relating to Scottish life, show 


: frajar.A 


WilMe's influence. Some of his pictures 

have been engraved. Works : Deocb-an- 

dornis (1830) ; Village Sign-Painter (1837) ; 

Sir Walter Scott dining with a Blue-Gown 

Beggar (1844); 

The Glass of Ale; 

Robinson Crusoe 

reading the Bible 

to Friday ; Last 

Moments of Mary Queen of Sootta 

grave ; Art Journal (1866), 125. 

Linlithgow ah ire, Scotland ; contemporary. 
Landscape painter, member of R.S.A. Stu- 
dio in Edinburgh. Faints Scottish scenery 
attractively. Works : At Barncleuth, Na- 
tional Gallery, Edinburgh ; Glen Arnan, 
Trout Stream in Highlands, Springtime at 
Dingleton (1878). 

FBASER, CHARLES, born in Charles- 
ton, S. C, in 1782, died there in 1860. 
After practising law several years, devoted 
himself in 1818 to art, and became a suc- 
cessful painter, especially of miniatures, 
though he also painted historical and genre 
pictures and landscapes. In 1867 a collec- 
tion of his works was exhibited in Charles- 
ton, including 813 miniatures and 139 other 
pieces. He numbered among his sitters 
many prominent people. 

FRAUSTADT, F. A., born at Lauchstadt, 
near Halle, April 9, 1821. History painter, 
pupil in Dresden of Bendemann, Rietschel, 
and Schnorr ; has lived since 1857 in Ant- 
werp. His large compositions glorify the 
Nibelung Saga and form a land of cycle. 
Formerly painted many portraits. Works : 
Krimhilde 'b Dream ; How Siegfried was be- 
trayed ; Siegfried's Farewell ; How Hagen 
did not rise before Krimhilde ; Tetzel's In- 
dulgence Sermon ; Rope Dancers ; Interior 
in Time of the Merovingians ; Goths in 
Rome ; Portrait of Composer Gretry (1880). 

Karl Wilhelm Kolbe, National Gallery, Ber- 
lin ; canvas, H. 7 ft 4 in. x 10 ft. 5 in. 
Upon a high bier, formed of lances and car- 
ried by four knights, the dead king lies in 

state, crown on head and sword in hand, 
surrounded by banners and escorted by 
Crusaders mounted and on foot ; preceding 
him a bishop with crosier, accompanied by 
monks and ministrants with censers ; in 
background, the battle has begun around 
the city of Antioch, from which smoke is 
rising. Bought in 1869 from the artist's 

meo di Manfredi. 

Nova Scotia in 1808, died in Rome, Nov. 21, 
1884 Figure painter, pupil in New York of 
the National Academy ; studied and painted 
many years in Rome, where he resided. 
Elected N. A. in 1833. Works: Mother and 
(Child 1868); Beggars; Young Italy; Flower 
Girl ; Savoyard Boy in London ; Girl and 
Parrot, H. P. Kidder, Boston; Study of a 
head for Judith, Lucchese Peasants on the 
Sands of the Serchio (1883). 

FREER, FREDERICK W., bora in Chi- 
cago, Rl, in 1849. Genre painter, pupil of 
the Munich Academy. Member of Society 
of American Artists. Exhibits at the Na- 
tional Academy. Studio in New York. 
Works in oil : Choosing a Study, T. B. Clark, 
New York ; Souvenir of Gainsborough 
(1881); Waiting (1882); In Ambush (1883); 
Adagio, Jeanette — Portrait Study, Behind 
the Fan (1884). Water-colours: Arranging 
the Bouquet, Veiled Head (1884) ; Dream- 
Life, The Mirror (1885). 

FREESE, HERMANN, born in Pomerania, 
May 14, 1819, died at Hasenfelde, July 25, 
1871. Animal painter, pupil in Berlin of 
BrOcke and of Steffeck. Works : Stags 
Fighting (1857), Stags attacked by Wolves; 
Stags Pursued, Boar Hunt, National Gallery, 
Berlin ; In the Pasture. — Rosenberg, Berl. 
Malersch., 292. 

neva in 1777, died there, Oct 9, 1849. 
Landscape painter, lived for many years in 
Berlin, where he was made member of the 
Academy in 1820 ; returned to Geneva in 
1829, and went to Dessau in 1839. Works: 

ed by Google 


.Rhone Valley near Geneva, Lake of Geneva, 
National Gallery, Berlin. 

FREMINET (Freminel), MARTIN, bom 
in Paris, Sept. 
24, 1567, died 
there, Jane 18, 
1619. French 
school; first 
instructed by 
his father, a 
s , painter, then 
by Jean Cou- 
sin. Went to 
Some (1591), was influenced by the Cava- 
liere d'Arpino, and studied the works of Par- 
migianino and Michelangelo. After spend- 
ing sixteen years in Italy he returned to 
France, by way of Savoy, where he executed 
several large paintings for the duke's palace, 
and in 1602 became court-painter to Henry 
IV., who intrusted him with the decoration 
of the chapel at Fontainebleau, which he had 
nearly completed at the time of his death. 
Was Bumamed the French Michelangelo. 
"Works : Several paintings in the Royal Pal- 
f ace, Turin ; Mercury 

*L commanding Jjaeaa 

| T r |-» *-» to abandon Dido, 
I IKK Louvre ; SS. Mat- 
_^» X ■ ■ ' ~ thew, Mark, Luke, 


rome, Gregory, and Ambrose, Orleans Mu- 
seum. — Bellier de la Chavignerie, i 689 ; 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole fraii^aise ; Jal, 615 ; Le- 
jeune, i. 121 ; ili, 802; Villot, Cat Louvre. 
in Paris, July 10, 1837. Genre, landscape, 
and portrait painter, son and pupil of Ed- 
ouard Frcre, and pupil of Couture. Medal, 
2d class, 1848; medal, 1865. Works: Mule- 
teer in the Alps (1865); Chariot Race (1867); 
Stable Interior (1868) ; Basket-Sellers, Stu- 
dio Interior (1870); Horses unlading Trees 
(1872); Before the Rain (1876); Snow (1876); 
A Corner of Paris (1877) ; Gramigna Lava- 

tory at Naples (1879); Donkey Tavern at 
TV-port, Wood-cutting at Ecouen (1880) ; 
Hotel de Heaume in Paris, Chestnut- Trees 
at Blcmur (1881) ; Truck at Ecouen, Studio 
(1882); Plaster Quarry at St Brice, Isle of 
St. Denis (1883); Surgical Operation (1884); 
Press-house at Chatel-Guyon, Farriery in 
Paris (1885). 

in Paris, June 21, 1815. Genre and land- 
scape painter, pupil of J. Cogniet and Roque- 
plan. Exhibited first picture in 1834 In 
1836 he took part in the Algerian Expedi- 
tion, and afterwards spent some time in 
Egypt Chiefly paints Eastern scenes. 
Medals: 2d class, 1848 and 1865. Works: 
Stable of Loiret (1835) ; Street, of the Jews 
in Constantino (1842); Caravan at a Ford 
(1844); Market of Constantino (1848); Arabs 
Halting (1850), Ministry of the Interior; 
Mosque at Beyrout, Bazaar in Damascus 
(1855) ; Bazaar in Beyrout, Halt at Ghizeh 
(1857); Harem in Cairo, Donkeys and Don- 
key-Drivers in Cairo, Cafe Mohammed 
(1859); Evening Halt at Minieh, Arab drink- 
ing at a Fountain in Cairo, Arabian Restau- 
rant at the Gates of Choubrah, Festival at 
Ulema's in Constantinople (1861); Ruins of 
Karnac at Thebes, Bazaar in Girgeh, Potter 
at Esnii (1863); Okale in the Morning 
(1864); Cafu of Galata, Island of Pbihe 
(1865); Arab Wedding in Cairo, The Even- 
ing Prayer (1866) ; Caravan of Mecca, Ruins 
of Palmyra (1868); Simoom, Theatre of 
Karaguez (1869); Evening Halt on Banks 
of Nile (1870), Caravan for Mecca, Twilight 
in Cairo (1875); Tomb of the Caliphs in 
Cairo (1876); Evening in Upper Egypt 
(1877) ; The Nile, Evening, Desert at Noon- 
day (1878); Beni Souef, In Cairo (1879); 
Copt Street in Cairo (1880) ; Jerusalem from 
the Valley of Jehoshaphat (1881); Simoom 
near the Sphinx, Morning near Cairo (1882) ; 
Cairo from the North (1883); The Nile at 
Nagadi (1884); The Pyramids and Plain of 
Gizeh, Street in Cairo (1885); View of Ear- 
nac, Ruins of Luxor, Laval Museum; Arabs 
resting in Caravansary, Nancy Museum ; 


Well near Nehemy, Stettin Museum ; De- 
parture from Jerusalem for Jaffa, New York 
Museum.— Bellier do la Chavignerie, i. 589; 
Larousse, viii. 817. 

Paris, Jan. 10, 1819. 
Genre painter, 
brother of Theo- 
dore, pupil of Paul 
Delaroche and of 
Ecole des Beaux 
Arts. He gained 
his first success in 

1843, and has since -• 

steadily improved, 
his best works be- 
ing some of the 

least laboured. Medals : 3d class, 1850 and 
1855; 2d class, 1862; L. of Honour, 1855. 
Works : Preparing for Church (1835), Cor- 
coran Gallery, Washington ; Little Glutton 
(1843) ; Little Mountebank, Hen with the 
Golden Eggs (1848); Studio (1849) ; Cook, 
Laundress (1850), Chartres Museum ; Going 
to School, Helping Herself (1853), W. T. 
Walters, Baltimore ; Little Purveyor, Good 
Friday, Dinner, Reading Lesson, Young 
Woman Combing (1855); Suuday Toilet, 
Sweeper (1857) ; Little Housekeeper (1857), 
Little Dressmaker, Cold Day (1858), W. T. 
Walters, Baltimore ; Lesson on Flute, Lit- 
tle Shiverers (1859); Little School, Dieppe 
(1861); Return from Woods, Effect of Snow, 
Grandmother (1863) ; Women Spinning, 
Girl Sewing (1864) ; Palm Sunday, Work- 
shop at Ecouen (1866); First Steps, Prayer, 
Blessing, Library, Little Woodcutters, In- 
terior at Royat, Stove (1867); Women Sew- 
ing (1868); Preparing Dinner (1868), De- 
votion, Prayer, W. T. Walters, Baltimore ; 
Girls leaving School, Boys leaving School, 
Porch of Church of Saint Paul at Antwerp ; 
Exercise (1880), J. J. As tor, New York ; 
^^. Jerusalem 

<V,^vO ?a*^t. * j. '«»»«» ™- 

ley of Je- 
hoshapfaat (1881) ; Blessed Water (1882) ; 
Poor Man's Cider, Before Going In (1883); 

Pull Up, Storm in a Tub (1884) ; A Bivouac, 
Bakehouse (1885). — Bellier de la Chavigne- 
rie, i. 590 ; Larousse ; Hamerton, French 

in Berne, June 16, 1745, died there, Aug. 
15, 1801. French school ; genre painter, 
pupil of Emmanuel Handmann, but went 
to Paris at twenty, and there was assisted in 
his studies by Wille, Boucher, Greuze, and 
Rodin. Painted portraits and genre pieces 
in Watteau's style, after his return home, as 
well as Scripture scenes. Works: Horo- 
scope Realized, Fifteen Scenes from Popular 
Life in Canton Berne, Berne Museum ; Por- 
trait of Haller, City Library, Berne ; Lov- 
er's Present (1770), Historical Society, New 
York. — Allgem. d. Biogr., vii. 355; Dohme, 
3 ; Wurzbach, Fr. Malerdeszviil. Jahrh., 39. 

Basle in 1813, died at Frascati, near Rome, 
in 1865. Landscape painter, studied prin- 
cipally in Italy ; in 1842 he accompanied 
Professor Lepsius to Egypt, whence, on his 
return in 1843, he brought many excellent 
sketches. Works : The Caudine Forks, 
View near Granada, do. near Rome, do. 
near Monreal — Sicily, Caravan surprised by 
Samum, Wood Landscape in Roman Moun- 
tains (last work), Basle Museum ; The Stat- 
ues of Memnon near Thebes, the Samum 
in the Desert, New Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Chamsyn in the Desert (1845), Emperor of 
Germany ; Statues of Memnon, Sphinx Co- 
lossus near Memphis (1858), Leipsic Mu- 

VON, born in Strasburg, March 24, 1797, 
died in Munich, Jan. 1, 1847. History and 
portrait painter, daughter and pupil of Jo- 
hann Stuntz, landscape painter. Studied in 
Munich, and in 1821-22 in Rome, where she 
was influenced by Overbeck, and was made 
roeraberoftheAcademyofStLuke. Works: 
Madonna, Zachariah naming St John, Boy 
Flute-Player, New Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Holy Family, Birth of St John (1829); 
Three Holy Women at the Grave, Madonna, 


Leuchtenberg Gallery, St Petersburg; 
Charity, life-size Portrait of Artist — All- 
gem, d. Biogr., vii. 364 ; Nagler, Mod., ii. 

FREYBERG, KONRAD, born in Stettin, 
March 14, 1842. Horse and military genre 
painter, pupil in Berlin of Steffeck, especially 
successful in equestrian portraits on a small 
scale. Works : Prince Charles of Prussia 
and Suite (1872); Ride of Prince Charles to 
a Stag-Hunt (1876); Prince Hobenlohe at 
Clamart, Arrival of Prince Frederic Charles 
on Battlefield of Vionville, Surrender of 
Metz (1877) ; Group of Officers of Garde du 
Corps (1878) ; Encounter at Ferme St Hu- 
bert, life-size Male Portrait (1879).— Rosen- 
berg, Berl. Malersch., 293. 

FRIANT, lfttTiT.E, born at Dieuze (Alsace- 
Lorraine). Genre painter, pupil of Caba- 
nel Medals : 3d class, 1884 ; 2d class, 1885. 
Works: Studio Interior, Prodigal Son 
(1882); A little Rest (1883); Favourite 
Corner (1884); The Sketch, Portrait (1885). 

FRICrL J., born in Christiania in 1810. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Copenhagen 
Academy, then studied in Dresden and Mu- 
nich. Generally paints Norwegian subjects. 
Member of Stockholm Academy. Works : 
Six Norwegian Landscapes (1852), Oscars- 
hall, near Christiania ; View in Hallingdal, 
Wood Landscape from Thalemarken, Chris- 
tiania Gallery.— Muller, 185. 

Queichheim, near Landau, March 11, 1802, 
died in Munich, Nov. 2, 1870. History, 
genre, portrait, and landscape painter, pu- 
pil of Stuttgart and Augsburg art schools, 
then from 1822 of Munich Academy under 
Langer and Cornelius. From 1834-37 lived 
in Rome and Naples, came to Munich in 
1842, and was appointed Conservator of the 
Art Union in 1845. Works : Margaret at 
Spinning Wheel Knight Toggenburg, Hunt- 
ing Party by Castle Trifels, Blue Grotto of 
Capri, New Pinakothek, Munich ; View of 
Hohenschwangau ; Wounded Knight ; Italian 
Pifferari ; Cloister of S. Scolastica; Vintage 
Assembly ; Views in Sabine Mountains ; 

Tivoli; Views in the Palatinate. — AUgem. 
d. Biogr., vii 387. 

Kohljonowitz, Bohemia, Jan. 10, 1825. His- 
tory and genre painter, pupil of Vienna 
Academy, and of WaldmuUer ; visited Italy 
in 1850, DllBseldorf and Paris in 1862. 
Member of Vienna Academy since 1866. 
Works : Death of Tasso (1852); False Play- 
era ; KirmesB at Mariabrunn ; At the Jewel- 
ler's ; Interrupted Division ; After the Lot 
tery ; Adoption of Child ; Shop Politicians 
(1863); Seizure of Incendiary (1864); Hour 
of Rest (1865); Pawn Shop, Coburg Gallery ; 
House of Invalides, Tasting Wine (1866); 
Return Home (1868); The New Comrade 
(1868), Vienna Academy ; Service of Friend- 
ship ; Strawberry Sellers (1872), The Inva- 
lides (1875), Vienna Museum ; News, The 
Examination (1883); Distribution of Wine 
(1884). — Muller, 186 ; N. Ulustr. Zeitg. 
(1883), i 346 ; Wurzbach, iv. 358 ; Zeitechr. 
f. b. K-, viii. (Mittheilungen, i 21). 

Greifswalde, Sept 5, 1774, died in Dresden, 
May 7, 1840. Landscape painter, pupil of 
Copenhagen Academy, then from 1798 in 
Dresden. Became professor at Dresden 
Academy in 1817, and member of Berlin 
Academy in 1840. Works : Abbey in Oak- 
wood, Wanderer on Seashore, Royal Palace, 
Berlin ; Harz Landscape, Moonrise by the 
Sea, National Gallery, ib. ; Moonlight Scene 
(1819), Giant's Grave, Rest during Harvest 
(1835), Dresden Gallery; Woman on Sea- 
shore beaconing to Ship, Gotha Museum; 
Crucifix on Hill after Sunset ; Thirty-six 
views of Rflgen. — BrockhauB, vii. 353. 

Dontzic, June 29, 1824. Genre painter, 
pupil in DQsseldorf of Marie Wiegtnann, 
then of Jordan and Wilhelm Sohn. Works : 
Convent - School ; Polish Country Mail ; 
School-Children crossing Lake ; Polish In- 
surgents in Cellar ; Loving Couple in Boot ; 
Old Church in Mozovia ; Children in Rome 
during Carnival ; Friday Evening in Jewish 
Quarter at Amsterdam ; Polish Rag-Pickera 


(1880); Poto*Raftemen(1881); Carpet Em- 
broiderers in Amsterdam (1882). — Mailer, 
186 ; Illustr. Zeitg. (1881), ii. 523 ; (1882), 
ii. 359 ; (1883), i 463. 

FRIES, BEHNHARD, born at Heidel- 
berg, May 16, 1820, died in Munich, May 
21, 1879. Landscape painter, studied first 
in Heidelberg, then in Carlsruhe under 
Koopman, and in 1835-37 at Munich Acad- 
emy. Lived in Borne in 1838-15, and set- 
tled at Munich in 1846. Works : Glaciers 
of Mont Blanc ; Lake of Geneva ; Lake of 
Como ; Ravine near Nemi ; Neckar Valley ; 
Landscape in Storm ; View in Heidelberg 
Garden ; Morning and Evening in Woods 
of Heidelberg ; Cycle of forty Italian Land- 
scapes; Mountain Landscape, Carlaruhe 
Gallery ; View in Sabine Mountains, Oreto 
Valley near Palermo, Schack Gallery, Mu- 
nich ; On Lake Constance, Zurich Gallery. 
— Kunat-Chronik, xiv. 638 ; W. Mailer, Dus- 
seldf. K_, 332. 

FRIES, ERNST, born at Heidelberg, 
June 22, 1801, died in Carlsruhe, Oct. 11, 
1833. Landscape painter, pupil in Heidel- 
berg of Bottmann and in Carlsruhe of Earl 
Kuntz. Spent four years in Italy (1823-27), 
then lived in Munich and moved to Carls- 
ruhe (1831), where he waa appointed court- 
painter. Works : View of Trvoli ; Sorrento 
with Tasao's House ; Pozzuoli with Bay of 
Baue ; Cape Miaenum ; Landscape 
in style of Roman Mountains, Cas- 
tello near Amain, Carlsruhe Gallery; 
Waterfall near Isola di Sora, New 
Pinakothek, Munich ; Castle at Massa ; View 
of Heidelberg, do. of Heidelberg Castle 
(1829), Valmontane (1833), National Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; View in Sabine Mountains, 
Leipsic Museum. — Allgem. d. Biogr., viii 
72 ; Jordan (1885), ii. 66. 

FRIES, HANS, born at Freiburg, Switzer- 
land, in Jan., 1465, died about 1520. Ger- 
man school; worked in Basle in 1487-88, 
made city painter in Freiburg (1501), where 
he painted the Last Judgment in the City 
Hall and decorated the Episcopal Palace. 
About 1518 he settled at Berne. His works 


show affinity to the schools of Augsburg 
and Colmar, though generally hard in tone 
and inharmonious in colour. His contem- 
poraries ranked him with the greatest Ger- 
man and Italian masters of his time. Works : 
Six Scenes from Life of Virgin (1512), Two 
Scenes from Life of St. John the Baptist, 
Martyrdom of St. John the Evangelist 
(1514), Basle Museum ; Four pictures of 
Saints, Freiburg Museum ; Legend of St 
Anthony (1506), Franciscan Monastery, 
Freiburg ; Madonna (1501), St. Ann, So- 
matization of St. Francis, Martyrdom of St. 
Sebastian, Virgin going to the Temple, 
Marriage of the Virgin (1512), Nuremberg 
Museum. — Allgem. d. Biogr., viii. 73 ; His, 
Jahrb. f. K., ii. 51 ; W. & W., ii 483. 

Winnweiler, Palatinate, Nov. 20, 1831, died 
at St Gallen, Dec. 23, 1871. History 
painter, pupil of Munich Academy, then of 
Berdelle, and in Vienna of RahL Lived 
many years in Italy. Works : Wine, Wo- 
man, and Song (1862); Hercules and Om- 
phale (1864); Auro Doceo in the Abrnzzi ; 
excellent copies after Titian and Palma Vec- 
chio. — Kunat-Chronik, vii. 203. 

FRHS, HANS GABRIEL, born at Skov- 
gaard, near Hobro, Jutland, Sept. 7, 1839. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Lund and Kit- 
tendorf, afterwards of Skovgaard ; visited 
Dresden and Berlin in 1870, Switzerland 
and Italy in 1871-72. Works: Summer 
Day in Jutland (1868), Copenhagen Gallery. 
—Sigurd MttUer, 106 ; Weilbach, 184. 

JACQUES, born at Troyes (Aube), in 1648, 
died in ' Paris, June 25, 1716. French 
school ; history painter, pupil of S. Bour- 
don, after whose designs he painted, about 
1663, in the gallery of the Hotel of M de 
Bretonvilliers. Professor and member of 
the Academy in 1670. Works: Peace of 
Aix-la-Chapelle (1670), Louvre, Paris ; Moses 
brought to Pharaoh's Daughter (1673); 
Daughters of Jethro, Martha and Magda- 
len at Christ's Feet (1699); Triumph of 
Thetis, Madonna (1704).— JaL, 620. 


in Berlin in 1730, died there in 1815. His- 
tory painter, pupil of B. Bode, afterwards 
studied in Rome, became court-punter and 
director of Berlin Academy. Worts : Myth- 
ological subjects and scenes from life of 
Frederic tbe Great in Royal Palaces of Ber- 
lin, Potsdam, and Sans-souci. 

FRITEL, PIERRE, born in Paris ; con- 
temporary. History and portrait painter, 
pupil of Aim6 Millet and of CabaneL Medal, 
2d class, 1879. Works : St. John Baptist 
(1876); Despair of (Edipus (1877); Electra 
(1878); Mater Dolorosa (1878), Prefecture 
de la Seine, Paris; A Martyr (1879); Fifer 
(1881) ; Remorse, The Widow (1882) ; Solum 
Patriae (1885). 
Studies- , near Ripon, 
in 1819. Genre 
painter, pnpil of 
Royal Academy, 
London, where he 
exhibited his Mal- 
volio and Countess 
Olivia in 1840. 
Elected an A.B.A. 
in 1845, and R.A. in 
1853 ; member of 
Royal Academies of Vienna (1869), Belgium 
(1871), Sweden (1873), and Antwerp. Medal, 
Paris, 2d class, 1855 ; L. of Honour, 1878. 
Works : Othello and Desdemona (1840) ; 
Leicester and Amy Robsart (1841); Duel 
from TwelfthNight (1843); Knox and Queen 
Mary (1844) ; Nora Creina (1846) ; Coming 
of Age (1849); Pope and Mary Montagu 
(1852); A Dream of the Future (1856); 
Derby Day (1858) ; Claude Duval (1860); 
Railway Station (1862) ; Marriage of Prince 
of Wales (1865) ; Before Dinner at Boswell's 
(1868); Henry VDX (1872); Pamela (1875); 
Road to Ruin (1878); The Private View— 
1881, Kate Kearney, Honeymooning in 
Switzerland, La Belle Marquise (1883) ; 
Beatrice overhears that Benedick loves her, 
Dr. Johnson and Mrs. Siddons, Cruel Ne- 
cessity, London Flower-Girl (1884); John 

Knox at Holyrood (1885).— Art Journal 
(1856), 237 ; Sandby, ii 297 ; Gaz. des B. 
Arts (1862), riii 215. 

FRITSCH, MELCBHOR, born in Vienna, 
Jan. 2, 1825. Landscape painter, pupil of 
Vienna Academy, where he studied drawing 
j under Mdssmer. Although self-taught in 
painting, he obtained the Imperial prize in 
1845. Works: Burning Village after Storm; 
Pass near Gunsling in Tyrol ; Landscape in 
Storm with returning Villagers (1874); 
View on Langbath Lake (1875) ; Burning' 
Village (1877).— MOIIer, 187 ; Wurzbach, ir. 

FRITZ, ANDREAS, bora at Parsonage of 
i Mou, near Aalborg, Jutland, Nov. 2, 1828. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Copenhagen 
Academy under Kobke, Gcrtner, and MJar- 
| strand ; visited Paris in 1855 and 1878; went 
abroad again in 1871. Medals, 1854, 1855. 
Works: Jutland GleanerGirl (1856); Views 
in Jutland (1870-80).— Sigurd Mailer, 111 ; 
Weilbach, 186. 

born at Dreileben, near Magdeburg, Oct. 28, 
1845. Genre painter, first instructed in 
Bremen, then pupil in Munich of GrQtzner 
and Liezen-Mayer, also much influenced by 
Eotzebue and Alexander Wagner. Moved 
to Stuttgart in 1880. Works : In Foreign 
Lands ; Portraits.— Mailer, 18a 

FROLICH, LORENS, born in Copenha- 
gen, Oct 25, 1820. 
History and genre 
painter, and illus- 
trator, pupil of 
Rfirbye, then of 
Hetsch and Eck- 
, ersberg. Went 
in 1840 to Munich, 
, and in 1842 to 

' Dresden, where 

he studied under 
Bendemann, then (1846-51) in Rome, and 
1851-54 under Couture in Paris, where 
he went again in 1857, then settled in Co- 
penhagen in 1873. Has illustrated many 
works of Danish authors. Danebrog Order 



in 1857 ; member of Copenhagen Academy 
in 1877. Works : Ingeborg and Frirjof 
(1837); Peasant pursued by Wolves (1838); 
Deer in Forest-Valley ; Palnatoke shooting 
King Harold Blaatand (Blue-tooth), King 
Svavelame forcing the Dwarfs Dyrin and 
Dvalin to forge the Sword Tyrving (1840) ; 
Cupid and the Watersprite (1845), Leipsic 
Museum ; Return from Harvest Field (1852); 
Waldemar Sejr as Founder of Jutland Law, 
Frederic IV. receiving Homage of Schles- 
wig (1854-57), Court of Appeals, Flensburg ; 
Family of a Wood-God, Copenhagen Gal- 
lery.— Sigurd Mailer, 116 ; Weilbach, 190. 

FROHLICHER (FrOlicher), OTTO, bom 
at Soleure, Switzerland, in 1840. Landscape 
painter, pupil in Munich of J. G. Steffan, then 
(1864-65) of DOsseldorf Academy ; studied 
especially the hills of Bavaria and the Swiss 
Alps. Works: Group of Trees in Jura 
Mountains (1866) ; View in Bernese Alps 
(1869) ; Mountain-Brook in Uri, View in Inn 
Valley (1868) ; Landscape in Upper Bavaria, 
View in Bernese Oberland, Berne Museum; 
Village in Nether Bavaria, Saint Gall Mu- 
seum ; Woodland in Upper Bavaria, Zurich 
Gallery ; Moonlight Scene (1884).— Mailer, 

FROMENT (FromenUDelormel), 
Paris, June 17, 1820. History, genre, and 
landscape painter, pupil of Jollivet, Lecomte, 
and Amaury -Duval. L. of Honour, 1863. 
Works : Indians surprising Camp of Hostile 
Tribe (1849) ; Pawnee Children on the 
Platte River (1853); Love Disarmed, Egg 
Dance (1859) ; The Graces (1867) ; Love 
Captive (1870) ; The Dance, The Seasons, 
Spring (1875),— Bellier de la Chavignerie, i. 

FROMENT, NICOLAS, bom at Avignon, 
flourished 1461-76. French school This 
master, whose name has only recently been 
found in the archives of Marseilles, flour- 
ished at the court of King Rene of Anjou. 
In the Flemish character of his works he 
approaches the style of Rogier van der Way- 
den. Works : Triptych, with Burning Bush 

and Madonna in centre, Saints on the Wings, 
Ais Cathedral ; Triptych with Raising of 
Lazarus (1461), Uffizi, Florence.— W. & W., 
ii. 76 ; Burckhardt, 619. 

Rochelle (Cha- 
eure), Oct. 24, 
1820, died at 
St. Maurice, 
near La Ro- 
cheUe, Aug. 
27, 1876. Genre 
painter, pu- 
pil of Remond ' 
and Cabat ; 

visited Algiers in 1846-48 and in 1852-53, 
and brought home many sketches, from 
which he painted his characteristic pictures 
of Oriental life. He was the author of a 
successful romance, " Dominique " (1863), 
and of admirable works on art an traveld. 
Medals: 2d class, 1849, 1857; 1st class, 
1859 ; L. of Honour, 1869 ; Officer, 1869. 
Works: Farm near La Bochelle, Mosque 
near Algiers, View in Gorges of the Chiffa 
(1847) ; five Algerine Pictures (1849) ; 11 
Pictures on Voyage to Biskra (1850) ; Moor- 
ish Burial (1853); Arab Falconers, Holt of 
Merchants before Aghouat, and five others 
(1857) ; Negro Jugglers, Street in Aghouat, 
Border of Oasis during Sirocco, Souvenir of 
Algiers, Audience with a Chalif (1869) ; 
Couriers of Ouled-Nayls (1861) ; Squall in 
Plains of Alfa (1864); Heron Chase (1865); 
Nomad Tribe on Journey (1866); Women of 
Ouled-Nayls (1807); Centaurs (1868); Fan- 
tasia (1869); Canal Grande and Molo in 
Venice (1872) ; Algerian Falconer, or The 
Quarry (1873), Arab Encampment (last 
work, unfinished), Luxembourg Museum; 
Ravine (1874) ; The Nile, Souvenir of Esneh 
(1876). Works in United States: Alge- 
rian Falconer (1863), Albert Spencer, New 
York ; Arabs crossing a Ford, Miss C. L. 
Wolfe, ib. ; Halt, A. Belmont, ib. ; Arab 
Falconer, J. H. Warren, Hoosic Falls, N. 
Y. ; Arab Falconer, B. Wall, Providence; 


Arab Horses going to Water, H. P. Kidder, 
Boston ; Street Scene in Algiers, H. Pro- 
basco, Cincinnati ; Arab Horsemen nearing 
a City, Mrs. W. P. Wilstach, Philadelphia ; 
Cavalcade, A. J. Antelo, Philadelphia ; On 
the Nile, J. C. Bunkle, New York ; Arabs 
Marching, J. T. Martin, Brooklyn ; Chase, 
C. P. Huntington, New York ; Donkey at a 
Ford, B, L. Cutting, New York ; Street in 
Cairo, Halt in Desert, Returning from the 
Expedition, Wm. Astor, New York ; Cross- 
ing the Ford, Arabs watering Horses, W. H 
Yanderbilt, New York ; Halt in the Desert, 
H. C. Gibson, Philadelphia ; The Halt, Boric 
Collection, Philadelphia ; The Halt (1872), 
At the Well (1875), Encampment in Atlas 

(_ _ Mountains, W. 

«<*.""«"** '™*\ T ' WaItera - 

* y Baltimore.— 

* Gonse, Eug. 
Fromentin (Paris, 1881) ; L'Art (1877), viii. 

11, 26 ; Galaxy (1866), ii. 533 j Gaz. des R 
Arts (1878), xvii. 401 ; xviii. 84 ; (1879), xix. 
240 ; xx. 281 ; (1880), ni 50, 464 ; xxii. 
139, 216, 319, 404; Meyer, Gesck, 708; 
Nation (1881), xxxii. 462. 

Birkenfeld, Oldenburg, April 29, 1789, died 
at Ispringen, near Pforzheim, Feb. 6, 1863. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Philipp Jakob 
Becker (1763-1829, Baden court-paint or, 
and director of Carlsruhe Gallery). Studied 
Claude Lorrainand Poussiu in Paris in 1810- 

12, then went to Rome and Naples, and in 
1817 became professor at the Carlsruhe art- 
school. He founded the Art and Industry 
Union of Baden ; visited England in 1824, 
and was made director of the Carlsruhe 
Gallery in 1829. Works: Sorrento; Out- 
break of Vesuvius ; Blue Grotto of Capri ; 
Scylla in Calabria ; Cemetery of Salzburg ; 
Castle Hohenstaufen ; Castle Tyrol ; View 
of Rome; St. Goarshausen ; Monastery near 
Sorrento (1840), Castle Heiligenberg on 
Lake Constance (4, 1853-54), Forstenberg 
Gallery, Doanueschingen ; Etna, and Taov- 
mina ; View of Tivoli ; Bellaggio on Lake 
Como ; Tasso's House at Sorrento ; Villa 

SerbeUoni on Lake Como; Waterfall near 
Tryberg (2), View of Heidelberg, Rocky 
Landscape in Murg Valley, Castle Alt- 
Eberstein, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Landscape, 
Stettin Museum.— Allgem. d. Biogr., viii. 
144 ; Brockhaus, viL 374 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., 
viii 1L 

Paris in 1701, died at Lyons, Sept. 2, 1753. 
French school ; history and portrait painter, 
pupil of Claude Halle ; won the first prize 
at the Academy in 1728 ; received as mem- 
ber in 1744 ; went to Lyons, where he be- 
came director of the art-school Works : 
Vulcan attaching Prometheus to the Rock 
(1744), Louvre, Paris; Moses raising the 
Brazen Serpent (1743), Sainte Croix, Lyons ; 
Nativity (1745), Museum, ib. — Bellier de la 
Chavignerie, i. 595 ; JaL, 623. 

FROSCHL, EARL, born in Vienna in 
1848. Genre and portrait painter, pupil of 
Vienna Academy, then in Munich of Wil- 
helm Diez. Spent several years in Italy. 
Works : Italian genre scenes, Portrait of his 
Wife.— Muller, 189 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xv. 
Wandsworth, Sept., 
1810, died in London, 
June 4, 1877. Sub- 
ject painter, pupil of 
Sass's Art Academy 
and of the Royal 
Academy, where he 
won the gold medal 
in 1839 for his Pro- 
metheuB Bound ; be* 
gan aa a portrait 
painter, but finally 
devoted himself to painting ideal figures, 
especially the female nude. Elected an 
A.R.A. in 1846, and B.A. in 1871. Works: 
Bacchanalian Dance (1844) ; Sabrina (1845); 
Diana and Actssou (1846); Una (1847); Eu- 
phrosyne (1848); Naiad, Syrens (1849); 
Chastity (1854); Sea-Nymph (1855); Narcis- 
sub (1857); Zephyr and Aurora (1868); 
Daughters of Hesperus (1860); Graces and 


Loves, Sea-Nymphs (1863); Death of Ado- 
nis (1865) ; Hylas and Nymphs (1867); Puck 
(1869); Haunt of Diana, Cupid Disarmed 
(1870); Muaidora (1871); Nymph and Cupid 
(1872); Bacchante (1874). — Art Journal 
(1849), 184 ; (1857), 6 ; (1877), 280 ; Sand- 
by, ii. 219; Meyer, Conv. Lex., xvii. 
Kunet-C bron it, ii! 658. 

FRUWntTH, KARL, born in Vienna in 
1809, died there, Jan. 17, 1878. Still-life 
and genre painter, studied in Vienna ; was 
also a skilful restorer of old paintings. 
Works : Venetian Fishermen in approach- 
ing Storm (1846); Little Nell in the Curi- 
osity Shop (1847); Still Life (1850), Vienna 
Museum ; Wine, Woman, and Song (1850); 
Dinner on Fishing Bark (1858); Armoury 
(1857).— Wurzbach, w. 388. 

Brunswick, Germany, Aug. 8, 1833. Land- 
cape painter, pupil of Leasing in DQsaeldorf 
in 1855. Prize for life-drawing, Brunswick 
College, 1852. Studio in New York since 
1858. Works: Scene on Staten Island 
(1869); On the Saco— North Conway, N. H. 
(1879); On the Hills near Bolton— Lake 
George (1880); View from Crow's-Nest — 
North River (1881); Break-Neck Willa on 
the Hudson (1882); Camping Scene — Adi- 
rondacks, View on Lake George (1884). 

in Tubingen in 1772, died in Nuremberg, 
Sept., 1836. German school ; history, genre, 
and portrait painter, pupil of the Stuttgart 
art-school, under Hetsch and Harper ; lived 
for some time in Brunswick, then in Nurem- 
berg, where he became professor at the art- 
school. Works: Minnesinger (1821); Fam- 
ily of Old Knight (1827); Politicians at Cof- 
fce-House, Girl Besting, Wurtemberg Cos- 
tumes (1830); Village Fair (1827); Kirmess 
(1833); Laughing Peasant, Suabian Girl 
braiding her Hair (1834); Summer and Win- 1 
ter (1835) ; nine portraits of distinguished 
Nurembergers, City Hall, Nuremberg. — 
Andresen, iv. 280. 

FUESSLL WILHELM, born at Zurich 
in 1830. Portrait painter, pupil of Stadel 

Institute, Frankfort, then in Munich of Ber- 
delle and in Paris of Couture ; also studied 
in Borne. Copied several pictures by old 
masters for the Schack Gallery in Munich, 
where he lives. Gold medal, Munich, 1869. 
— Muller, 189. 

inHeilbronn, Wurtemberg, Dec 8, 1751, died 
in Vienna, Nov. 5, 1818. German school; 
history and portrait painter, pupil in Stutt- 
gart of Guibal and in Leipsic of Oeser. In 
1774 he went to Vienna and in 1776 to Borne, 
where he studied the Carracci and Domeni- 
chino, aa well as Raphael Mengs and Battoni. 
In 1782 he was patronized by Count Lam- 
berg, the Austrian ambassador at Naples, and 
executed paintings for the King. The next 
year he was appointed vice-director of the 
Vienna Academy, and in 1795 director, 
which post he held until 1806, when he be- 
came director of the Belvedere Gallery. 
Works : Death of Csesar ; Farewell of Corio- 
lanus, Czernin Gallery, Vienna; Death of 
Germanicns (1789), Vienna Academy ; Pro- 
metheus, Count Zinzendorf, Vienna ; Ari- 
adne at Naxos, Joseph n. as Ally of Cathe- 
rine of Russia, Field-Marshal Laudon as 
Conqueror of Belgrade, Mrs. de Witt in 
Greek Costume, Philip at Bed of Alexander, 
Erasistratus at Bed of Antiochus (1788-90); 
portraits of Joseph IT. (1787), of Artist's 
Father (1788), of Elector of Mentz, of 
Marcbese Gallo, Princess of France (six 
times) ; Socrates before the Judges ; Or- 
pheus in Hades ; Judgment of Brutus; Dido 
on the Funeral Pyre ; Adam and Eve mourn- 
ing Abel's Death (1799), John the Baptist 
(1811), Magdalen (1816), Allegory on Peace 
of Vienna, Vienna Museum ; Semiramis 
hearing of Revolt of Babylon, Death of 
Virginia (1801) ; St John in the Desert 
(1804); Christ Crucified (1813); Bath- 
sbeba, National Gallery, Pesth ; Magdalen, 
Graces and Cupid, Schleissheim Gallery ; 
Alcestis consecrating herself to the Gods, 
Minerva and Saturn defending Art and 
Science, Mentz Museum ; Zeus appearing 
to Phidias, Achilles by the Body of Pa- 


troclus, Hercules and Omphale; Si Mag- 
dalen, New Pinakothek, Munich ; Venus 
Anadyomene ; Portrait of Count Ludolft 
Brunswick Museum ; do. of Nelson (1800), 
National Portrait Gallery, London. — Allgeio. 
d. Biogr., viii. 177 ; Andreaen, il 89 ; Brock- 
haus, vii. 398 ; Wurzbacb, v. L 

FUGITIVES, Leon Glavte; private gal- 
lery. People are escaping from Athena 
during a siege by being let down from tbe 
walls at night by means of ropes. Several 
groups are represented suspended in mid- 
air, with a shadowy abyss below, and the 
city walls, lighted by the moon-beams, be- 
hind them. Salon, 1877. 
FUHBICH, JOSEF, Bitter VON, bora 
at Kratzau, Bohemia, 
Feb. 9, 1800, died in 
Vienna, March 13, 1876. 
German school; history 
painter, pupil of Prague 
Academy under Berg- 
ler, went in 1826 to 
Borne, where he joined 
^ the German Pre-Raph- 
' aelites, and assisted 
Overbeck in painting 
tbe frescos in the Villa Massimi Called to 
Vienna in 1834 as custodian of the Academy 
Gallery, he was appointed professor at the 
Academy in 1841. In 1854-61 he was oc- 
cupied in painting frescos in the AlUerchen- 
feld Church, a monumental work, for which 
he was knighted and decorated with the or- 
der of the Iron Crown. Gold medal in 1841, 
member of Munich and Berlin Academies; 
Commander of Order of Francis Joseph in 
1872. Works : I>eath of Otto Ton Wittels- 
bach (1817); St Iran found by Duke Bori- 
voj (1817); Christ on his Way to Mount of 
Olives ; Joshua before Jericho ; The Jews 
Mourning ; St. Adelbeid and Francis of As 
sisi ; Incarnation ; Boaz and Ruth ; St Gu- 
dule; St Filomena; Mary and Joseph on 
Journey to Bethlehem ; Christ in Glory ; 
Christ asleep in the Ship during Storm ; 
Hoses receiving Commandments from God, 
Apparition of Fighting Horsemen frighten- 

ing Inhabitants of Jerusalem (1844), Mary's 
Walk over the Mountains (1841), Vienna 
Museum ; Triumph of Christ, Raczynski 
Gallery, Berlin; St Ann (1844); Disciples 
on Way to Emmaus ; Joseph's Dream ; 
Pieta ; Shepherds on Way to Manger ; 
Peter's Draught of Fish (1850); Judgment 
of Solomon ; First Baptism in Samaria ; 
The Body of St John of Nepomuk found in 
the Moldan, Triumph of Christianity in Ger- 
many, Schack Gallery, Munich ; Beheading 
of St. James, Leipsic Museum ; Christ on 
Mount of Olives ; Jacob and Rachel ; Ma- 
donna ; Rudolf von Hapsburg and the Priest 
(1870). Frescos : Three Scenes from Tasso's 
Jerusalem (1827-29), Villa Msssimi, Rome; 
Fourteen Stations on Christ's Walk to Gol- 
gotha, St Nepomuk, Vienna ; Raising of Laz- 
arus, Last Judgment, Fall of the Condemned, 
Altlercbenfeld Church, Vienna. — Allgem. d 
Biogr., viii. 185 ; Brockhaus, vii. 401 ; Dlustr. 
Zeitg. (1874), fi. 451 ; (1875), L 487 ; Schack, 
Meine Gemaldesammlung (1885), 79 ; Wure- 
baoh, v. 5 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., iil 189, 209 ; 
vi. 198 ; xvii. 33 ; Zimmermann, Studien 
und Xritiken, ii. 340. 

FULLER, GEORGE, born at Deerfield, 
Mass., in 1822, 
died in Boston, 
March 21, 1884. 
Figure and por- 
trait painter, 
studied in Bos- 
ton, New York, 
London, and on 
the Continent 
of Europe. 
Painted por- 
traits at first, 
for many years. Elected an A.N.A. in 1857 ; 
member of Society of American Artists. 
Memorial exhibition of bis works at Mu- 
n of Fine Arts, Boston, 1884. Works : 
Cupid (1854), Miss I. M. Ames, New York ; 
Negro Nurse with Child (1861), Waldo Hig- 
ginaon, Boston ; At the Bars, Farmyard 
(1865), Mrs. M Y. Wynne, Boston ; Shear- 
ing the Donkey (1877-79), C. R Grant, 


BoBton ; Romany Girl (1877-79), J. T. Wil- 
liams, New York ; original study for do., T. 
B. Clark, New York ; Hannah (1880), F. H. 
Lovell, Brooklyn ; The Quadroon (1880), S. 

D. 'Warren, Boston ; Maidenhood (1881), W. 
F. Matchott, Boston; Winifred Dysart (1881), 
J. M Sears, Boston j Psyche (1882), W. A. 
Tower, Boston ; Nydia, Berry-Pickers, Driv- 
ing Home the Calf (1882); Turkey Pasture 
(1882), W. BL Abercrombie, Brookline ; Pris- 
cilia (1882), F. L. Ames, Boston ; Puritan 
Boy (1883), C. G. Weld, Boston ; Pasture 
with Geese, Fagot Gatherers, Twilight on 
Prairie, Arethusa, Girl and Calf (1863); No- 
vember (1882-84); Fedalma (1883-84), C. 

E. Lauriat, Boston. — Harper's Mag., Sept, 

1460, died in 1616. Sienese school ; pupil 
of Benvenuto di Giovanni or of Matteo da 
Siena ; was associated with Giacomo Pac- 
chiarotti and influenced by Pinturicchio. 
He was one of the last representatives of 
the old school In his Coronation of the 
Virgin (1600?) in S. M. de' Servi, the fig- 
ures are rigid, awkward in movement, and 
stiffly draped. His Madonna and Saints 
(1512) in the Carmine, Siena, is better pro- 
portioned, though less characteristic than 
the Coronation in Church of the Madonna 
di Fontegiusta, Siena, and the Assumption 
in the Siena Academy. His beat and per- 
haps his latest work is a Christ between SS. 
Francis and Jerome in the same gallery, a 
weak, rosy-coloured picture, carefully and 
flatly treated.— C. A C, Italy, iii 372 ; Va- 
sari, ed. Le Mon., xl 173 ; Burckhardt, 685 ; 
Rio, i 144. 

FUNK, HEINBICH, born at Herford, 
Westphalia, Dec 12, 1807, died in Stutt- 
gart, Nov. 22, 1877. landscape painter, 
pupil of his father and, from 1829, of Doa- 
seldorf Academy; moved in 1836 to Frank- 
fort, and was from 1854-76 professor at the 
Stuttgart art-school. Gold medal in Rouen. 
Order of Frederic in 1870, order of the Crown 
in 1873. Works: Ruin of Castle (1834), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Lower Inn Valley, 

Ruin on Lake, Stadel Gallery, Frankfort ; 
Landscape in Storm (1869), Cologne Mu- 
seum ; View in the Eifel, Stuttgart Gallery ; 
Summer Day on the Rhine ; Autumn Land- 
scape after Storm ; Urach Waterfall ; Wood 
Landscape in Bruhl Valley ; Outlook on 
Chiem Lake ; Chestnut Wood near Meran ; 
Chillon Castle in Approaching Storm. — 
AUgem. d. Biogr., viii. 202 ; Kunst-Chronik, 
xiii. 194 ; xiv. 294 ; W. Mailer, DQsseldf. 
K, 353 ; Wiegmann, 362. 

FURINL FRANCESCO, born in Florence 
about 1600, died there in 1649. Florentine 
school ; pupil of his father, Filippo Furini, 
and successively of Pasajgnano, Bilevelt, 
and Matteo Rosselli. Afterwards studied 
works of Guido in Rome. On return to 
Florence won considerable reputation for 
painting the nude, generally choosing sub- 
jects in which he could introduce the forms 
of women and children. His flesh tints are 
very mellow and tender. Among hia works 
are, Magdalen in the Desert, Siena Academy; 
do. (2), Vienna Museum; Daughters of Lot, 
Madrid Museum ; Ve- 
nus and Adonis, Buda- .^ 
Pesth Gallery; Crea- <ftXM*bi / lAs 
tion of Eve, Palazzo 
Pitti, Florence; Birth 
of Cyrus, New York Museum. — Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole florentine ; Burckhardt, 140, 383, 
392, 895. 

Berlin in 1810. Genre and portrait painter, 
pupil of Wach in 1829-32, and then of the 
Dusseldorf Academy. In 1846 he was ap- 
pointed teacher of drawing in the Realschule 
at Treves. His genre pieces and portraits 
are remarkable for truth to nature and finish. 
Works : Fortune-Teller ; Return from the 
Kirmess ; Father's Friend ; The Widow. 

in Ratisbon, 1470-1501, died about 1502. 
German school ; miniature painter, famous. 
for his illuminations of a chronicle, a bible 
(1470-72), and a missal (1481, for Arch- 
bishop Bern hard of Salzburg), Court Library, 
Munich. — Forster, Denkmale, iii. 1 ; do.. 



Oeach., ii 254 ; Schnaaae, viii. 168 ; Sig- 
hardt, Gesch., 649. 
FUSEL! (Fuessli), HENRY (Heinrich), 
bom in Zu- 
rich, Feb. 7, 
1741, died in 
London, April 
16,1825. His- 
tory painter 
and writer on 
art, son of Jo- 
hann Caspar 
Fuessli (1707- 
81), portrait 
and landscape 
painter of Zurich ; took hoi; orders after 
graduating from Zurich University (1761), 
left on account of some theological dispute 
in 1763, and after wandering through Ger- 
many, where he supported himself by mak- 
ing translations, went to England in 1765, 
and in 1767 adopted painting as his profes- 
sion, by the advice of Sir Joshua Reynolds. 
Three years later he went to Italy, and re- 
sided there from 1770 to 1779, studying 
Michelangelo especially, and forming a fan- 
tastic style which also betrays the influence 
of Goltsaus and Spranger. After his return 
to London he attracted attention by a pic- 
ture called The Nightmare (1782). From 
the year 1774 to 1825 he exhibited sixty- 
nine pictures and drawings at the Royal 
Academy. In 1788 he was elected an A.R A. 
and in 1790 RA.; was made professor in 
1799, and keeper in 1805. A fantastic and 
prolific designer rather than a painter, he 
had neither the judgment to control, nor 
the technical knowledge to adequately rep- 
resent, the fancies of his powerful but ill- 
regulated imagination. His literary abilities 
were of no mean order, and the lectures 
which he delivered at the Royal Academy 
give evidence of thought, study, and critical 
acumen, and are remarkable as specimens 
of English writing by a foreigner. Works: 
Ugolino and his Sons ; Celadon and Amelia; 
Romeo and Juliet ; Lady Macbeth ; Fran- 
ceses and Paolo; An Incantation ; Hercules 

and Theseus. — Redgrave ; Sandby, i. 205 ; 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole anglaise; Allgem. d. Biogr., 
viii. 260 ; Art Journal (1861), 325; Port 
folio (1873), 50 - Meyer, Conv. Lei., vil 
204; Wornum, Epochs, 526 ; J. Knowles, 
Life and Lectures of FuselL 

FtTERER, ULRICH, nourished at Land- 
shnt about 1480. German school ; history 
painter and poet. He painted, conjointly 
with Gabriel Maechselkirchner, from 1467 
for Kloster Tegemsee, and Duke Albrecbt 
IV. of Bavaria. Work : Crucifixion, Schleiss- 
heim Gallery. — Allgem. d. Biogr., viii 271 ; 
Schnaase, viii. 464. 

FUX, JOSEF, born at Steinhof, Nether 
Austria, in 1842. Genre and portrait painter, 
pupil of Ruben ; talented colourist. Works : 
Scene in a Deer Park ; On a Perilous Road ; 
The Roman Dove-Seller; Children's por- 
traits ; Lute-Player ; Cardinal Praying ; Sa- 
voyard with Monkeya— Mailer, 189 ; N. 
illustr. Zeitg. (1883), i. 167. 

FYOLL, KONRAD, flourished in Frank- 
fort in 1466-98. German school ; son 
and probably pupil of Sebald Fyoll, whose 
name appears in Frankfort documents in 
1439-62 as having executed wall-paint- 
ings. The pictures in the Stadel Gallery 
under the name of Konrad are not authen- 
ticated. — Schnaase, viii. 377 ; W. & W., ii 

FYT, JAN, bom at Antwerp, baptized 
March 15, 1611, died there, Sept 11, 1661. 
Flemish school; animal and still-life painter, 
pupil of Jan van den Berch and of Frans 
Snyders, next to whom he was the greatest 
animal painter of the Flemish school ; mas- 
ter of the guild in 1629, visited France 
(1633-34 in Paris) and Italy, and often 
worked conjointly with Jordaens and Van 
Dyck. Works: Dead Birds, National Gal- 
lery, London ; Dogs with Dead Game, 
Hawk striking a Duck, Grosvenor Gallery, 
ib.; Poultry Yard, Cock Fight, Fancy Birds 
(1661), nine others, Madrid Museum; Dead 
Game (3), Dog devouring Game (1651), 
Louvre, Paris; Hare pursued by Dogs, 
Boar Hunts (2), Nantes Museum; Cart 


with Game drawn by Dogs, Flowers and 
Fruits in a Landscape, Brussels Museum ; 
Eagle's Repast, Two Greyhounds, Antwerp 
Museum ; Dead Game watched by Dog, 
Stadel Gallery, Frankfort ; do. (4), Ct 
Gallery ; do. (1), Augsburg Gallery ; 
(4), Schleissheim Gallery ; Deer pursued by 
Dogs, Bear Hunt, Dead Game (1660), Boar 
Hunt, Dogs Fighting, Old Pinakothek, Mu- 
nich ; Dead Game watched by Dogs (1649), 
Dead Birds, Diana by her Booty (figures by 
Quellinus, the younger), Deer Hunt, Berlin 
Museum ; White Dog with Boy and Dwarf 
(1652, figures by Bosschaert), Still Life (5), 
Dresden Museum ; Diana, and Nymphs after 
the Chase (1650), Still Life and Dog (1652), 
Dead Game (2), Boom in Hunting Lodge, 
Museum, Vienna ; Deer Hunt (1655), Birds 
and Hare (1658), Cock Fight, Fox Hunt, 
Dogs attacking Bear, four others, Liechten- 
stein Gallery, ib. ; others in Geneva, Lyons, 
Lille (2), Valenciennes (2), Dunkirk (2), 
Darmstadt (2), Brunswick (1), and Stockholm 
(5) Museums, Hermitage, St. Petersburg (2), 
Uffizi, Florence, Museum and 
y TT Historical Society, New York, 
f T \j B - a '^ Pennsylvania Academy, 

yob • J*yt i fyo 


Philadelphia. — Biog. imt de Belgiqne, vii. 
394 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole flamande ; Gaz. des 
R Arts (1863), xv. 530; Michiela, ix 191; 
Booses (Beber), 423; Van den Branden, 1085. 

born at Florence in 1652, died there 
in 1726. Florentine school; history 
and portrait painter, pupil of Justus Suster- 
mans and Vincenzo Dandini, then, through 
the patronage of Grand Duke Cosmo DZL, 
for three years in Borne, of Ciro Ferri. Vis- 
ited Venice, where he improved his colour- 
ing ; was invited to the court of Vienna, 
and painted there the portrait of the Em- 

peror and some historical subjects for the 
Imperial Gallery. On his return to Flor- 
ence he executed 
several altar- 
pieces, notably a 
St Philip, in the 
Church of the 
Padri dell' Ora- 
torio. He was 
killed by a fall 
from a scaffold- 
Works : Rape of 
Ganymede, Ma- 
donna, portrait of 

himself (1686), Uffizi, Florence; Christ at 
the House of Simon, Dresden Gallery ; SL 
Francis of Assisi receiving the Stigmata, 
St Peter of Alcantara, formerly in Old Pina- 
kothek, Munich. — Lanza (Boscoe), i. 249. 

er, middle of 1st century b.c. Pupil of So- 
poli&— Cic. ad Attic, iv. 16; R-Bochette, 
Schorn, 315. 

GABL, ALOIS, born at Wies, Tyrol, in 
1845. Genre painter, pupil of Munich 
Academy under Schraudolph and Bamberg, 
then under Piloty ; followed Defregger in 
the choice of his subjects. Was professor 
at Munich Academy from 1878 to 1882. 
Gold medal in 1884, Works : Haspinger 
preaching Revolt (1872); Recruiting in Ty- 
rol (1873), New York Museum ; Blessing the 
Bridal Chamber (1875) ; Forbidden Dance- 
Music, His Reverence as Umpire (1877) ; 
Trial of Sewing-Machine (1878) ; Spinning- 
Lesson (1879); Brewery Inn at Munich, 
Three Magi and their Star (1883) ; Vaccina- 
tion Room (1885).— MQller, 189 ; Brockhaus, 
vii. 442 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., x. (Mittheil- 
ungen, iii. 70), xix. 131, 208. 

sina iu 1617, died in 1706. Neapolitan 
school ; portrait painter, pupil of Antonio 
Rlicci ; afterward, in Borne, of Pietro da 
Cortona, and for nine years in Venice of 
Maroli ; returned to Messina, where he re- 
mained till the revolution in 1674 compelled 
him to leave Sicily, when he went to Padua. 


His best works are in the Church of San 
Francesco di Paola, Messina, and in the Pa- 
lazzo Borromeo, Padua. 

GABKON, OUIIJAM (Willem), born at 
Antwerp, Oct 28, 1619, died there, Aug. 
2, 1678. Flemish school ; still-life painter, 
instructed probably by his father ; master 
of the guild in 1641 ; visited Italy, spending 
several years in Borne, whence he returned 
before 1660. Works : Table with Turkish 
Cover, Parrot, etc (1662), Brunswick Mu- 
seum ; Table spread {?, attributed by Bode 
to Heda), Old Pinakothek, Munich; Similar 

(? £ailoh. /tyo 

subjects in Darmstadt Museum (2) and 
ABchaffenburg Gallery. — Bode, Studien, 616; 
Booses (Beber), 427 ; Van den Branden, 

GADDI, AGNOLO, died in Florence, 
Oct, 1396. Florentine school ; son and 
pupil of Taddeo Gaddi, and like him a fol- 
lower of Giotto. His early labours were in 
the church of S. Jacopo tra' Fossi, Florence, 
where the Baising of Lazarus was treated, 
according to Vasari, in an exceedingly real- 
istic manner ; but he must have changed his 
style, as there are no traces of such realism 
in his later frescos. Those in the parish 
church of Prato (1366), a double series, at 
the ends of a central aisle, representing the 
legends of the Virgin and the sacred girdle, 
are the best and probably the earliest of his 
works. In them he was evidently guided 
by Giotto's maxims in regard to the compo- 
sition, and they are more perfect in balance 
and therefore more pleasing than any of 
Taddeo's. The figures also have more re- 
pose and dignity, and more nature and in- 
dividuality. The drawing is free and bold, 
though not always correct, and the colouring 
bright, clear, light, and transparent in its 
tones. But, though superior to Taddeo, 
Agnolo was inferior to Orcagna, and art in 
his hands had somewhat degenerated and 
become decorative. Other examples of Ag- 

nolo's work are eight frescos of the legend 
of the Cross, in the choir of S. Croce, Flor- 
ence ; and a Madonna, Angels, and Saints, 
Florence Academy ; Annunciation, Uffizi, 
Florence; do., Louvre. — C. & C, Italy, i 
163 ; Lubke, Geach. its! Mai, i. 148 ; Va- 
sari, ed. Le Mon., ii 150 ; Seguier, 79; Bal- 
dinucci, L 225 ; W. & W., L 455. 

GADDI, GADDO, born in 1239, died in 
1312. Florentine school An intimate friend 
of Cimabue, whom he survived twelve years. 
He laid the foundation of a fortune which 
raised his family to the highest social dis- 
tinction. According to Vasari, he executed 
mosaics in the Baptistery, and in S. Maria 
del Fiore, Florence. In 1308 he was in- 
vited by Clement V. to Borne, and certain 
mosaics in S. Maria Maggiore are assigned 
to him. They are more modern in style 
than Busutti's mosaic in the same church, 
and mark the transition between Cimabue 
and Giotto. Vasari says that he painted 
many easel pictures, and he probably took 
part in the decoration of the upper church 
of Assisi.— C. &, C, Italy, i 229 ; Vasari, 
ed. Mil, i. 345 ; Baldinucci, L 89. 
GADDL TADDEO, born about 1300, 
died after 1366. Flor- 
entine school; son and 
pupil of Gaddo Gadd i, 
i and godson and dis- 
.} ciple of Giotto, with 
' whom he worked 
L twenty-four years. 
T After the death of his 
S master he was consid- 
ered the first in his 
art, which, however, 
but dimly reflected that of Giotto. His 
artistic career began when Giotto went to 
Naples, at which time (1352-56) be painted 
the frescos of the legend of the Virgin 
assigned to him in the Baroncelli chapel in 
S. Croce, Florence. These show that he had 
little fancy, and that his execution was rapid, 
decorative, and conventional. Bemains of 
other frescos by him are in S. Francesco, 
Pisa. A Madonna with Donors and Saints, 


Berlin Museum, is signed and dated 1334 ; 
and a Virgin Enthroned with six Angels, 
Siena Gallery, is dated 1355. Two small 
panels, Berlin Museum, part of a series of 
which twelve more are in the Florence 
Academy, though ascribed to Giotto and de- 
signed by him, are evidently painted by 
Taddeo. The Baptism of Christ, and Six- 
teen Saints, National Gallery, London, be- 
long to this painter's school, and the predella 
of an altarpiece, three subjects, Louvre, is 
attributable to him. Taddeo was also an 
architect, and designed the Fonte Vecohio 
and the Pon- ^^ 
teaaTrin- j/** l\ * . 

ita.-0.A-0., t/ \7CuJuL fecu 

Italy, i 354 ; */ 

Labke, Gesoh, itel Mai, i. 140 ; Vasari, ed. 
Mil, L 571 ; Baldinncci, i 217; W. & W., L 

GAEL, BABEND, born in Haarlem about 
1645. Dutch school ; painted hunts, land- 
scapes, kirmesses, and horse markets ; pupil 
of Philip Wouwerman. His pictures are 
finely coloured and correct in drawing. 
Works: Peasant Woman baking Cakes, 
Horseman Dismounting, Rotterdam Muse- 
um ; Horsemen playing at Cards, Brunswick 
; Swine Market, Augsburg Gallery ; 
two in Liechtenstein Gallery, 
Vienna ; Fish-Seller in a Land- 
scape, Halt of Travellers before 
Inn, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg; Poultry Market, Hog 
Market, New fork Museum. 
— Immerzeel, i 257 ; BiegeL Beitrage, ii. 

Amsterdam in 1670, died in 1728. Dutch 
school ; painter of battles and hunts, pupil 
of J. van Huchtenburgh, whom he assisted, 
and with whose pictures his own are often 



confounded. lived long in DOsseldorf at 
the court of the Elector of Cologne, for whom 

painted battles, hunts, and animals. Went 
afterwards to London. Works : Queen Anne 
driving to Parliament ; Royalist Battles ; 
Battle of the Boyne. — Immerzeel, L 250. 

Leyden, died there in January or February, 
1650. Dutch school ; genre and portrait 
painter in the manner of Gerard Dou ; mas- 
ter of the guild at Leyden in 1649. His 
works are very rare. Works: Portrait of 
Young Man, Amsterdam Museum ; The 
Seamstress, Berlin Museum, 

born at Muhlhausen, Alsace. Genre and 
portrait painter, pupil of Leon Cogniet and 
of Soulary. Medal, 3d class, 1884. Works : 
Archiepiscopal Palace at Salzburg (1877); 
Sea-shore at Grandchamp (1878); Shrimp- 
Fishers at Grandchamp (1870); After Dam- 
age at Sea (1882); Women picking Strauded 
Goods (1883); Pore Bustel's Farm, LaTous- 
saint (1884); Fish Market, Farm Yard 

Bourg-Prea-Dijou (Cote d'Or), Sept 24 
1756, died at Florence, Aug. 18, 1796. His- 
tory and battle painter, pupil of Devosges, 
then studied in Borne ; was awarded the 
first prize for his Soranus and Servilia, four 
years after his death. Court-painter to King 
of Sweden in 1789. Works : Soranus and 
Servilia, Dijon Museum ; Cavalry Attack, 
Landscape, Montpellier Museum ; Genius of 
Peace checking the Horses of Mars, Musee 
Rath, Geneva ; Interview of Gustevus JUL 
of Sweden with Pope Pius VX, Royal Palace, 

GAIL, WTLHELM, born in Munich, 
March 7, 1804. Landscape and architec- 
ture painter, pupil of Munich Academy 
under Peter Hess, visited Italy in 1825, 
France in 1830, and Spain in 1832. Works : 
Corridor in Palazzo Ducala, Venice (1831); 
Lion's Court in Alhambra, Balcony of Lin- 
daraja. Sanctuary of Mosque in Cordova, 
Ruin of Convent in Toledo ; Convent Cross- 
way, Interior of Convent Courtyard, Carls- 
rune Gallery ; Church Interior at Cordova, 


Interior of Hall in Palazzo Ducale, S. Laz- 
zaro in Venice, New Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Convent S. Martino in Piedmont (1857), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Devotees before 
Shrine on Spanish Coast (1837), Kunsthalle, 
Hamburg. — Brockhaus, vii. 163 ; Faber, iv. 
246 ; Muller, 190. 

GAILLOT, BERNARD, bom at Versailles, 
Feb. 17, 1780, died in Paris, June 17, 1847. 
History painter, pupil of David. Medal, 2d 
class, 1817. Works: Cornelia, Mother of 
the Gracchi (1817); Conversion of St. Au- 
gustine (1819), Vision of St Monica (1822), 
Prefecture de la Seine, Paris ; Si Louis 
with the Crown of Thorns (1824), Sens Ca- 
thedral ; others in Versailles Museum. 
Sudbury, Suffolk, 
baptised May 14, 
1727, died in Lon- 
don, Aug. 2, 1788, 
British school; 
went to London in 
1741, and became 
a pupil of Gravelot, 
the French engrav- 
er ; then of Francis 
Hayman, with 
whom he studied drawing. After an un- 
successful struggle as a portrait and land- 
scape painter in London, he returned home 
in 1744 or 1745, and in 1760 settled in 
Bath, where he devoted himself chiefly to 
portraiture ; in 1774 he went again to Lon- 
don, and won such a reputation that he was 
considered the rival of Reynolds in portrait, 
and of Wilson in landscape, painting. In 
1766 he became a member of the Society of 
Artists, and he was one of the foundation 
members (1768) of the Royal Academy. Sir 
Joshua Reynolds observes of him : " Whether 
he most excelled in portraits, landscapes, or 
fancy pictures, it is difficult to determine," 
and Ruskin calls him " the purest colourist 
of the English school." His pictures com- 
mand high prices. Works : Market Cart, 
Watering Place (2), Musidora, Rustic Children, 
The Brook, and portraits of Mrs. Siddonx, 


Ralph Schomberg, Edward Orpin the Parish 
Clerk, Sir Henry Bate Dudley, Bart, Na- 
tional Gallery, London ; Lord Amherst, G. 
Coleman, Marquis Cornwallis, National Por- 
trait Gallery; Blue Boy (1779), Cottage 
Door, Peasant's Family, Fisherman's Fam- 
ily, Grosvenor House ; Mrs. Sheridan and 
Mrs. Tickell, Mr. Linley and his Grandsons 
Samuel and Thomas, J. P. Loutherbourg, 
K.A.J Mrs. Moody and her Children, Dul- 
wich Gallery ; Hon. Mrs. Graham, National 
Gallery, Edinburgh ; Miss Haverfield, Por- 
trait of a Lady, Hertford House ; portrait 
of himself, Royal Academy ; Daughters of 
George HL, sketch for Blue Boy, South 
Kensington Museum ; portrait of his wife, 
W. Sharpe ; portrait of himself, of Lady 
Mary Bowlby, and Gainsborough Dupont, 
George Richmond, R. A. ; Cows in Meadow, 
Bridgewater House; Young Girl, Stafford 
House ; Family of Country People, Wynn 
Ellis Collection ; Landscape, Baring Collec- 
tion ; Johann Christian Fischer the com- 
poser, Col. St Leger, and others, Hamp- 
ton Court ; Miss McGill, Cobham Hall ; 
two portraits, Arundel Castle ; Landscape, 
Petworth; Duke of Argyll (1779); Har- 
vest Wagon, Lord Tweedmouth ; John Duke 
of Bedford, Blenheim ; Cattle in Land- 
scape, Bo wood ; Feasants going to Market, 
Stourhead House ; Duke and Duchess of 
Montague, Duckwith Palace ; Landscapes 
with Cattle (2), Belvoir Castle ; Lady Chat- 
ham, Orwell Park ; Duchess of Devonshire 
(1775), Earl Spencer, Althorp ; Landscape, 
Historical Society, New York. Other of 
the 220 portraits by him, are : George 
HL (8), Pitt (7), Garrick (5), Lord Chan- 
cellor Camden, Sir William Blackstone, 
Johnson, Sterne, Richardson, Clive, Burke, 
Sheridan, Windham, Franklin, Canning, 
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Lady Ver- 
non, Lady Maynard, and the Bishops of 
Worcester and Ferns. A collection of 216 
of Gainsborough's works were exhibited at 
the Grosvenor Gallery, London, in 1885. — 
Pratt, Life (London, 1788); Thicknesse, Life 
(London, 1788); Fulcher, Life (London, 


1866); Brock-Arnold, Biog. Great Artists; 
Redgrave ; Cunningham ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
anglaise ; Waagen, Art Treasures; Black- 
wood's Mag., Nov., 1867 ; Eng. Painters of 
Georgian Era (London, 1876); London 
Acad., Aug. 4, 1883, 86 ; July 21, 1883, 51 ; 
Portfolio (1872), 169, 178. 

Augsburg, Not. 21, 1825. Genre painter, 
pupil in Augsburg of Johann Geyer, then of 
Munich Academy under Clemens 
Zimmermann, but studied chiefly 
after the old masters in the Pina- 
kothek. Having held a position as 
Intructor at Augsburg in 1853-68, 
he settled in Munich. Received a 
medal in London. "Works : Family 
Concert (1867); Mflnchhausen 
among the Ladies; The Tough 
Goose ; The Last Lesson ; Soldiers 
Quartered ; Secret Love Message ; 
Game of Chess; Hans Fugger in 
Family Circle ; Cceur a Tout ; Con- 
tented People ; Lupus in Fabula ; 
Brother Cellarer; The Improvisa- 
tors ; Letter of Introduction. — All- 
gem. Kunst-Chronik, ix. 698. 

first half of 15th century, dead in 
1473. Lombard school; son of a 
tailor and master-painter of Fer- 
rers. Name appears in 1450-53 in 
account books of house of Este, 
where he is called Maestro Galasso 
de Matfaeo Oslegaro, in connection 
with the decoration of the palace of 
Belriguardo. In 1455 he composed 
the Assumption and finished a portrait of 
Cardinal Bessarion in Santa Maria iu Monte, 
Bologna. Vasari says he went to Tenice and 
acquired there the use of oils, but it is doubt- 
ful if be ever used them. Much more has 
been made of him than he deserves. His 
pictures show bad drawing, affected or spas- 
modic action, and skinny flesh. Examples : 
Trinity, Ferrara Museum ; Entombment, and 
Virgin with Saint and Donor, Costabili Col- 
lection, Ferranu— C. & G., N. Italy, i. 514 ; 

Vasari, ed. LeMon., iv. 213 ; Cittadella, No. 
tide di Ferrara, 26, 658 et seq. ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole f erraraise. 

lazzo Farnesina, Rome ; fresco, figures life 
size. Galatea, half nude, standing in a shell, 
attended by tritons and sea-nymphs, is drawn 
over the waves by two dolphins, which she 
guides by reins, aided by a Cupid ; above, 
three Cupids are discharging arrows, and a 

■I* of Galitn, Raphi 

fourth, half hidden in clouds, is preparing 
his darts. Painted in 1514 for Agostino 
Chigi, owner of the Palazzo Chigi (now Far- 
nesina). Subject probably from Philostratus 
(Imagines, ii. sviii) or Politian (Giostra, i 
118). Engraved by Mara Antonio ; Marco 
Dents ; H. Goltzius ; Rieliomme ; B. Des- 
noyers. Copy by Giulio Romano, Acca- 
demia di S. Luca, Rome. — Vasari, ed. Mil., 
iv. 340 ; Passavaut, it 143 ; Muntz, 489 ; 
Fdrster, Farnesina Studien ; Grayer, Ra- 


phael et l'Antiquitu, L 279 ; Springer, 260 ; 
Perkins, Essay, 160. 

Subject treated also by Francesco Albani, 
Dresden Gallery ; Nicolas Poussin, Hermit- 
age, St Petersburg ; Agostino Carracci, Pa- 
lazzo Farnese, Borne ; Luca Giordano, Her- 
mitage, St Petersburg ; Domenico Feti, 
Vienna Museum ; School of Botticelli, Dres- 
den Museum. 

GALATON of Alexandria, time of Ptol- 
emy Philopater (222-205 m.). JElian (Var. 
hist xiii. 24) says be painted a picture in- 
tended to cast ridicule on the epic poets of 

in Paris, June 30, 1810, died at Neuilly- 
sur-Seine in June, 1886. Genre and por- 
trait painter, pupil of Riehomme and Reg- 
nault Medal, 1865. Works: St Medar- 
dus (1860); Chambermaid (1855); Girl 
Scholar (1865); Young Housewife (1870); 
Consolation (1875); Reverie (1878), Pau 
Museum ; The King's Cake (1880); Woman 
Darning (1882); Gypsy Girl (1885). 

GALE, WILLIAM, bom in London in 
1832. History and genre painter, pupil of 
Boyal Academy ; first exhibited in 1815 
Young Celadon and his Amelia. Spent 
several years in Italy and travelled in Syria, 
Palestine, and Algeria. Works : Weeping 
Place of the Jews in Jerusalem (1863); ~ 
trance into Jerusalem (1867); Return of the 
Prodigal (1869); Cupid's Ambassador (1871); 
Abraham and Isaac going to Sacrifice (1872) : 
Eyes to the Blind (1873); Spring-Time in 
the East (1874); The Competitive Examina- 
tion (1875) ; Chess-Playera, Love-Tale (1876); 
Spoils of War (1877); Algerian Interior 
(1868); Song of Miriam (1881); Helweh 
(1883).— Meyer, Conv. Lex., xviii. 378. 

Charles Louie Mutter, Charles S. Smith, 
New York ; canvas. The astronomer re- 
ceived by his friend Cardinal Barberini, 
who afterwards became Pope Urban VUL 

GALILEO IN PRISON, Karl von Piloty, 
Cologne Museum ; canvas, H. 10 ft. x 7 ft. 
3 in. The astronomer in pensive attitude 

looking at some mathematical lines he has 
drawn upon the floor, upon which falls a ray 
of sunlight In the background a grated 
window through which two monks are ob- 
rving him. 

in Paris, March 25, 1813, died at Montigny- 
le-Cormeilles (Seine-et -Oise), Jan. 17, 1880. 
Genre painter, fellow pupil with Ingres 
under A. Hesse. Medals : 3d class, 1835 ; 
class, 1846. Works : Lady of the Cas- 
tle in the 16th century ; Holy Women at 
the Tomb of Christ (1835); Liberty leaning 
on Christ (1836); Nausicaa (1841); Angel 
(1846); Ode (1846), Luxembourg Museum ; 
Virgin at Prayer ; Jealous Juno ; Christ 
Blessing (1848), Cathedral of Perigneux; 
Virgin in Tears (1849), Church of Jonzac ; 
Leda (1857); The Papacy (1868); Portrait 
Hesse (1870); Pre-des-Liona in June 
(1875) ; St Louis, King of France, Henri 
Jules de Bourbon, Versailles Museum. — 
Bellierde la Chavignerie, i. 601 ; Cbronique 
des Arts, January 24, 1880 ; Am. Art Bev., 
March, 1880 ; Kunafc-Chronife, xv. 386; Vap- 
ereau (1880), 768. 
QALLAIT, LOUIS, born at Tournay, 
March 10, 1810. 
History, genre, and 
portrait painter, pu- 
pil of Tournay Acad- 
emy under Henne- 
quin. Having 
,, obtained the first 
prize at Ghent in 
1831, he studied at 
the Antwerp Acad- 
emy, and in 1834 
went to Paris, where his portraits and his- 
torical paintings were soon highly esteemed. 
His Abdication of Charles V., painted at 
Brussels in 1841, placed him at once at the 
head of Belgian historical painters, and won 
for him the Belgian Order of Leopold, and 
the French Legion of Honour. The city of 
Brussels Btruck a medal in his honour. 
Member of Brussels, Antwerp, Paris, Berlin, 
and Munich Academies. Prussian Order of 


Merit ; Order of Oaken Crown of Holland. 
Works : Bender unto Caesar the things that 
are Cnsar's (1831), Ghent Museum ; Christ 
healing the Blind (1833), Tournay Cathe- 
dral ; Duke of Alva in the Netherlands, 
Travelling Musicians (1834); The Beggars 
(1834), liege Museum ; Job and his 
Friends (1835), formerly in Luxembourg 
Museum ; Death of Palestrina ; Montaigne 
visiting Tasso in Prison (1886), King of 
Belgium; The Penitent (1836); Battle of 
Mont Cassel (1837), Conquest of Antioch 
by Godfrey da Bouillon (1840), Count Bald- 
win crowned at Constantinople in 1204, 
Due de Bit-on (1835), Versailles Museum ; 
Abdication of Charles V. (1841), Brussels 
Museum ; replica (1849), Stadel Gallery, 
Frankfort; Temptation of St Anthony 
(1848), King of Belgium ; Triumph of Ge- 
nius, Broken Violin-Bow (1850) ; Obsequies 
of Egmont and Horn (1851), Tournay Mu- 
seum ; Slavic Musicians (1852), Bavene Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; Gypsy with Children (1852); 
Song of Prisoners (1855) ; Francis L in Leo- 
nardo da Vinci's Studio (1857); Egmont's 
Last Hour (1858), Capuchin Monk, National 
Gallery, Berlin; Joanna la Folle (1859), 
Brussels Museum ; Oath of Vargas, San 
Donato Gallery; Alva contemplating the 
beheaded Counts Egmont and Horn, Art 
and Liberty (1859), Power of Music (1860), 
Peace, War (1872), W. T. Walters, Balti- 
more ; Alva signing Death-Warrants (1863); 
Monk feeding the Poor, New Pinakothek, 
Munich ; The Prisoner, W. H. Vanderbilt, 
New York ; Italian Bevenge ; Samson and 
Delilah ; Fisherman's Widow ; Murillo find- 
ing Model for his Madonna; Prayer after 
Vintage ; Plague in Tournay (1882), Brus- 
sels Museum ; Portraits of Pius IX. (1861), 
and of Cardinal Antonelli (1862); Fifteen 
historical portraits of Warriors, Legislators, 
and Patrons of Art and Letters, Senate 
Chamber, Brussels.— Art Journal (1866), 
101 ; Brockhaus, vii. 476 ; Immerzeel, i. 
269 ; If mm in, u. 526 ; Springer, Gesch., 
198 ; Zeitacbr. f. b. K, xvii. 870 ; Riegel, 
Wandmalerei in Belgien, 36, 44. 

GALLEGOS, FERNANDO, born at Sala- 
manca about 1475, died there in 1550. 
Spanish school ; pupil of Pedro Berruguete, 
but painted in the manner of Roger van der 
Weyden. One of his best works, a Madonna 
with SS. Andrew and Christopher, was exe- 
cuted for the chapel of S. dementi in the 
Cathedral of Salamanca. Works: Altar- 
piece in Cathedral at Zamora ; Two Bishops 
and Two Saints, Academy, Valladolid ; Vis- 
itation, life of St John the Baptist (5), 
Madrid Museum. — Stirling, i. 120. 

GALLEBANL CECILIA, portrait, Leo- 
nardo da Vinci, lost(?). Painted in Milan 
about 1485-89, for Lodovioo Sforza (B 
Moro), Duke of Milan, whose mistress she 
was. She afterwards married Count Lodo- 
vico Pergamino. In last century tins pict- 
ure was in possession of Marquis Bonesana, 
Milan. A replica, or copy, belonging to 
Professor Franchi, Milan, passed for a St 
Cecilia. Another portrait of her by Leo- 
nardo belonged to the Palhmcini family of 
San Calocero. He also painted her as a 
Madonna, called the M. della Rosa. In this 
picture, which Amoretti saw in Milan, the 
Virgin is urging Jesus to bless a rose.- - 
Vasari, ed. Ma, iv. 87 ; Rigollot, Hist des 
Arts, etc., L 299 ; Amoretti, Mem. storic. di 
L. da Vinci, 38, 80, 165 ; Heaton, 279, 280. 

GAT.LT. SeeBilnena. 

GALLOCHE, LOUIS, born in Paris, 
Aug. 24, 1670, died July 21, 1761. French 
school ; pupil of Louis de Boullongne ; ob- 
tained the first prize in 1695, spent two 
years in Borne, and after his return to France 
opened a school Was received into the 
Academy in 1711, made professor in 1720, 
rector in 1746, and chancellor in 1754. He 
had a pension from the king, and was lodged 
at the Louvre. 
Works : Alces- 
tis restored i 
Admetus (1 

to „ Lri\-LOthjL. 

uetus(1711), ( J ^<g 

nvre; St. ^— ' //S^ 
Peter in Cap- 
tivity, Bennes Museum ; St Ambrose reviv- 
ing a Child, Nancy Museum ; Angelica and 



Medora, Caen Museum ; Coriolanus entreat- 
ed by bin Family to assume the Command 
of the Roman Army, Orleans Museum. — 
Cb. Blanc, Ecole francaise ; Lejeune, Guide, 
L 857, til 104, 802 ; Vfflot, Cat. Louvre. 

GAMBA, ENRICO, born in Turin, Jan. 
3, 1831, died there in Nov., 1683. History, 
genre, and landscape painter, studied in 
Turin, at the Stadel Institute, Frankfort, 
and in Rome. Works : Victor Amadeus 
protecting the Poor, End of Vacation, Sou- 
venir of the Upper Rhine ; Frescos in S. 
Oioachino, Turin, and in Alessandria and 
Chiari Cathedrals. — Kunst-Chronik, xix. 66. 

born 1541, died 1574. Lombard school ; 
studied under Antonio Campi of Cremona, 
but afterwards became the disciple of Roma- 
nino, whose daughter he married. Vasari, 
however, calls him the son-in-law of Moretto 
da Brescia. His style is a combination of 
Oampi's and Romanino's. Among his most 
spirited compositions are the damaged fres- 
cos in the Castello of Brescia. Another im- 
portant work is an altarpieceof the Nativity 
in S. Faustino, Brescia. The twelve large 
frescos illustrative of the history of Christ, 
in the cathedral at Parma, were executed by 
him, with the aid of Sojaro, between 1568 
and 1572.— C. A C, N. Italy, ii. 437 ; Va- 
sari, ed. Le Mon., xi. 250, 264 ; Burckhardt, 
192, 73a 

GAMESTERS, Michelangelo da Caravag- 

radea, playing cards. A good picture. From 
Prague Gallery, 1748. Engraved by P. 
Tanje ; J. C. LoedeL Replica in Palazzo 
Sciarra, Rome, painted for Cardinal del 
Monte ; formerly in Palazzo Barberisi. En- 
graved by J. Volpato ; T. Verkruye ; P. P. 
Montagnanl — Gal. Roy. de Dresde, ii. PL 
28 ; Meyer, Ktinst Lex., L 614, 620 ; Roeiui, 
vi PL 133. 

GANYMEDE, RAPE OF, Oorreggio, Vi- 
enna Museum ; canvas, H5ft.2in.x2ft 
3 in. Jupiter, struck with the charms of 

gio, Dresden Gallery ; canvas, H. 3 ft. x 4 
ft 4 in. A young soldier with two corn- 

Ganymede, son of Tros, King of Troy, and 
one of the most beautiful of mortals, took 
the form of an eagle and bore him off to 
heaven, where he served as cupbearer to the 
gods (Ovid, Metamorphoses). In the pict- 
ure, Ganymede is borne by the eagle in the 
air ; below, the plains of Lycia, where Gany- 
mede had tended his flocks ; in foreground, 
his dog, howling at the loss of bis master. 
Painted about 1530 (?). In possession of An- 
tonio Perez, favourite of Philip II. ; Bold in 
1603 to Bodolph H., and sent from Spain to 
Prague with the Leda, but probably taken 
early to Vienna. Assigned in Spain to Par- 
migiano. Ancient copy in Madrid Museum. 
Another Ganymede, with changes, a fresco 


transferred to canvas, in Modena Gallery. 
Engraved by Fr. Van dcr Stoen ; Jos. Eisa - 
ner. — Meyer, Correggio, 341, 492 ; Kunat 
Lex., i 438 ; GaL de Vienne, L Pi 18. 

By Eustache Lesueur, Louvre, Paris ; can- 
vas, H. 4 ft. 2 in. x 3 ft 7 in. The eagle 
bears aloft the young prince, whose atten- 
tion is directed earnestly to the earth, seen 
below. Painted for the hotel of President 
Lambert Collection of Louis XVI. En- 
graved bv Beauvais. — Landon, Musee, vi 17; 

By Rembrandt, Dresden Gallery ; canvas, 
H. 5 ft. 9 in. x 4 ft 2 in. ; signed, dated 
1635. Ganymede borne to Olympus by an 
eagle. Acquired in 1751. Engraved by C. 
G. Schultze ; Cardon. — Yosmaer, 442. 

Florence in 1466, 
died there in 
1524. Florentine 
school. Real 
name Capponi, 
but commonly 
called del Garbo 

{the Graceful). • *" 

Pupil of Filippi- 
no Lippi, with 
whom he re- 
mained until about 1490. He was a weak 
follower of his master's style. He appears 
to best advantage in his Madonna with An- 
gels ; Madonna with Saints and Angels ; and 
Madonna with Angels, Cherubs, and Saints, 
Berlin Museum. The first-named group is 
almost Baphaelesque in its conception. 
Among other examples worthy of note are : 
Madonna with Saints, DresdeD Gallery ; 
Coronation of the Virgin, Louvre; Resurrec- 
tion, Florence Academy.— C. & C, Italy, iii. 
415 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole florentine ; Liibke, 
Gesch. itab Mai., i. 375 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., 
rii. 190 ; ed. MiL, iv. 233. 

born in Seville ; contemporary. History and 
genre painter, pupil of Seville Academy ; 
studied later in Rome. Works : Burial of 
St Chrysostom (1864) ; Apparition of St 

Agnes (1867) ; Starting for the Bull-Fight 

born at Calatayud, Saragossa ; contempo- 
rary. History painter, pupil of Madrid 
Academy. Works: Raising of Lazarus 
(1856), Museum de la Trinidad, Madrid; 
The Lovers of Teruel (1859) ; Death of King 
Don Sancho ; Death of Poet Macias ; lib- 
eration of Francis L ; Charles IL as a Sor- 
cerer (1876) ; Procession of Our Lady (1881); 
Penitent (1884). 

at Exeter, N. H.; contemporary. Figure 
painter, pupil of H. Merle, Lefebvre, and 
Bouguereau in Paris. Exhibits at National 
Academy, New York, and Paris Salon. 
Honourable mention, Paris Salon, 1879. 
Studio in Paris. Works : Cinderella, C. 
Crocker, San Francisco ; Cornelia and her 
Jewels (1872); Corinne (1874); Sorceress 
(1875); Fortune-Teller (1876); Ruth and 
Naomi (T. Wigglesworth, Boston), Moses in 
the Bulrushes (1878); Maud Muller (1879); 
Priscilla, Water's Edge (1861); Daphnht 
and Chloe (1882); Captive (1883); Portraits, 
J. H, Stebbins, New York ; Improvised Cup 
(1884), Corner of the Farm (1885), Knced- 
ler & Co., New York.— Portfolio (1879), 

GAREIS, ANTON, born in Prague in 
1837. Genre and portrait painter, pupil of 
his father and of PraguB Academy under 
Engerth ; visited Dresden, Vienna, and Hun- 
gary. Works : Twelfth Night (1862); Kir- 
mess (1863); Tavern Scene (1864); Hunga- 
rian Gypsies Playing, Sunday Music in 
Croatia (1868); Child's Play, Four Cartoons 
to "As you Like It"— Muller, 192. 

in Paris, Feb. 19, 1783, died there. Sept 11, 
1857. French school ; marine painter, pu- 
pil of his father, Jean Francois (1755-1837), 
portrait and genre painter, and scholar of 
David. Love of adventure led him in 1796 
to India, where he took part in several sea- 
fights, and was taken prisoner in 1806 by 
the English, who retained him in captivity 


at Portsmouth until 1814. He exhibited 
his first marine in 1816, became painter to 
the Duke of Angoulume in 1817, and in 
1833 director of the Museum of Rouen. 
Medals in 1819 and 1855 ; L. of Honour, 
1852. Works: Tower of London, Three- 
decker cast on the Bocks, A Storm, Bond 
stead with Vessels (1819); View of the 
Scheldt (1833), Douoi Museum ; Battle of 
Augusta, 1676 (1836), Battle of Navarino, 
Napoleon's Return from Elba, Versailles 
Museum ; View of Sidon at Sunset, Bou- 
logne Museum ; Capture of the Kent by the 
Corsair Confiance (1836), La Rochelle Mu- 
seum ; Cod-Fishing on Bonks of Newfound- 
land (1839), Rouen Museum ; Frigate Vir- 
ginia attacking English Squadron, Rochefort 
Museum ; Incident in Battle of Navarino 
(1853), Nantes Museum ; Porpoise-Fishing, 
Cherbourg Museum ; View of the Fumes 
Canal (1855), Marseilles Museum. — Bellier 
de la Chavignerie, L 607 ; Lorousse ; Le- 
jeune, Guide, iii. 105 ; Art Journal (1858), 

born in Paris, Aug. 24, 1759, died Nov. 16, 
1849. French school ; history and portrait 
painter, pupil of Duramean, Doyen, and 
Vien, studied afterwards in Rome ; painted 
scenes from Greek and Roman history and 
mythology, in the shallow theatrical pathos 
of his time, but with skill and effective col- 
ouring. Member of Institute in 1816 ; L. of 
Honour, 1828. Works : Nebuchadnezzar 
causing the Children of Zedekiah to be 
Killed (1787), Mans Museum; Desolation 
of Priam's Family (1800), ordered by the 
Directory ; Roman Charity, Diana appear- 
ing to Hercules (1801); Napoleon (1808); 
Burial of Dagobert (1814), Sacristy of St 
Denis ; Eponina and Sabinus (1814), Angers 
Museum ; Procession of St. Charles Borro- 
meo during the Plague at Milan (1827), 
Church of St Germain ; St. Louis arbitrat- 
ing between the King of England and his 
Barons (1827); Reception of the Duke of 
Angouleme at Cbartres on his Return from 
Spain (1831); Entry of Duke and Duchess 

of AngouliJme into Chartres, 1823 (1827), 
Cbartres Museum ; Portrait of Cardinal 
Maury (1838), Avignon Museum ; Marriage 
Ceremony of Napoleon and Marie Louise 
(1846), Versailles Museum.— Bellier de la 
Chavignerie, L 610 ; Lorousse ; Lejeune, 
Guide, iii. 106. 

Paris, Jan. 22, 1847. Genre pointer, stud- 
ied first in Toulouse, then pupil of Ger&me 
in Paris ; travelled in Holland, Spain, and 
Morocco, paints mediaeval subjects with ex- 
treme archaeological accuracy. Works : The 
Bather, Mile, de Sombrauil drinking a Glass 
of Blood (1869); Adam's Dream, Jus Prima) 
Noctis(1872); Vassals' Taxes Debris (1873); 
Le Boi samuse (1874); Execution in 16th 
Century, Nude Female Figure (1875); Pun- 
ishment of Adultery in Middle Ages (1876); 
Stranded Goods, The Favourite (1877) ; Lib- 
erator of the Territory (1878); Village Fes- 
tival Temptation (1879); Rabelais, the Par- 
son of Meudon (1880); Distribution of 
Standards, July 14, 1880 (1881); Reveil 
(1882); Truth (1883); Jolly Drinkers (after 
Robelais's Gargantno, 1884).— Mnller, 193 ; 
Meyer, Con v. Lex., xviiL 381. 

OAROFALO, IL, born in Ferrara in 1481, 
died there, Sept 6, 1569. Lombard-Fer* 
roreae school. Real name Benrenuto di 
Piero Tisi, but called Garofalo (Gilliflower) 
from bis use of that flower as a device. 
Pupil of Domenico Panetti, of Niccolo Sori- 
ani, and of Boccacini, from whose studio he 
ran away to Rome (1499) and studied about 
a year under Giovanni Borrini. In 1502 he 
was in Mantua, where he must have remained 
four years if, as Vosari says, he studied with 
Lorenzo Costa, who entered the service of 
the Gonzagas in 1506. In 1508 he went 
again to Rome and became intimate with 
Raphael Later he worked at Ferrara for 
Duke Alfonso, in whose palace (Scrofa Cal- 
cagnini) he decorated a hall with mytholog- 
ical subjects. Other pictures in Ferrara : 
Old and New Testament, Adoration of the 
Magi (1537), Christ in the Garden, Mawacre 
of the Innocents, Madonna del Pilastro, Ma- 


donna with Saints, Madonna del Riposo, 
Raising of Lazarus, St Peter Martyr, Dis- 
covery of the Crow, Municipal Gallery ; and 
several in the Duomo. Works in other 
cities : Tiburtine Sibyl, La ZingareUa (?), 
Holy Family, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; An- 
nunciation, UfEzi, ib.; Madonna with Saints 
(1518), Venice Academy ; Deposition from 
Cross, Crucifixion, Brera, Milan ; Madonna 
with Saints, Modena Gallery ; Entombment, 
Deposition, Palazzo Borghese, Borne ; Ad- 
oration of Magi, Deposition, Naples Mu- 
seum ; Triumph of Bacchus, Mara and 
Venus, Neptune and Pallas, Madonna in 
Adoration, Dresden Gallery, Holy Family, 
Vatican, Borne. The pictures of Garofalo 
are almost always pleasing. He was a good 
draughtsman and colourist, though some- 
times a little too vivid in his reds and 
greens for perfect harmony of effect. Ac- 
cording to Vaaari he was totally blind dur- 
ing the last 
nine years 
of his life. 

— Vasari, y ■ 

ed.MU.,vi. *>S 

459 ; Burckhardt, 691 ; Seguier, 208 ; Cit- 
tadella, Mem. di Ben. Tisi (Ferrara, 1872); 
Ch. Blanc, £cole ferraraise ; Lubke, Gescn. 
ital Hal., a 378 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, x. 210. 

GARRARD. See Qeerarts. 

Hogarth, Earl of Feversham. Painted in 
1746. Hogarth was paid for it by Mr. Dun- 
combe, of Dnncombe Park, Yorkshire, £200 ; 
"more," he says, "than any English artist 
ever received for a single portrait" — Dob- 
sou, 68. 

COMEDY, Sir Joshua Reynolds; canvas. 
Garnet, seen to knees, standing, looks with 
an appealing, half-ashamed expression at 
Tragedy, while turning towards Comedy, 
unable to resist her allurements. Painted 
in 1761 ; sold to Lord Halifax for 300 guin- 
eas ; at his sale to Mr. Angerstein for 250 
guineas. Engraved by E. Fisher. 




DPP), born in Berlin, June 2, 1801, died there, 
Feb. 22, 1877. Architecture painter, pupil 
in Caasel of Maler Mtlller ; returned to Ber- 
lin in 1813 and for six years was apprenticed 
in the porcelain factory, made a tour to the 
North Sea in 1821, studied in Paris in 1824-- 
27, and painted for the Czar in St Peters- 
burg and Moscow in 1837-39. Member of 
Berlin Academy in 1833. Works : The for- 
mer Reetzen Street in Berlin (1831), National 
Gallery, Berlin ; others in the Royal Palaces, 
ib.— Jordan (1885), ii. 68. 

nich, Jan. 11, 1824. Architecture painter, 
pupil of Munich Academy and of Simonsen, 
studied then in Paris under Jacquand ; trav- 
elled extensively, and settled in Munich in 
1857. Works : From the Albambra ; Inte- 
rior of House in Tetuan ; Street in Algiers ; 
Mosque El Kebir in Algiers ; Convent Yard 
in Moonlight, Interior of Moorish Building, 
New Pinakothek, Munich.— MuUer, 193 ; 
Brockhaus, viL 664. 

GARTNER, HETNRIOH, born at Neu- 
Strelitz, Mecklenburg, in 1828. Landscape 
painter, pupil in Berlin of Schirmer, and in 
Dresden of L. Richter. He was much in- 
fluenced by Genelli at Munich and by Cor- 
nelius at Rome (1856). Works : Landscape 
with Return of Prodigal Son (1859), Leipaio 
Museum ; Scenes from life of Psyche 
(1865-66), Villa Dorr, near Leipsic ; Cycle 
of landscapes (14) representing Develop- 
ment of Sculpture (in fresco, 1878). — 
Muller, 194 ; Brockhaus, vii. 564 ; Zeitschr. 
f. b. K, ii. 81. 

GASCAR, HENRI, born in Paris in 1635, 
died in Borne, Jan. 18, 1701. French 
school ; portrait painter. Long lived in 
England, where he became Lely's competi- 
i tor, and was patronized by the Duchess of 
Portsmouth. Left England about 1680, 
having made, it is said, £10,000 in a few 
years. Member of the Academy in 1680. 
Work, The Duchess of Portsmouth as 
Flora, Hampton Court. — Redgrave, Jame- 
son, Hand-Book to Public Galleries, 592 ; 
Taylor, The Fine Arts, ii. 366. 


GASSEL, LUCAS, bora at Helmont, Bra- 
bant, about 1500, died at Brussels about 
1650. Flemish school ; practised landscape 
painting in Brussels, where he was an inti- 
mate friend of the painter-poet Lampsonius, 
He painted in the fantastic manner of Pate- 
nter, and enlivened his landscapes with Old 
and New Testament subjects. TTjh pictures 
are rare, as he painted but little. Works : 
St George, Louvre, Paris ; Landscape, Lille 
Museum ; Landscape with Judah and Tamar 
(1548), Vienna Museum. The Land- 
jft scape in the Contest between Apollo 
Vtff. and Pan, by Goltzius, Dresden Gal- 
lery, is ascribed to Gassel. — Allgem. 
d. Biogr., viii. 369 ; Biog. nat de Belgique, 
vii. 497;. Tour. desB. Arte (1864), 88; (1878), 
118 ; Kramm, ii. 534. 

GASSEN, GOTTLIEB, born in Coblente 
in 1805 or 1807. History painter, pupil 
and follower of Cornelius, among the first 
to paint in fresco at Munich for King Louis 
I Works: Storming of the Godesberg near 
Bonn by Puke William Y. of Bavaria, Ar- 
cades, Royal Garden, Munich ; eleven scenes 
from Poema of Walther von der Vogelweide, 
Royal Palace, Munich ; ceiling paintings in 
Loggia of Pinakotbek ; paintings in Trinity 
Church, Weissenthurm, near Coblentz. 

GASHTES, JEAN BRUNO, bora in Bor- 
deaux, Oct. 25, 1786, died in Paris, Oct 
12, 1832. French school; history, genre, 
and landscape painter, pupil of Vincent 
and Lacour in Paris. Painted many bibli- 
cal, as well as French mediaeval and mod- 
ern subjects. Works : Labourer holding 
Skull and Busty Sword (1810), Douai Mu- 
seum ; Hagar and Isbmael (1811), Brus- 
sels Museum ; Virgil reading the JEneid to 
Augustus (1814); Horace at Virgil's Tomb 
(1817); Portrait of Louis XVHL (1819), 
Bordeaux Museum ; Christ and Peter walk- 
ing on the Sea, Homer reciting to the Shep- 
herds (1819); St Louis visiting the Plague- 
Stricken Soldiers, Fight of the Thirty (1822); 
Clemency of Louis XIL (1824), Versailles 
Museum ; Shipwreck of a Fisherman and 
his Child (1827); Bivouac of the National 

Guard in Courtyard of Louvre (1881); En. 
trance to Harbor of Boulogne ; Needles at 
Isle of Wight ; Shakespeare Cliff; View of 

Loch Lomond. — Bellier de la Chavignerie, 
i. 614 ; Lejeune, Guide, iii. 105 ; Larouase. 

GASTINEAU, HENBV, born in 1797, 
died at Camberweu, Surrey, in,1876. Land- 
scape painter in water-colours, pupil of the 
Boyal Academy ; commenced as an engraver, 
then took up oil-painting, and in 1818 be- 
came an associate and in 1824 a member of 
the Water-Colour Society ; was intimately 
connected with Turner, David Cox, and 
Copley Fielding. Works : Penrhyn Castle, 
Netley Abbey, South Kensington Museum, 
London; Klamine Pass in Styria (1855); 
Glenarm — Antrim, Hospice and Pass of St 
Gothard (1862); Pass of Killiecrankie (1867). 

GASTON DE FOK (?), Girolamo Sii- 
voldo, Louvre ; canvas, H. 3 ft x 4 ft ; 
signed. A knight in armour, half recum- 
bent, in a gloomy chamber, his form re- 
flected in mirrors. Long called a portrait 
of Gaston de Foix, by Giorgione ; but prob- 
ably a picture painted to show that painting 
is preferable to sculpture, because a given 
form can be reproduced on canvas by the 
judicious use of reflecting surfaces. Rep- 
lica, formerly belonging to Charles I., at 
Hampton Court — Vulot, Cat. Louvre ; C &, 
G, N. Italy, ii 419 ; Law, Hist Cat Hamp- 
ton Court, 13. 

born about 1108, died in Arezzo in 1491. 
Florentine school. Learned miniature 
painting in the Comaldolensian Convent of 
the Angeli, Florence, where he was a friar ; 
became abbot of the Convent of S Clemente, 
Arezzo, and decorated its walls with frescos, 
now destroyed. Some panels by him in the 
public gallery, Arezzo, one dated 1479, show 
careful and patient execution, but little sense 
of colour. In 1479-86 he was in Rome, 
where he worked in the Sistine, according 


to Vasari, with Signorelli and Perugino. 
His later pictures, as, for instance, a Ma- 
donna with Saints and Angels, in the Col- 
legiate church at Castiglione .Fiorentino, 
display little power, though they Bhow that 
he had learned to imitate Signorelli. — C. & 
C, Italy, iil 36 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., t. 44 ; 
Marched, 3d ed., L 203. 

GATTI, BERNARDO (Bernardino), born 
at Cremona about 1490 (7), died in 1575. 
Lombard school ; called D Sojaro or Sog- 
liaro (the cooper) from his father's trade. 
Went early to Parma to study under Cor- 
reggio, and became his ablest pupil He 
left numerous works in Parma, Piacenza, 
and Cremona. In S. H. di Campagna, Pia- 
cenza, he painted a fresco, St George and 
the Dragon, in competition with Pordenone's 
St Augustine, and on the death of that 
painter was selected to finish his frescos of 
the Life of the Madonna, in the tribune 
of the church. Lanzi praises his Miracle of 
the Loaves and Fishes, in the refectory 
of the Padri Lateranensi, Cremona ; it is 
dated 1552. He afterwards (about 1560) 
painted the cupola in the Madonna della 
Steccata, Parma. Hiw Assumption of the 
Virgin, in the Cathedral of Cremona, his 
last work, is said to have been painted 
with his left hand, his right having been 
paralyzed. An Ecce Homo, and a Cruci- 
fixion, are in the Naples Museum. — Vasari, 
ed. Mil., vi. 493 ; Lanzi, ii. 400 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole lombarde ; Vidoni, Pittura Gremo- 
nese ; Burckhardt, 701, 738 ; Lance, 206 ; 
Lanzi (Roscoe), ii. 400, 430. 

GATTI, GERVASIO, Lombard school 
(1678-1631). Nephew and pupil of Ber- 
nardo Gatti, from whom he inherited his 
surname of H Sojaro. Studied also works 
of Correggio, and painted some pictures 
with much success ; but he had a deplorable 
facility of execution, and his works are very 
unequal Lanzi conjectures that Uriel Gat- 
ti, also called II Sojaro, was his brother. — 
Lanzi, ii. 431 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole lombarde. 

GAUCHEREL, LEON, born in Paris, 
May 20, 1816. Landscape and architecture 

painter, more no tod as an engraver and etcher; 
pupil of Viollet-le-Duc, with whom he visited 
Italy and Sicily. Medals : 3d class, 1853 j 2d 
class, 1855, 1859, 1861, 1863 ; L. of Hon- 
our, 1864. Works : Tintoretto's House in 
Venice (1874); View of Saintes ; Evening at 
Arromanches ; Banks of the Adour at Sun- 
set (1875); St Peter's, Rome ; Torcello, near 
Venice (1876); Cliffs of Sainfc-Jouin (1877, 
1879); The Little Mount at Port Navalo 
(1879); Gorge of Arnochat (1871).— BeUier 
de la Chavignerie, i 618; Meyer, Conv. 
Lex., xrii. 367 ; Mailer, 195. 


at Villafranca, Catalonia, in 1566, died at 
the Chartreuse of Scala Dei in 1621. Span- 
ish school Became a Carthusian monk in 
1595 ; adorned many chambers in his mon- 
astery, also painted ■% • 
for the Grand Char- I V) CtfJjUlrlAf\ 
treuae in Lorraine, L \ / ^- *j 
for the Chartreuse / '»'» 
of Seville, and a Last Supper and other 
works for that of Portaccali (Scala Dei), 
near Valencia. — Stirling, 1 293. 

Miesenbach, Nether Austria, Sept 20, 1807, 
died in Vienna, July 7, 1862. Animal 
painter, eon and pupil of Jakob G., but 
formed himself chiefly by copying old mas- 
ters in the Vienna galleries and studying 
nature during his travels in 1825-44. Mem- 
ber of Munich Academy in 1836. He left 
1,034 oil-paintings, 569 drawings, and 15 
unfinished pictures. Works : Resting from 
Labour in the Fields (1829) ; Hnsbandman 
ploughing (1834), Vienna Museum ; Wolves 
and Bears, Rocky View with Bears (1831); 
Vultures and Stag, Bears with their Prey 
(1832); Chase, Rural Smithy, Boar attacked 
by Wolves (1834); Stormy Lake, Wolves and 
Stags (1835); Harvest Scene, Wild Boars 
(1836); Dying Stag and Eagle (1837); Cat- 
tle Market (1838); Wolves on High Rock, 
Harvest Wagon in Storm, Embarking of the 
Herd (1839); Hunting Scene, The Passeyer 



Paw near Meran (1840); Target Shooting in 
Tyrol (1841); Smithy in the Ramsau (1842); 
Zell am See (1843); Dachstein and Goaau 
Lake, Hunting Scene, Mountain -Path near 
Meran (1844); Evening, Chamois Hunt, 
Poachers (1845); Four Seasons (1847); Alp, 
Fin Schiffzug(1848); Chamois-Hunt, Peas- 
ant Horses, Return from Stag-Hunt (1850); 
Well in Tyrol (1852), Smithy in Salzburg 
(1853), National Gallery, Berlin; Cows, 
Sheep, and Horse in Shallow Water, Leip- 
sic Museum ; Wolves and Dead Horse, 
St&del Gallery, Frankfort ; Evening in Ty- 
rolese Alps, Stettin Museum; Wolves and 
Deer, Wild Boar and Wolf, South Kensing- 
ton Museum, London ; On the Atter Lake, 
Cows and Sheep (1858). — Allgem. d. Biogr., 
viii. 420 ; Andresen, iii. 1 ; Brockhaua, vii. 
594; Kunst-Chronik, six. 335, 517; Dios- 
kuren (1862), 242 ; Eitelberger, Kunsthist. 
Schr., L 92 ; Wurzbach, t. 104 ; is. 414 ; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K, xriii. 137, 177, 251, 282, 
821 ; xix. 176. 

GAUERMANN, JAKOB, bom atOeffinger, 
Wurtemberg, in 1773, died in Vienna, March 
27, 1848. Landscape and genre painter, 
pupil of Stuttgart Academy. After travel- 
ling through Switzerland in the service of a 
Heilbronn savant he went to Vienna in 1798, 
became member of the Academy, and in 1818 
painter to Archduke John, for whom he ex- 
ecuted many views in the Austrian Alps. 
Works: Eighty views in Styria (1811-21), 
Archduke John's Collection ; others in Al- 
bertina Collection, Vienna Academy, and in 
private galleries of England. — Allgem. d. 
Biogr., viii 422 ; Andresen, v. 268 ; Brock- 
haus, vii. 594 ; Wurzbach, v. 107. 

GAUFFIER, LOUIS, born at LaRochelle 
in 1761, died in Florence, Oct 20, 1801. 
History painter, pupil of Hugues Taraval, 
won the grand prix de Borne in 1784. He 
married at Borne Pauline Chatillon, genre 
painter, pupil of Drouaia, several of whose 
pictures were engraved by Bartolozzi. 
Works ! Abraham and the Angels, Alexander 
and Hephsestion (1789); Cornelia Mother of 
the Gracchi (1792), Three Young Men ap- 

pearing to Abraham (1793), Louvre ; The 
Shepherd Faustulus carrying Romulus and 
Remus, Cherbourg Museum ; Roman Ladies 
offering their Jewels to their Country; 
Achilles recognized by Ulysses ; Jacob and 
Rachel ; Sacrifice to the Manes ; Raising of 
Lazarus, Perpignan Museum ; Seven in Mont- 
pellier Museum ; others in Marseilles, Ton- 

J..CaMffor yj Jlcm 

I J'wx 

Ion, and Narbonne Museums, and Uffizi, 
Florence. — Villot, Cat Louvre ; Lejeune, 
Guide, i. 395 ; iii 802 ; Larousse. 

sau, Bavaria, in 1856. Genre painter, pupil 
of the Munich Academy under Professor 
Raab and Wilhehn Diez. Removed toAmer- 
ica in 1879, and settled in Boston. Works : 
Le Refugee (1882), W. Weld, Boston ; My 
Studio (1883), Henry S. Shaw, ib. ; Bellissima 
(1883), CoL Jonas H. French, ib. ; Difficult 
Question (1884), Josiah M. Fiske, New York; 
The Story (1885), H W. Rice, Boston ; After 
the Storm (1885), John A. Lowell, ib.; On 
the Promenade (1885), Willard White, ib. 

GAUL, GILBERT, born in Jersey City, 
N. J., in 1855. Genre painter, pupil of J. G. 
Brown and of the National Academy. Exhib- 
ited first at National Academy in 1872 ; elected 
A.N.A. in 1880, N.A. in 1882. Works : In- 
dian Girl, Coquette (1880); Old Beau (1881); 
Charging the Battery, Stragglers, News from 
Home (1882) ; Silenced, Cold Comfort on 
the Outpost (1883) ; On the Look-out, Gue- 
rillas returning from a Raid (1885). 

GAUL, GUSTAV, born in Vienna, Feb. 
6, 1836. Portrait painter, pupil of Rahl ; 
visited Germany, Holland, France, and 
Italy ; studied especially Rubens and Rem- 
brandt and the old Venetian masters. 
Works : Portraits of Sophie Schr5der (1860) 


and other celebrities of the stage, of Louis 
Spohr, Bogumil Ooltz, Professors Skoda 
and Hyrtl ; Procession of Bacchus and 
Scenes from Myths of Cupid, Psyche, and 
Venus, Palais Todesco, Vienna ; Scenes from 
Legends of Austria, Villa Wanda, near 
Gmunden ; Franceses, and Paolo, Cologne 
Museum ; Head of Spanish Woman, Female 
Portrait, Male Portrait (1883). 

GAULLL See Baecuxio. 

GAUTHEROT, CLAUDE, born in Paris 
in 1769, died in 1825. History and portrait 
painter, pupil of David ; acquired great 
perfection in the representation of pathetic 
subjects. Works : Portrait of Marshal Da- 
voust, Tuileries, Paris ; Napoleon on the 
Bridge of Lech (1808), Versailles Museum ; 
Marina at Mintunian (1796) ; Pyramus and 
Tbisbe (1799), Melun Museum; do. (1800); 
Burial of Atala (1802) ; Napoleon wounded 
at Ratisbon, Interview at Tilsit (1810). 

GAUTIER, AMAND, born at Lille, June 
19, 1825. Genre and portrait painter, pu- 
pil of Souchon and of Cogniet Medal, 3d 
class, 1882. Works: Sisters of Charity 
(1869); After Mass (1867); Couneillor 
Krespel, Sunday Morning (1868) ; Surprised 
at the Bath (1874) ; Prisoner (1875) ; Re- 
fectory (1878) ; The Republic (1879) ; Re- 
hearsal at the Convent (1880) ; Casting the 
Net, Washing at the Convent (1881) ; Indo- 
lence (1882) ; Portrait of the painter Diane, 
Medical Lady Student (1885). 

GAUTIER, ETDENNE, born at Mar- 
seilles ; contemporary. History, genre, and 
portrait painter, pupil of Chantigny. Medals : 
2d class, 1873 ; 1st class, 1878 ; K of Hon- 
our, 1871. Works : Money-Changer, Study 
(1867) ; St. Sebastian (1869) ; St. George 
(1878) ; St Cecilia (1878). 

ice in 1809. History painter, pupil of Venice 
Academy under Politi, formed himself after 
the great Venetian masters, and became 
professor at the Collegio Rafiaele, Venice. 
Works : The Lord appearing to Abraham, 
Mechitariats, Venice ; St. Anthony of Padua, 
8. Giacorao, ib. ; St Sergius, Greek Church, 

ib. ; Queen of Cyprus, Girohuno Contarini, 
Venice Academy ; Fugitives of Pargha bless- 
ing the Remains of their Fathers ; Marco 
Polo in Prison at Genoa ; Ali Pasha of Ja- 
nina.— Wurzbach, v. 111. 

GAVARNL PIERRE, born in Paris; con- 
temporary. Genre and animal painter, pu- 
pil of Fromentin and of Busson. Medal, 
3d class, 1874. Works : Wedding at the 
Madeleine (1874) ; Repose (1875) ; Wedding 
in Paris, Diplomatic Dinner (1876) ; An- 
dromeda, Stand in a Riding School (1879) ; 
Steeple-chase (1881) ; Promenade (1882) ; 
Corner on the Beach (1883) ; Steeple-chase 
at SaintOuen (1885). 

GAT, EDWARD, born in Ireland in 1837. 
Landscape painter, pupil of James Hart in 
Albany, N. Y., in 1862-67 ; studied in Ger- 
many, under Schirmer in Carlsruhe, and 
Leasing in Duaseldorf. Elected an AN. A, 
in 1870. Studio at Mt Vernon, N. Y. 
Works in oil : Alt Wasser, D. J. Lathrop, 
Albany ; Suburbs ; Twin Lakes ; Mohawk 
Valley Home ; Late Afternoon near Albany 
(1876) ; Last Load— Harvest Time (1878) ; 
Gathering the Leaves (1880) ; Old Estate 
(1881) ; Banks of the Thames (1882) ; On 
the Sogne Fjord — Norway, Golden Grain 
(1883) ; Norwegian Scene (1884). Water- 
colours: Foggy Morning by the Lake 
(1876) ; Spring Morning (1877) ; Waving 
Grain, Riverside, Haymaking (1884) ; Rye 
Fields in early June, Hill-side, Oyster Beds 
in Pelham Bay, Salt Marshes (1885). 

GAY, WALTER, born in Massachusetts; 
contemporary. Genre painter, nephew of 
William Allan Gay, pupil of Bonnat in Paris 
in 1876. Has exhibited in Boston, Phila- 
delphia, and Paris. Honourable mention, 
Paris Salon, 1885. Works: Fall Flowers 
(1876) ; Landscape, Fast Asleep, Unsuccess- 
ful Musician (1878) ; Conspiracy under 
Louis XVL, Armourer (1883) ; The Appren- 
tice, The Cabbages (1884) ; Spinners, No- 
vember, The Tailor (1885). 

GAY, WTLLIAM ALLAN, born in Mas- 
sachusetts in 1821. Landscape painter, 
pupil of R W. Weir at West Point and of 


Troyon in Paris, where and in Italy he spent 
several years. Has travelled much in Eu- 
rope and the East. Works : Mackerel Fleet 
off Beverly Coast, Harbour Bar ot Cape Ann 
(1669) ; Palazzo Ducale at Venice (1875) ; 
Windmills at Delfthaven (1876); Forest Sanc- 
tuary (1878) ; Minieh on the Nile (1879). 

at Neusalz, Silesia, Oct 15, 1777, died at 
Aarhus, Jutland, Sept. 15, 1831. Animal 
painter, pupil of Copenhagen Academy and 
of Lorentzen ; went to Dresden in 1813, 
where he painted military scenes, and espe- 
cially illustrated Cossack life. Visited Ger- 
many in 1827, and afterwards established a 
school of drawing at Aarhus. Works : The 
Stud (1807) ; Horse Fair (1810) ; Stags fight- 
ing (1823), Landscape with Cattle (1824), 
Boll and Cow, Sleighing near Munich 
(1828), Copenhagen Gallery.— Weilbach. 
St. Johannis, Esth- 
land, June 1 (13), 
1838. History paint- 
er, pupil of St Peters- 
burg Academy under 
Leasing, and of Carls- 
ruhe Art School, then 
in Dllsseldorf under 
. Wilhelm Sohn; trav- 
elled through Europe, 
and settled at DQssel- 
dorf, where he became 
professor at the Academy in 187a Mem- 
ber of Munich and Berlin Academies. Gold 
medal, Berlin, 1872 ; Medal, Vienna, 1873. 
Works: ChriBtaEntrymtoJeru8alem(1863); 
Raising of Jairus' Daughter (1861) ; Dives 
and Lazarus (1865); Christ on the Cross 
(1866), Cathedral, Reval ; Religious Conver- 
sation (1866) ; Vibrations of the Pendulum ; 
The Brothers van Eyck ; Last Supper (1870), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Descent from the 
Cross (1872); Ecce Homo, Crucifixion (1873), 
Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Disciples at Emmaus 
(1876) ; Reformer at Work (1877), Leipsic 
Museum ; Old German Housewife (1879) ; 
Ascension, Christ walking on the Sea (1881). ; 

The Convent Scholars (1882) ; Pi eta, Cruoi 
fixion (1884).— Brockhaus, vii. 613 ; Moller, 
196 j Kunst-Chronik, vii. 465 ; xix. 35, 128 ; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K., vii. 361 ; Westermann's 
Monatshefte, li. 279. 

GEBHAEDT, LDD WIG, born in Munich, 
July 20, 1830. Landscape painter, pupil of 
Munich Academy, then studied from nature 
in the Bavarian Alps and in North Italy. 
Works : Ammerland on Lake Starnberg, St 
Bartholomew on the Konigsee, View on Lake 
Constance, Leutstetten with Lake Starnberg, 
Upper Isar Valley, Mountains by Moonlight, 
View in Ziller Valley.— Mailer, 197. 

Dresden, Sept 18, 1838. Animal painter, 
pupil of Dresden Academy, then in Munich 
of Piloty. Rivals the old Dutch masters in 
his finely-painted and humourous pictures. 
Medals in Berlin (1874) and Munich (1883). 
Works : Rest in the Wood at Noon, Obsti- 
nate Sheep, Disturbed Domestic Peace 
(1863); Spoiled Repast, Sheepfold (1870); 
Poodle as Watchman in Sheepfold (1873); 
Art-Critics in the Stable (1873), Sheep and 
Spaniel (1878), National Gallery, Berlin ; 
Visit to the Stable (1876); Sheep returning 
before Storm, Expectation, Two Poachers 
(1880), Dresden Gallery ; Reynard's End 
(1883), New Praakothek, Munich.— ID ustr. 
Zeitg. (1884), i 90 ; Mailer, 197 ; Meyer, 
Conv. Lex., xxi. 309. 

GEDDES, ANDREW, born in Edinburgh 
in 1789, died in London, May 5, 1844. Por- 
trait and subject painter ; pupil in 1807 of 
the Royal Academy, where he exhibited in 
1810 his Draught- Players. Then spent four 
years at Edinburgh painting portraits. Vis- 
ited Paris in 1815, Italy in 1828, and Hol- 
land in 1839. Returned to England in 1831, 
and was elect- 
ed an A.R.A. 
in 1832. He 
was a good 
etcher, par- 
ticularly of 


portraits. Works : Discovery of the Scot- 
tish Regalia (1821); Christ and the Woman 


of Samaria (1832); Devotion; Dull Beading, 
National Gallery, London. — Redgrave; 
Sandby, ii. 210 ; Art Union Journal, Sept, 
1844 ; Cat. Nat GaL 

GEEFS, FANNY (Isabelle Marie Fran- 
coise Corr), born in Brussels in 1814 His- 
tory, genre, and portrait painter, pupil of 
Navez ; wife of the sculptor Willem Geefs. 
Medals in Paris (3d class, 1848 ; 2d class, 
1845), The Hague, Metz, Ghent, and Douai 
Works: Sailor's Daughter (1835); Young 
Girl accompanying her Sister to Church, 
Madonna, Castellan of Creve-Cteur (1836); 
St Cecilia (1887); Hagar in the Desert 
(1840); Christ appearing to Disciples, Vir- 
gin consoling the Afflicted, St John's Hos- 
pital, Brussels ; Bianca on the Shore ; Ophe- 
lia ; Young Mother ; First Lesson ; Return 
Home. — Immerzeel i. 265 ; Kramm, ii 536 ; 
Muller, 197. 

GEEL, JOOST VAN, bom in Rotterdam 
in 1631, died in 1698. Dutch school ; genre 
and portrait painter in the style of Gabriel 
Metzu, wherefore he is thought to be his 
pupil Travelled in France, Germany, and 
England, where he was patronized by Crom- 
well Works : 



Concert, Her- 
mitage, St. 
Petersburg ; Rendez-vous of Smugglers, His- 
torical Society, New York.— Immerzeel, i. 
269 ; Kramm, ii. 541. 

in Antwerp, baptized April 7, 1707, died 
there, Feb. 16, 1791. Flemish school Des- 
tined to be a merchant, but early showed 
such talent that he was apprenticed to Abra- 
ham Godyn, where he soon became an able 
master. Excelled in grisaille, imitating 
sculpture. In 1741 he became professor 
and director of the Antwerp Academy. 
Works- The Fine Arts (1760), Antwerp 
Museum ; Seven Biblical Subjects in Bas- 
relief, Brussels Museum ; Autumn, an alle- 

well Works: _^ 

Portrait of *) ~* 

himself, /) f 

imBterdam J^CLtL jJp.CC. 

Museum; A V *-* 


gory, Hague Museum ; Children with Goat, 
Lille Museum ; Cupid and Psyche with 
Genii, Imitation of an allegorical Bas-relief 
(1775), Museum, Vienna; Four Bas-reliefs 
(two dated 1752, 1753), Liechtenstein Gal- 
lery, ib.— Cat du Musee d'Anvers (1874), 
178 ; Kramm, ii 542 ; Booses (Beber), 441 ; 
Van den Brandon, 1216. 

GEERABTS (Garrard, Gheeraerts, Ge- 
rard), MARCUS, the elder, bom in Bruges, 
first half of 16th century, died in London 
before 1604. Flemish school ; history, por- 
trait, and landscape painter, pupil of Martin 
de Vos ; held some office in the guild of 
Bruges in 1558, and was entered as master 
of the guild of Antwerp in 1577 ; settled in 
England and became court-painter to Queen 
Elizabeth in 1571, but was in Antwerp in 
1585-86. His paintings are greatly valued. 
Works : Descent from the Cross, Notre 
Dame, Bruges ; Portraits of Mary Countess 
of Pembroke, Lord Burghley, and William 
Camden, National Portrait Gallery, London; 
Portraits of Queen Elizabeth, Lord Burgh- 
ley, and Earl of Essex, Burghley House Col- 
lection ; Male and Female Portrait, Vienna 
Museum ; Procession of Queen Elizabeth to 
Blackfriars in 1600, — Allgem. d. Biogr., viii. 
491 ; Biog. nat de Belgique, vii 550 ; Im- 
merzcel, L 270 ; Kramm, ii. 542. 

GEERABTS, MARCUS, the younger, 
born in Bruges in 1561, died in London in 
1635. Flemish school ; history and por- 
trait painter, son of Marcus the elder, whom 
he followed to England after 1580, and be- 
came court-painter to Elizabeth and after- 
wards to Queen Anne. Works : Procession 
of Queen and Knights of the Garter (1584); 
Portrait of Elizabeth, Lord Darnley's Col- 
lection ; da, and portraits of Lords Burleigh 
and Essex, Marquis of Exeter's Collection. 
—Allgem. d. Biogr., viii. 492; Kugler 
(Crowe), i. 255 ; Kramm, ii. 545. 

(Geirit van Haarlem), second half of 15th 
century (1460-88?), died at Haarlem (?), 
nged 28. Dutch school ; history painter, 
supposed pupil of Albert van Ouwater, 


Lived with the knights of Si John at Haar- 
lem, and hence was called Geertgen tot Skit 
Jans, although not of their order and prob- 
ably a native of Leyden. He painted for 
the church of the order an altarpiece, two 
wings of which are preserved in the Vienna 
Museum, one a Pieta, the other representing 
the Legend of the bones of St John the 
Baptist. Other works attributed to him are r 
Scene from the Legend of St Lucy, in the 
Lippmann Collection at Vienna ; View of 
Haarlem Cathedral, in that edifice; Crucifix- 
ion, in the Galleria Eetense at Modena. Dr. 
Bode is inclined to assign to this master also 
an Adoration of the Magi in the Prague Gal- 
lery, the Expiatory Offering in the Amster- 
dam Museum, and Christ in the Tomb Bur- 
rounded by the Instruments of the Passion 
in the Archiepiscopal Museum at Utrecht 
— Allgem. d. Biogr., x. 261 ; Bode, Studien, 
6 ; C & C, Flemish Painters, 248 ; Dohme, 
IX; Kramm, ii 546 ; Kuglcr (Crowe), i. 91 ; 
RiegeL Beitrage, L 69. 
GEEBTZ, JULIUS, born in Hamburg, 
April 21, 1837. Genre 
painter, pupil in Ham- 
burg of the brothers 
Gensler, then in 1856- 
60 of the Carlsruhe Art 
School under Dee Cou- 
dres, and, after a short 
stay in Munich, of Bu- 
" dolph Jordan in Dussel- 
dorf ; studied in 1864 in 
Paris, visited Brittany 
and Holland, and settled in Dusseldorf. 
Works : Sour and Sweet, Maternal Joy, The 
Student (1867) ; Disturbing Return Home, 
Consequences of School-Arrest, Shut In, 
Watch on the Rhine (1870) ; Prisoners of 
War, At the Menagerie, Criminal after Sen- 
tence (1873) ; Organ Grinder, Last Orna- 
ment (1874) ; Catehing Flies, Girl with 
Bird's Nest, Capitulation (1876) ; Beggar's 
Penny (1877).— Blustr, Zeitg. (1874), i. 79 ; 
(1875), i. 187; KunstChronik, ix. 342; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K, vL 149. 


ENTIN, born at Maignelay (Oise), July 29, 
1804. Genre painter, pupil of Amaury- 
DuvaL Educated a lawyer, but married an 
actress and went on the stage. Though he 
had considerable success as a painter, he is 
best known as an actor. Medals : 3d class, 
1840 ; 2d class, 1841 and 1857, Works : 
Virgin and Child ; Pierre Corneille ; The 
Actor Mirecourt (1840) ; The Members of 
the Comedie Francaise (1841), Comedie 
Francaise ; Ariadne and Theseus (1844) ; 
Moliere and his Characters (1857) ; Sgan- 
arelle in the School for Husbands (1863) ; 
Members of the Comedie Francaise (1864) ; 
Hylas (1868).— Larousse. 

born at Wangen, Wortemberg, March 6, 
1800, died in Rome, Jan. 81, 1876. History 
painter, pupil of Munich Academy under 
Robert von Langer. Studied in Borne, espe- 
cially after Raphael, in 1823-26, and after his 
return was appointed court-painter to the 
King of Wortemberg, for whom (1836-54) 
be decorated the royal palace in Stuttgart 
with frescos from Wnrtemberg history. 
Works: St Sebastian (1820); Two Shep- 
herds, First Parents after Loss of Paradise, 
Moses striking the Rock (1823-26), Royal 
Palace, Stuttgart; Hercules and Omphale, 
Stuttgart Gallery ; Cupid and Psyche, As- 
sumption, Madonna, Aphrodite, Crucifixion 
(1829-35) ; Sleeping Venus and two Satyrs, 
Led a, several Aphrodites and Madonnas, 
Portraits (1836-56) ; Apollo and Muses, 
Bacchus and Ariadne, Venus and Cupid, 
Ceres and Jason, J£olus and JSola, Pluto 
and Proserpine, Neptune and Thetis, Genii 
and Amorettes (all 1860), Royal Palace, 
Stuttgart Frescos : Hercules and Omphale 
(1826), Thorwaldsen Museum, Copenhagen ; 
Jupiter giving Immortality to Psyche, Mar- 
riage of Cupid and Psyche, Four scenes 
from Life of Psyche, Four Seasons, Aurora 
(all in 1826-29), Villa Bosenstein ; Sixteen 
scenes from History of Wflrtemberg (1836- 
54), Boyal Palace, Stuttgart — Allgem. d. 
Biogr., viii. 495 ; Brockhaus, viL 652 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, xi 349; Beber-Pecbt, ii. 229. 



Gothenburg, Sweden; contemporary. Land- 
scape painter, member of Stockholm Acad- 
emy ; studio in Paris. Works : Wood in 
Winter ; Snow Landscape in Sweden ; By 
the Sea ; Return of Fishermen ; Swedish 
Village ; Landscape in Holland (1877) ; View 
on Coast of Normandy (1878) ; Winter 
Evening in Sweden, Sunset in Waxholm — 
Sweden, Dutch Marine View (1883) ; Village 
in Dalecarlia (1884) ; Winter Night near 
SUjan (1885). 

GEIGER, KAKTi, bom in Vienna, Dec. 
14, 1822. History painter, pupil of Vienna 
Academy under FOhrich, attracted attention 
by his talent for composition when only 
thirteen, was afterwards much influenced by 
Kaulbach. Works : Altarpieces in St. Ste- 
phen's, Vienna ; Allegorical Paintings in Pal- 
aces of Duke of Coburg and Prince Kinsky, 
and Hotel Imperial, ib. — Brockhaus, vii. 
682 ; Wurzbach, v. 122. 

born in Vienna, Jan. 11, 1805, died there, 
Oct 29, 1880. History painter, pupil of 
Vienna Academy, but formed himself chiefly 
by studying the old masters. In 1850 he 
accompanied the Archduke Ferdinand Max 
to the East Was professor at the Vienna 
Academy from 1853 to 1871. Although lit- 
tle known to the public at large, he ranks 
among the most excellent artists of Austria. 
Works : Storming of Malborghetto, Battle 
of Lateen, Battle on the Iselberg, Entry of 
Archduke Leopold into Brussels, collection 
of Emperor of Austria ; Slave Market in 
Smyrna, Banquet at a Pasha's, A Ferry, 
Castle Miramar, near Trieste. — Brockhaus, 
vii. 682 j Kunst-Chronik, xvi 182 ; Wurz- 
bach, v. 123. 

GEERNAERT, JOZEF, bom at Eecloo, 
East Flanders, Aug. 27, 1790, died in Ghent, 
March 20, 1859. Flemish school ; history, 
genre, and portrait painter, pupil of Ghent 
Academy and in Antwerp of Herreyns, and 
then in Ghent of Paelinck ; obtained the 
first prize in 1818, and a gold medal in 
Paris in 1835. Works; Warrior bringing 

to his Family the Saver of his Life (1818) ; 
Harp Lesson (1820), Seizure for Debt 
(1835), Ghent Museum ; Consultation at the 
Doctor's, Brussels Museum ; The School- 
master, Mechlin Museum ; Doctor's Visit, 
Haarlem Museum ; Proposal; Card-Players ; 
Painter's Studio ; Peasant Women Resting; 
Little Fruit-Thieves ; Return from Kirmess: 
Children blowing Soap-Bubbles ; Bride and 
Bridegroom ; Return of Fisherman ; Capture 
of Count Egmont (1823) ; Durer visiting 
Grave of Hubert van Eyck ; Jan Steen and 
van Goyen ; Maria Theresa visiting a Poor 
Woman (1837).— Biog. nat de Belgique, 
vii 557 ; ImmerzeeL i 272 ; Krarnm, ii. 

Wurzburg, Oct 15, 1835, died in Munich, 
Dec. 15, 1868. Landscape painter, pupil of 
his father, Andreas (died 1860), and in Mu- 
nich of Fritz Bamberger. On his return 
from Italy, in May, 1867, he settled at Mu- 
nich. Works : Ideal Landscape (1866) ; 
View near Polling (1857) ; View in RhOn 
Mountains, View near Miltenberg (1857- 
58), Munich Art Union ; Rhdn Landscape 
(I860); Idyl (1861), Wiesbaden Gallery; 
Rainy Day (1861), Sunday Morning on 
Kochel Lake (1863), Cologne Art Union; 
View in Tyrol Mountains (1862) ; Evening 
on the Main (1863) ; Lonely Mountain-Lake, 
View in Franconian Switzerland (1864) ; 
View in the Campagna (1866), Ruins of 
Theatre in Tusculum, Ravine near Tivoli 
(1867), Ruins of Aqueduct in Campagna 
(1868), Munich Art Union ; Italian Land- 
scape (1867), Wurzbach Art Union.— AUgem. 
d. Biogr.,viii- 528; Andresen, iii. 207; Kunts- 
Chronik, iv. 142 ; Regnet, L 148 ; Zeitschr. 
f. b. K., vii 197. 

at Dordrecht in 1645, died there, or in Am- 
sterdam, in 1727. Dutch school ; history 
and portrait painter, pupils of Samuel van 
Hoogstraten, then for two years (1665-67) 
of Rembrandt, whose manner he closely 
followed. He was a fine colouriat, fond of 
picturesque effects, and had a broad and 


masterly touch. "Works : Portrait of Peter 
the Great, Judah and Thamar, National Mu- 
seum, Amsterdam ; An Eastern Prince (1885), 
Copenhagen Gallery ; Simeon in the Temple, 
Darmstadt Gallery ; Portrait of Old Woman 
(1685), Stadel Gallery, Frankfort; Jewish 
Bride, Study for Portrait of Old Man, Old 
Pinakothek, Munich ; Ecce Homo (1671), 
Dresden Gallery; Judah and Thamar, Vienna 
Academy ; Male Portrait, Liechtenstein Gal- 
lery, Vienna ; Portrait of a Dutch Admiral, 
New York Museum ; Twenty-two Scenes 
from Christ's Passion. — Immerzeel, i 273 ; 
Kramm, ii. 555 ; De Stuers, 333 ; Vosmaer, 

GELDORP (Gualdorp), GORTZICS, born 
at Louvain in 1553, died in Cologne in 
1616 or 1618. Flemish school ; history and 
portrait painter, pupil in Antwerp of Frans 
Francken the elder, afterwards of Frans 
Pourbus the elder. Entered the service of 
the Duke of Terra Nova, with whom he 
went to Cologne in 1579. His portraits are 
lively in conception, expressive, and finely 
coloured ; pictures mostly painted on wood. 
Works: Portrait of Jansenius, Aremberg 
Gallery, Brussels; Christ on the Cross, 
Penitent Magdalen, Madonna (?), Portraits 
of Husband and Wife (1572), Male Portrait 
(1610), eight others, Cologne Museum ; 
Male Portrait (1611), Weimar Museum ; do. 
(1628), and Female Portrait, Schwerin Gal- 
lery ; Lncretia, Male Portrait, Hermitage, 
St Petersburg ; Portraits in Augsburg Gal- 
lery, Brera, Milan, Darmstadt (2), Gotha (4), 
and Vienna Museums. His son, Melchior 
Geldorp (flourished 1620-40), also painted 
history and portraits. — Allgem. d. Biogr., 
viii. 531 ; Biog. nat. de Belgique, vii. 563 ; 
Kramm, ii. 558 ; Merlo, 128. 

at Bagneres-de-Bigorre (Hautes-Pyrenees), 
Nov. 26, 1834 Animal painter, pupil of 
his father and of Toulouse Academy under 
Griffoul-Dorval. Medal, 1869; 2d class, 
1883. Works: Wolf attacked by Dogs, 
Ballye-Sivry ! (1869); Exit from Kennel 
(1872); After the Hunt in Fontainebleau 

Forest (1873); Swamp near Belle Croix 
(1874); Young Hounds in the Thicket; 
Hunting Episode in Scotland, New Ac- 
quaintances (1875); Sweet Repose (1878); 
Stag heating the Water, The Victors (1880); 
Rendezvous, A First Experience (1881); 
Taken, In a Mass (1882); Wounded, Alert 
(1883); Limehounds, Ready to Start (1884); 
Capture of a Young Wolf, Hearing the Dogs 
Attack (1886).— Bellier de la Chavignerie, 
i. 629. 

GELLEE See Claude Lorrain. 

GEMMED, HERMANN, born at Barton, 
East Prussia, in 1814, died in Kdnigsberg, 
March 22, 1868. Architecture painter, pu- 
pil of Biermann and of W. Schirmer, be- 
came professor at the Kdnigsberg Academy 
in 1845, and visited Italy in 1850 and 1855. 
Works: Family Hall in Mediaeval Castle 
(1855); Chapel of Cardinal Zeno in St. 
Mark's ; Baptistery in St. Mark's, Venice. — 
Allgem. d. Biogr., viii. 556 ; Dioskuren, 
1868, 127 ; Brockhaus, vii. 741. 

GENDRON, ATJGUSTE, born in Paris, 
March 17, 1817, died there, July 23, 1881. 
History and genre painter, pupil of Dela- 
roche, studied for several years in Italy 
after the old masters, to the detriment of 
his originality, and returned to Paris about 
1847. Decorated St. Gervais, the Louvre, 
Palais de Justice, Hotel Pereire. Medals: 
3d class, 1846, 1856 ; 2d class, 1849 ; L. of 
Honour, 1855. Works: The Willis and 
Sylphids (1844); Boccaccio commenting 
upon Dante (1845); The Hone and Nereids 
(1846); St Catherine buried by Angels, 
After Death (1847); Isle of Cythera, Aulic 
Scene (1848); Young Christian Girl con- 
verting her Lover (1849); Human Sacrifice 
by the Druids (1850), Nimes Museum ; Ve- 
netian Fantasy (1850); Tiberius on Isle of 
Capri (1852), Marseilles Museum ; Autumn 
Evening (1853); Florentine Sunday in 15th 
Century (1855), formerly in Luxembourg 
Museum ; Burial of Young Venetian Lady 
(1859); St Catherine of Alexandria (1863); 
Nymphs at the Grave of Adonis (1864); Ti- 
berius at Capri, Marseilles Museum ; Man 


between two Ages, and bis Two Mistresses, 
The Foolish Virgins (1873); Landscape in 
Tuscan;, Sacrifice to iEseidapius (1875); 
Tribute of Athens to Minotaur (1876); M. 
Pnrgon arrive mal-a-propos (1877). — La- 
rousse, viii. 1130 ; Meyer, Oesch., 606 ; Mai- 
ler, 199 ; Revue des B. Arts (1869), il 

Berlin, Sept 28, 
1798, died in Wei- 
mar, Not. 13, 1868. 
History painter, 
pupil of Berlin 
Academy under the 
influence of his 
uncle, the architect - 

Hans Christian Ge- ~ 

nelli lived from 
1822 to 1832 in 

Borne, and was much influenced by Cars- 
tens, Koch, and Thorwaldsen. In 1836 he 
removed from Leipsio to Munich, and in 
1869 to Weimar by invitation of the Grand 
Duke. One of the most ingenious designers 
of modern times. Weimar Order of Falcon, 
1862. Member of Vienna Academy, 1868. 
Works : Triumph of Bacchus and Ariadne 
(water-colour), Leipsic Museum ; Hercules 
playing the Lyre ; FJiezar and Bebekah ; 
Jason and Medea robbing the Golden Fleece ; 
life of a Libertine (18); Illustration a to Ho- 
mer (49); Life of a Witch (10); Illustrations to 
Dante (36); Life of an Artist ; JSsop telling 
his Fables (water-colour), Leipsic Museum ; 
do., and Homer reciting his Songs, Sappho 
reciting her Poems, Apollo among the Shep- 
herds, Baron Sina, Vienna; Sisyphus led 
away by the Youth with the Torch, Acad- 
emy, ib.; Colossal Head of Don Quixote; 
Lot in Zoar ; Samson and Delilah ; Bebekah 
at the Well ; Joseph and Potiphar's Wife ; 
Vision of Ezekiel (1869), Rape of Europa 
(1860, cartoon to it (1857) in National Gal- 
lery, Berlin), Hercules and Omphale, Tri- 
umph of Bacchus and Ariadne, Abraham and 
the Angels (1862), Battle of Lycurgus (1863, 
cartoons to last two in Leipsic Museum), 
Drop Curtain with Allegories, Bacchus 

among the Muses (1868), Schack Gallery, 
Munich ; Abraham and the Angels (water- 
colour), Leipsic Museum ; Centaur Family 
(1862); Jupiter and Eros on the Wings of 
Night (1864), Bacchus among the Pirates 
(1868, cartoon, last work), Weimar Museum. 
His son, Camillo (1840-67), was a designer 
and painter of great promise. — AUgem. d. 
Biogr., viii. 662 ; Brockhaus, vii. 750 ; Fdrs- 
ter, Denkmale, XH. iii. 29 ; Graph. K, iv. 1 ; 
Elustr. Zeitg. (1868), 415 ; Kunst-Chronik, 
iii. 141 ; iv. 17 ; Pecht, ii 271 ; Eegnet, i. 
159 ; Biegel, Kunststudien, 291 ; Schack, 
Meine Gemaldegallerie (1884), 1 ; Land und 
Meer (1869), i 351 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K-, v. 1; 
xi. 11 ; xii. 26, 90, 122, 217 ; xiii. 116, 184, 
221, 2 60, 316, 35 5 ; xviii. 257. 

GENEVIEVE, SAINT, Puvis de Cha- 
varmen, Church of St. Genevieve (Pantheon), 
Paris. St. Genevieve of Paris, who in child- 
hood tended sheep, went with others to 
meet St. Germain when he came to spend a 
night at Nanterre. When the bishop saw 
her be was made aware by inspiration of the 
sanctity of her character, and hanging round 
her neck a medal marked with the cross, he 
blessed her as one consecrated to God's 

GENGA, GIROLAMO, born at Urbino in 
1476, died there, July 11, 1551. Umbrian 
school ; pupil of Luca Signorelli, whom he 
aided in his frescos in the Duomo of Or- 
vieto. Genga afterwards was Perugino's 
assistant for three years, and in bis school 
became acquainted with Raphael. Painted 
in the Palazzo Petrucci, Siena, and then 
with Timoteo Vite at Urbino. Afterwards 
worked in Borne, Pesaro, and Florence, 
both as painter and architect Works: Res- 
urrection (1510), Siena Duomo; Madonna, 
Brera; Resurrection, S. Caterina da Siena, 
Rome ; Holy Family, Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 
His son, Baxtolommeo Genga (born 1518, 
died 1558), was better known as an archi- 
tect than as a painter. — Oh. Blanc, Ecole 
ombrienne; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., xi. 86; 
ed. Mil, vi 315 ; Siret, 356 ; Baldinucci, 
ii. 93. 



St Omer (Pas^e-CaMs) in 1805, died in 
1860. Architecture painter. Works: View 
in Dominican Monastery at Antwerp (1843) ; 
Church Interior {1845}, Kunsthalle, Ham- 
burg ; Burial Chapel at Dreux (1850) ; In- 
terior of Collegiate Church at St. Lierre 
near Antwerp (1862), Ravenf Gallery, 
Berlin ; St Lawrence's at Nuremberg, Stet- 
tin Museum. 

GENNERICH, OTIO, born in Berlin in 
1823. History painter, pupil of Berlin 
Academy. Continued his studies in Italy 
(1841-12) with Lengerich. After his return 
he taught and wrote on perspective. Works : 
Gotz von Berlichingen at Heilbronn (1848) ; 
Last Will of Great Elector (1852) ; Visit of 
Electoral Family of Brandenburg to Re- 
mains of Gustavus Adolphus at Wolgast 
(1869).— Mailer, 200. 

in Lyons, Sept 20, 1796, died there, July 
25, 1862. Genre painter, pupil of Revoil, 
and one of the best painters born at Lyons. 
His pictures are agreeable, true to nature, 
and carefully executed. Medal, 2d class, 
1819 ; L. of Honour, 1855. Many of his 
works have been engraved. Works : Mother 
with a Sick Child (1819) ; Father's Blessing, 
Hospital Sister (1822) ; Soldier's Farewell 
(1824), Lyons Museum ; Young Mother 
mourning for her Son (1824) ; Cupid and 
Psyche; Prisoners of State under Louis XTCL 
(1835) ; Monk in the Pyrenees; The Golden 
Wedding (1855) ; The Prisoner (1857) ; The 
King Drinks 1 A Painter's Apprentice (1861). 
— Larousse. 

GENOELS, ABRAHAM, called Archi- 
medes, born in Antwerp, May 25, 1640, 
died there, May 10, 1723. Flemish school ; 
landscape painter, pupil of Jacob BackerelL 
and at Bois-le-Duc of Fierlants ; went to 
France in 1659, where he was employed by 
Lebrun to paint the backgrounds in his Bat- 
tles of Alexander the Great, and in 1664 was 
made member of the Academy. In 1672 
he entered the guild of Antwerp, whither he 
returned after having spent the period from 


1674 to 1682 in Rome, where his knowl- 
edge of mathematics acquired him the sur- 
name of Archi- 
medes. Works: 
Minerva and the 
Muses, Antwerp 
Museum ; Land- 
scape, Bruns- 
wick Museum. 
i — Allgem. d. 

t Biogr., viii.569; 

Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
■• flamande ; Cat. 
du Musee d'Anvers (1874), Fetis, Lea Ar- 
tistes beiges a l'etranger, i. 215 ; 
Rooses (Reber), 414 ; Riegel, 
Beitrage, 130 ; Van den Bra 
den, 1074 

GENSCHOW, GEORG, born at Rostock 
in 1829. Landscape painter, pupil of Dfls- 
seldorf Academy under Andreas Ache nbach, 
and afterwards studied nature in the Bava- 
rian Highlands, Switzerland, and the Car- 
pathian Mountains ; Lives at Dusseldorf. 
Works : Mountain Lake (1853), View in the 
Hartz, Mill in the Mountains (1859), Sea- 
shore at Sunset (1861), Schwerin Gallery ; 
Waterfall in Carpathian Mountains (1862), 
Kiel Gallery ; Wood Brook (1864), Fall in 
Tatra Mountains ( 1866), Evening Landscape 
(1867), Mill on River Erft (1868).— Mailer, 

GENSLER, GttNTHER, born in Ham- 
burg, Feb. 28, 1803. Portrait painter and 
writer on art, studied in Dresden, the Neth- 
erlands, and Italy. Works : Two Groups of 
Artists (1849 and 1860), Old Art Amateur 
(1867), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Assembly of 
Hamburg Artists (1859), Cologne Museum ; 
Hour of Reat in the Studio (1854), Leipsic 
Museum.— Muller, 200. 

GENSLER, JAKOB, bora in Hamburg, 
Jan. 22, 1808, died there, Jan. 26, 1845. 
Genre painter, pupil of Rachau and Gerdt 
Hardorff, the elder, then in Eutin of Wilhelm 
Tischbein ; went in 1827 to Dresden, and 
thence to Munich, where he frequented the 
Academy. Visited the Tyrol, then continued 


liia studies in 1830 at the Vienna Academy, 
and returned to Hamburg in 1631. Works : 
Hessian Cartmen (1826) ; Tavern in Hartz 
Mountains (1830) ; Cartmen before Inn, 
Tyrolese Smugglers, Tyrolese Village (1831); 
Klosterneuburg on the Danube ; Fishing 
Expedition ; Spinning Women of Blanken- 
eae ; Coast on Baltic Sea ; Cemetery of Bis- 
tort (1837), Eunsthalle, Hamburg ; Blanken- 
ese Women at the Well ; Sunday Morning ; 
Hay-Harvest ; Boys going to Rifle-match ; 
Winter Scene on the Elbe ; Fishermen on 
Baltic Sea ; Butch Coast by Moonlight ; 
Arrival of Fishermen at Zandvoort ; Fruit- 
Harvest — Andresen, iii 42. 

GENSLER, MARTIN, born in Hamburg, 
May 9, 1811, died there, Dec. 15, 1881. 
Genre and architecture painter, pupil of Ra- 
chau and of his brother Gflnthor, studied in 
1635-36 in Munich. Works : Hall in Si 
John's Convent, Hamburg, Flayers of 
Draughts in Tavern (1830) ; Silver Foundry 
(1631) ; Sacristy (1835), Wanderer asking 
for Shelter (1851), Eunsthalle, Hamburg ; 
Mediaeval Scholar (1841), Cassel Gallery ; 
Praying Knight (1845) ; Hospitable Hearth 
(1847); Well in Hospital (1649); Castle 
Yard (1650) ; Refugees in Castle (1852) ; 
Hospitallers at the Well (1864) ; Repose in 
Egypt (1856) ; Fisherman's Dwelling in 
Autumn (1856) ; Feeding the Poor at a Con- 
vent (1861); Tinker (1862); Fisherman's 
Hut on the Elbe (1866) ; Castle Sentinel, 
ChristianiaGullery. — Andresen, iii 2; Eunst- 
Chronik, xvii. 287. 


Rome in 1590, died in London in 1642. 
Florentine school ; daughter and pupil of 
Orazio Gentileschi ; also studied at Bologna 
under Guido Reni Lived in Naples in 
1630-37 ; as famous for her amours as for 
her painting. Finally joined her father in 
England, where she was well received and 
painted many of the royal family and nobil- 
ity. Walpole says she was not inferior to 
her father in historical painting, and excelled 

him in portraits. Among her works are. 
Mary Magdalen, Judith, and Judith and 
Holofernea, in the Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; 
Birth of 8t John Baptist, Woman caressing 
Pigeons, Madrid Museum ; Her Portrait, 
Hampton Court ; Christ among the Doctors, 
Historical Society, New York. — Lanzi, L 232; 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole florentine ; Walpole, Anec- 
dotes, 186 ; Wessely, 17. 

July 9, 1562, died in 
London in 1647. 
Florentine school. 
Real name Lomi, 
brother and pupil of 
Aurelio Lomi, bat 
took name of Genti- 4 
leschi from an uncle. 
Having mastered the 
elements of bis art 
under his brother 
Aurelio and his uncle Baccio, he went to 
Rome, where he formed his style by study 
of the great masters, and was employed 
upon important works for Clement VITI., 
Paul V., and Cardinals Borghese and Aldo- 
brandini. In 1621 went to Genoa, then for 
two years to France, and in 1626 to Eng- 
land, where he remained till his death, much 
esteemed and employed by Charles I., who 
gave him a yearly salary. Van Dyck painted 
his portrait. Among his works are : Repose 
of Holy Family (painted for Charles L), and 
a young man's portrait, Louvre ; Joseph and 
Potiphar's Wife, Sibyl, Hampton Court; 
Madonna and Saints, Moses saved from the 
Waters, Madrid Museum ; Adoration of the 
Magi, Annunciation, Turin Gallery ; Magda- 
len in a Grotto, Flight into Egypt, Vienna 

tkratud GpMidCch'L 


Museum. — Lama, L 232 ; Oh. Blanc, Ecole 


GENTZ, WILHELM, bom at Neu-Rnp- 
pin, Dec. 9, 1822. History and genre paint- 
er, pupil in Berlin of ElOber, then in 1845 
of the Antwerp Academy, and in 1846-52 in 
Paris under Gleyre and Couture ; travelled 
in the East and throughout Europe. Mem- 
ber of and professor at Berlin Academy. 
Great gold medal in Berlin (1876), medals 
in Vienna (1873) and Munich (1876). 
Works : Christ and Magdalen at Simeon's, 
Prodigal Son, Christ among the Pharisees 
and Publicans, Chemnitz Museum ; Trans- 
portation of Slaves through the Desert, Halt 
of Caravan, Stettin Museum ; Camp of Mec- 
ca Caravan, Bedouin Camp, Giving Alms in 
Cairo, Prayer of Mecca Caravan, Meeting of 
Two Caravans (1860-70); Nile Landscape, 
Story-Teller at Cairo, Funeral near Cairo 
(Dresden Gallery), Village School in Upper 
Egypt, Snake Charmer, Coffee -House in 
Cairo, Fellah-Houses in Cairo (1870-72); 
Entry of German Crown Prince into Jeru- 
salem in 1869 (1876), National Gallery, 
Berlin ; Grave of Babbi in Algiers, Leipsic 
Museum ; Idyl in Thebaid (1883); Evening 
on the Nile (1884).— Brockhaus, vii. 785; 
Blustr. Zeitg., Mar. 16, 1861; (1873), ii. 
123; (1877), L 221 ; Rosenberg, Berl. Ma- 
lersoh, 219. 

GEOFFROY, JEAN, born at Marennes 
(Charente'Inferieure);contemporary. Genre 
and portrait painter, pupil of Levasseur, 
Allan, and Bin. Medal, 3d class, 1883. 
Works : First Lessons (1878); Abandoned, 
Unwarranted Resemblance (1879); Resigned 
Victim, A Future Scholar, Stirrup-Cup, Great 
Culprit (1880); Little Class, Quarter of an 
Hour of Rabelais (1881); Afternoon Lunch- 
eon, In Quarantine (1882); Hour of Return, 
The Unfortunate (1883)-; Basket-Maker, 
Sewing Lesson (1884); Review of Scholar 
Battalions, Washstand (1885). 

March 28, 1834. Portrait painter, pupil of 
Vienna Academy under Rahl, studied then 
for some years in Hungary ; one of the best 
portrait painters of Vienna. Medal in 1873. 
Works : Effect of Wine (1853); Richard HL 

(1857); portraits of the actors Wild, Stand. 
igL Lowe, Beckmann, Findeisen, Dambock, 
of the painter Angeli, of Professor Roki- 
tansky, of Count Hoyos, Minister Lasser, 
Archduke Louis Victor.— Muller, 201. 

St George of Cappadocia, the patron saint 
of England, was, according to the legend, a 
tribune in the army in the time of Diocle- 
tian. When on the way to join his legion, 
he overcame a terrible dragon, near Selene, 
in Libya (or Berytus, Syria, according to 
another account), and rescued the king's 
daughter, Cleodolinda, who was about to 
be sacrificed to appease the beast St 
George suffered martyrdom in the persecu- 
tion of Diocletian. The combat with the 
dragon has been illustrated by nearly all 
the great painters. 

By Marco Sasaiii, S. Pietro di Oastello, 
Venice ; canvas, figures half life-size ; signed, 
dated 1520. St George on horseback, fight- 
ing dragon ; Princess Cleodolinda in back- 
ground holding on to a tree. Close imita- 
tion of Carpaccio. Painted by order of 
Patriarch Antonio II, Contarini (1508-24). 
— Zanotte, Pinac Ven., PL 17 ; C. & 0., N. 
Italy, L 270. 

By Andrea Sfanlegna, Venice Academy ; 
wood, tempera, H. 2 ft x 1 ft St George, 
in armour, holding the stump of his lance, 
with the dragon at his feet Painted about 
1464. Formerly in Palazzo Manfrini. — C 
& C, N. Italy, i 387 ; Burckhardt, 578. 

By G. A. Pordentme, Quirinal, Rome ; 
wood, arched, H. 9 ft x 6 ft 2 in.; signed. 
The saint, on horseback, tilts at dragon with 
his lance ; background, a landscape with 
Cleodolinda kneeling. Formerly in church 
at Noale, near Treviso. — C. & C., N. Italy, 
ii 287. 

By Raphael, Hermitage, St Petersburg ; 
wood, transferred to canvas, H. 10} x 8$ in. 
St. George in armour, on a white horse, 
charges out of the foreground and trans- 
fixes the dragon with his lance ; background, 
a wilderness with a cave to the right, and 
Cleodolinda kneeling in prayer ; behind her 


a landscape with two towers in distance. 
Painted in Florence in 1606 ; presented by 
Ouidobaldo L, Duke of Urbino, to Henry 
VIL of England, in return for the insignia 
of the Garter ; registered in inventories of 
Henry V1IL and Charles I, after whose 
death sold for £150 ; afterwards in Paris in 
possession of Marquis de Sourdis, and of 
M, de la Noue, who paid 500 pistoles for it 
In Muses Napoleon in 1802. Engraved by 
L. Vorsterman ; Des Granges ; N. de Lar- 
messin. Tapestry made at Mortlalce in time 
of Charles L and at Irnham, Lincolnshire. 
Sketch in the TJffizi, Florence ; engraved by 
Vorsterman from a copy. — C. & C, Raph- 
ael, L 278 ; Archsologia, 298 ; Felibien, En- 
tretiens, i. 228 ; Landon, Musee, iii. PL 15. 
By Raphael, Louvre ; wood, H. 12 in. X 10 
in, St George in armour, on a gray horse, 
gallops into the foreground, and having 
broken his lance upon the dragon, is about 
to despatch him with his sword ; in the dis- 
tance, Cleodolinda starts in flight, with 

St- Gotta* und th* Ongoii, R»|>h*»l. Hurmtb^t, Si. Patanburf. 

arms extended ; background, a beautiful 
landscape of trees and rocks. Painted in 

Perugia in 1604. Belonged to Cardinal 
Mazarin ; bought of his heirs for Louis XIV. 

th* Dragon, Raphttl. Louvre. 

(C. & C.) ; but Villot says it was in the col- 
lection of Francis L, and thinks it the pict- 
ure cited by Lomazzo (i. 48), as painted for 
the Duke of Urbino in 1506. Study in the 
UffizL Engraved by N. Larmessin ; Vorst- 
erman ; J. L. Petit — C. A C, Raphael, i. 
206; Passavant, iL 22; MOntz, 110; Cab. 
Crozat, i PL 16 ; Musee royal, i ; Landon, 
Musee, iv. PL 62 ; Villot, Cat Louvre ; Fil- 
hol, L PL 19. 

By Tintoretto, National Gallery, London ; 
canvas, H. 5 ft. 2 in. x 3 ft. 3 in. Princess 
Cleodolinda kneels in foreground ; in mid- 
dle distance a dead body, and beyond on 
the hillside St George on horseback driving 
the dragon into the sea ; in background a 
castle, and a golden sky with glory of an- 
gels. Splendid colour and masterly treat- 
ment ; painted with the inspired freedom of 
an improvisation. Bequeathed in 1831 by 
Eev. W. H. Carr.— Richter, Italian Art in 
Nat Gal., 86. 

By Tintoretlo, Hermitage, St Petersburg. 
The saint, armed and on horseback, attacks 
the dragon, near which lies the body of a 


man killed by the monster ; to right, in 
background, St Alexander, and beyond a 
building. Presented to Emperor Alexander 
I. by M. Narisckkine. — Cat. Hermitage, 64 
By Tintoretto, Palazzo Ducale, Venice ; 
canvas, about H. 6 ft x 8 ft The princess 

M.Myrdo..! of St. G*DIf(, PlOlO VtroniH, S. Giorjjm Mlflio'l, 

sits astride on the dragon's neck, holding 
him by a silken bridle; St George, in 
armour, stands behind, holding his hands 
over her head ; on the right a monk, stand- 
ing, looking gravely on. Study in Palazzo 
Manfrini. A similar picture at Hampton 
Court — Buskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 296 ; 
Law, Hist Cat Hampton Court, 54. 

By Bartolommeo Vioarini, Berlin Museum; 
wood, H. 1 ft 2 in. x 2 ft 2 in.; signed, 
dated 1485. Saint on horseback engaged 
with dragon ; Cleodolinda in distance. — C. 
& C, N. Italy, i. 47. 

Veronese, S. Giorgio Maggiore, Verona ; 
canvas. St George, kneeling, with eyes 
raised to heaven, is insensible to the exhor- 
tations of the priest of Apollo, who points to 
the image of the god ; behind, an execu- 
tioner with his sword ; in front, an- 
other trying to place the saint in a po- 
sition to be decapitated ; two mount- 
ed men and other soldiers look on ; 
above, the Virgin and Child, with SS. 
Peter and Paul, and Faith, Hope, and 
Charity, surrounded by angels and 
cherubim, one of whom bears the 
palm of martyrdom and the crown 
to St George. Painted about 1568 
for S. Giorgio, Verona; carried to 
Paris in 1799 ; returned in 1815. 
It was probably finished by Vero- 
nese's pupils.— Land on, Musee, xii 
PI. 9 ; Ridolfi, Marav., ii. 85. 

TJSTE ALBERT, born at Caen (Cal- 
vados) ; contemporary. Genre and 
portrait painter, pupil of Gerdme 
and Lecomte du Nouy. Medal, 3d 
class, 1879. Works: Greek Cour- 
tesan (1874) ; Lyrical Debut (1875); 
Beheading of St John (1876) ; Gaul 
Sentinels (1877) ; Cradle of a Spar- 
tan (1878) ; St Jerome in the DeBert 
(1880) ; Death of Gaudri, Bishop 
of Laon (1882) ; Fishermen at the 
Inn (1883) ; The Victors of Vester- 
'•">"■■ day (1884) ; Mending Nets (1885). 
born in Rome. 
March 14, 1770, 
died in Paris, 
Jan. 11, 1887, 
French school ; 
history and por- 
trait painter, pu- 
pil of the sculp- 
tor Pajou, of 
t Brenet, and of 
' David ; won the 
2d prix de Borne in 1789 with his Joseph 


discovering Himself to his Brethren, now in 
the Angers Museum. In 1792, after a short 
stay in Rome, he settled in Paris, and was 
assigned a studio in the Louvre, but his rep- 
utation was not established until 1600, when 
Napoleon appointed him his official portrait 
painter. He executed many important works 
under the Empire, and was patronized by 
Louis AVJUL, Charles X, and Louis Philippe. 
Member of the Institute, 1812 ; L. of Hon- 
our, Order of Si Michael ; first painter to 
the king, 1817 ; and in 1819 was created a 
baron. Works : Beliaarius ; Entry of Henri 
IV. into Paris (replica), Psyche and Cupid 
(1798), Daphnis and ChloB (1824), Victory 
and Fame, History and Poetry, portrait of 
Isabey (1796), do. of Canova, do. of Charles 
X., Louvre, Paris ; The Three Ages (1808) ; 
Battle of AiaterlUt (1810), Entry of Henri 
IV. into Paris (1817), Philippe V. of France 
called to the Throne of Spain (1824), Coro- 
nation of Charles X. (1827), Proclamation at 
the Hotel de Ville in Paris (1836), Signing 
the Concordat, portraits of Joachim Murat, 
Madame Bonaparte, Empress Josephine, 
Empress Marie Louise and the King of 
Rome, Charles X., Due de Berri, Duchesse 
de Berri and Children, Versailles Museum 
The Three Ages (1806), Naples Museum 
Sappho (1810), Stadel Gallery, Frankfort ; 
Corinne at Cape Misenum (1819), Lyons 
Museum ; Napoleon in Coronation Robes, 
Dresden Museum ; Plague at Marseilles, 
Sanitary Department of Marseilles ; portrait 
of Ia Reveillfire Lepeaux, Angers Museum ; 
do. of Louis XVIII., Toulouse, Marseilles, 
and Ajaccio Museums ; do., Hatfield House, 
London ; Christ descending upon Earth and 
scattering Darkness (1837, last work), Or- 
leans Museum; portraits of Napoleon (1808), 
Josephine, Queen of Naples (1810), King of 
Two Sicilies, Duke of Montebello (1812), 
Empress Marie Louise (1811), King of Rome 
(1814), Comte d'Artois, Due d 'Orleans (1819), 
Duchesse d'Orleans (1819), Due de Char- 
tres (1822), Duchesse de Berri (1624), Due 
de Bordeaux (1824), Due de Dalniatie 
(1826), Madame Pasta (1826).— Bellier de 

la Chavignerie, i. 636 ; Ch. Blanc, £cole 
francaise ; Meyer, Oesch., 96 ; Villot, Cat, 


Louvre ; Lejeune, Guide, L 397 ; Zeitscbr. 
f. b. K-, xx. 256. 

GERHARDT, EDUARD, born at Erfurt, 
April 29, 1813. Landscape and architecture 
painter, studied from 1837 in Munich, where 
he settled in 1851 after ten years spent in 
Italy, Spain, and England. Works : Views 
of Cologne Cathedral (1838); Views in Ven- 
ice ; Views in the Alhambra ; San Udefonso ; 
Gardens of Generalife ; Carmo Church in 
Lisbon ; Cintra ; S. Marco and S. Maria 
della Salute in Venice ; North View of Al- 
hambra ; Moonlight in Spanish Town ; Pal- 
ace of Inquisition at Cordova (1863), Lion's 
Court of Alhambra, Interior of St Mark's 
in Venice, New Pinakothek, Munich ; Lion 
Court in the Alhambra, Palazzo Moro, and 
Palazzo Vendramin, at Venice, The Genera- 
life at Granada, Comares Tower of the Al- 
hambra, Schack Gallery, ib. — Brockhaus, vii. 
829 ; Mailer, 201. 



born at Rouen, 
Sept 26, 1791, 
died in Paris, 
Jan. 18, 1824. 
History and ani- 
mal painter, pu- 
pil of Carle Ver- , 
net and of Ouij- 
rin. In 1817, 
after serving in 
the army three 

years, he went to Italy and studied in Rome 
and Florence. His Raft of the Medusa 
(1819, Louvre) was loudly denounced by 
the critics on account of its bold realism ; 
but its exhibition in London brought the 
painter 20,000 francs and on his return to 
Paris a gold medal. He executed after- 
wards many studies in crayon and water- 

ed byGoOglC 

colour, anil many lithographs ; also mod- 
elled for sculpture. Works : Raft of the 
Medusa (1819), Officer of the Imperial Guard 
Charging (1812), Wounded Cuirassier lie- 
treating (1814), The Derby at Epsom (1821), 
A Carbineer, The Plaster Kiln, Turkish Horse 
in a Stable, Spanish Horse in a Stable, Five 
Horses in a Stable, Louvre ; Portrait of Lord 
Byron, Two Horses in a Stable, Montpellier 
Museum ; Others in Grenoble, Rouen, Nan- 
tes, Chalon-sur-Saone, Aix, and Avignon Mu- 
seums ; Wreck of the Medusa, Historical 
Society, New York ; Village Smithy, Child 
feeding a Horse (exhibited in 1824, after 
his death); Cavalry Charge, Still Life, B. 

Wall, Providence. — Ch. Blanc, Ecole fran- 
caise, iii.; Villot, Cat. Louvre; Lejeune, 
Guide, i. 324 ; Chesneau, Peinture fran- 
caise (Paris, 1883); Gaz. des B. Arts (1874), 
ix. 72. 

GERINI, LORENZO, Florentine school, 
beginning of 15th century. Son of Niccolft 
Gerini and equally mediocre. A fair painter 
among the third-rates, and of considerable 
practice. His most important work is the 
Coronation of the Virgin, an altarpiece with 
predella, painted in 1440, in S. Domenico, 
Cortona.— C. & C, Italy, ii. 23. 

entine school, 14th century, died after 1401. 
He was a careful and diligent painter, but 
in colour wanting force and fusion. In his 
frescos he continued the school of Taddeo 
Gaddi, hut, as compared with Agnolo Gaddi 
and Spinello, his painting is lifeless and 
third-rate. His earliest and most important 
work is a series of frescos in the Convent of 
S. Francesco, Pisa, dated 1392.— C. & C, 
Italy, ii. 19; Ltlbke, Gesch. itaL MaL, i. 
151 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., ii 197, N. 1. 

GERINO DA PISTOJA, TJmbrian school 
(1502-29). Vasari says he was a friend of 

Pinturicchio, a diligent eolourist, and a fol- 
lower of Perugino. His Virgin of Succour 
(1602) in S. Agostino, Borgo S. Sepolcro, 
shows that be was a fair copyist of his mas- 
ter when he painted it. His Madonna and 
Saints (1509), S. Pietro Maggiore, Pistoja, 
is a mixture of Perugino, Pinturicchio, and 
Raphael. He grew feeble later ; his Ma- 
donna and Saints (1529), TTffizi, Florence, 
is gray and dull with none of his early rich- 
ness of tint.— C. & C, Italy, iii. 349 ; Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole ombrienne ; Vasari, ed. Le 
Mon., v. 276. 

von PUoty, Munich Gallery ; canvas, H. 17 
ft. 8 in. x 24 ft 6 in. Triumphal entry into 
Roma accorded by Tiberius to Germanicus, 
a-d. 17, after his victory over the Germans 
on the Elbe, in which he recovered the 
eagles lost by Varus (Tae. An,, ii. 41). 
Thusnelda, wife of Anninius, leading by 
the hand her little boy Thumelicus, walks 
in the procession, while Segestes, her father, 
through whose treachery she had fallen in- 
to the hands of the Romans, sits near Ger- 
manicus as an ally. Painted in 1873 ; sold 
for 35,000 florins. Replica, Mrs. A. T. 
Stewart, New York. — Art Treas. of Amer., 
i. 26. 
GER6ME> JEAN LEON, born in VesouL 
May 11, 1824 His- 
tory and genre 
painter, pupil of 
Paul Delaroche, 
whom he accompa- 
nied to Rome, and 
of Gleyre after his 
K return from Italy. 
1 Failed to obtain the 

I prix de Rome, hut 

obtained a 3d class 
medal for his Cock Fight in 1847, and in- 
creased his reputation by bis Anacreon in 
the following year. Then visited Russia, 
where he painted a successful picture of 
Russian Musicians, and Egypt, whence he 
brought back valuable material afterwards 
treated (1857). Since this period he has 

ed by Google 

painted a variety of subjects ancient and 
modern, which have gained him a place as 
one of the best-known modern French 
painters. Gerfime has also exhibited sev- 
eral sculptured groups, and has executed 
mural paintings for the city of Paris, among 
them the Plague at Marseilles in St Severin. 
Medals: 3d class, 1847; 2d class, 1848, 
1855; of honour, 1867, 1874, 1878; for 
sculpture, 1878 ; L. of Honour, 1855 ; On- 
cer, 1867 ; Commander, 1878 ; Member of 
Institute, 1865. Professor in £cole des 
Beaux Arts, 1863. Works: Cock Fight 
(1847), Luxembourg Museum ; Madonna 
and St John (1848); Anacreon with Bac- 
chus and Cupid (1848), Toulouse Museum ; 
Bacchus and Cupid Intoxicated (1850), Bor- 
deaux Museum ; Greek Interior, Souvenir 
of Italy (1851); View of Ptestum (1852); An 
Idyl (1853); Russian Concert, Age of Au- 
gustus (1855), Amiens Museum ; Egyptian 
Recruits crossing the Desert, Memnon and 
Sesostris, Camels at Watering-Place (1857); 
Gladiators saluting Ceesar, King Candaxdea 
(1859); Phryne before the Tribunal, Alcibi- 
ades in House of Aspasia, Rembrandt Etch- 
ing (1861); Prisoner (1868), Nantes Muse- 
um ; Reception of Siamese Ambassadors at 
Fontaioebleau, Prayer (1865) ; Cleopatra and 
Csesar, Door of Mosque of El Hacamyn 
(1866); Slave Market, Clothing Merchant, 
Death of Csesar (1867); Seventh of Decem- 
ber, 1815 (1868); Jerusalem, Cairo Pedlar, 
Promenade of the Harem (1869); Rex Tibi- 
cen, Santon at the Door of a Mosque, Wom- 
en at the Bath (1876); St Jerome, Turk- 
ish Bath, Bashi-Bazouks Dancing, Return 
from the Chase (1878); Slave Market in 
Borne, Night in the Desert, Donee du Baton 
(1884); Great Bath at Brusa (1885). Works 
in United States: Female Figure, T. A. 
Havemeyer, New York ; Abyssinian Chief, 
Sheik at Devotions — Ancient Mosque in 
Cairo, Miss C. L. Wolfe, lb.; Slave Market, 
A. Belmont, ib. ; Eminence Grise (1874), 
Mbti&re Breakfasting with Louis XIV., J. H 
Stebbins, ib.; Arabs in Desert, W. Rocke- 
feller, ib.; Death of Gcesar (1867), J. J. Ali- 

tor, ib.; After the Both, William Aster, ib.; 
Prayer in the Desert, L Corse, ib.; Bull- 
Fighter, Guard of Louis XIV., T. R. Butler, 
ib. ; Suake-Charmer, Albert Spencer, ib.; 
Arab Seated, Mrs. Paran Stevens, ib. ; Cru- 
cifixion, Frank Work, New York ; Bonaparte 
in Egypt, Call to Prayer, R. L Kennedy, ib.; 
Pifierari in London, J. C. Runkle, ib. ; Muez- 
zin's Call to Prayer, J. W. Drexel, ib. ; Dante 
at Ravenna, M. f\. Jesup, ib.; Runners of 
the Pasha, B. L. Stuart, ib.; Cleopatra before 
Caesar (1866), Diogenes, D. O. Mills, ib.; 
Woman of Syria, C P. Huntington, ib.; 
Street Scene in Cairo, Playing Chess, C. S. 
Smith, ib.; Turkish Butcher-Boy (1863), 
Dance of the Almeh (1864), J. Hoey, ib.; 
Louis XIV. and the Grand Conde, Asking 
Alms in a Mosque, Sword Dance, Bashi-Ba- 
zouk, W. H. Vanderbilt, ib. ; "One Collabora- 
tion, Circus Maximus, Gladiators, Mrs. A. T. 
Stewart, ib. ; Syrian Shepherd, H. Probas- 
co, Cincinnati ; Circassian Girl, H. V. New- 
comb, New York ; Oriental Woman, Leland 
Stanford, San Francisco ; Sword Dance in 
the Cafe, C. Crocker, ib. ; Arnaut Soldier, 
Mrs. W. P. Wilstach, Philadelphia ; Almebs 
playing Checkers, Mrs. T. A. Scott, ib.; 
Old Clothes Dealer in Cairo, H. C. Gibson, 
Philadelphia; On the Desert, Diogenes 
(1860), Christian Martyrs (1883), Duel after 
the Masquerade (1857), W. T. Walters, Bal- 
timore ; Csesar Dead, Corcoran Gallery, 
nrrDOMt Washington. — Claretie, 

*lutKvrqt PemtMg (18W)| „ a7 . 

Meyer, Gesch., 676 ; Montrosier, Artistes 
modernes ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1868), xxiv. 
147 ; (1876), xiv. 218, 334 ; Portfolio (1875), 
82 ; Hamerton, French Painters. 

gen van SinfrJans. 

GERRY, SAMUEL L, born in Boston in 
1813. Landscape and genre painter, self- 
taught ; has travelled and studied nature in 
Europe, especially in France, Switzerland, 
and Italy ; studio in Boston. One of 
foundation members and early president 
of the Boston Art Club. Works : Land of 
Beulah ; Over the River ; Bridal Tour of 


John and Priscilla Alden ; Artist's Dream ; 
American Tourists ; Pasture Gate. 

Nyboder, Copenhagen, May 10, 1818, died 
in Copenhagen, March 29, 1871. Genre 
and portrait painter, pupil of Copenhagen 
Academy, painted at first also landscapes 
and interiors. Member of Copenhagen 
Academy in 1850 ; professor. Medal in 
1843. Works: Thorvaldsen's Studio at 
Charlotte nborg (1836), Shepherd driving his 
Flock (1838), Portrait of his Mother (1846), 
Copenhagen Gallery ; Portraits of Thorvald- 
sen (1840), Provost Trydes (1843), DahL 
Eckersberg (1850), Count Moltke, Banker 
Gedalia (1859), King Frederik VIL (1861), 
Count Frys von Frysenberg; The Two 
Friends.— Weilbach, 200. 

GERONG, MATTHIAS, bom at Nurd- 
lingen, Bavaria, flourished in Neuburg, Lau- 
ingen, and Augsburg about middle of 16th 
century. German school ; history painter, 
perhaps pupil of Hans Burgkmair the 
younger. Works : Camp of Charles V. near 
Lauingen (1551), Town Hall, Lauingen ; 
Story of Paris, Destruction of Troy (1540) ; 
St Lawrence, St. Cyriacus, Stadel Gallery, 
Frankfort; Justicia dormit (1543), Carlsruhe 
Gallery ; Series of Scenes from the Apoc- 
alypse (1544). — Allgem. d. Biogr., iz. 75 ; 
Kunstblatt (1841), 430 j (1851), 431 ; Na- 
gler, Moil, it. 569, 573 ; Zeitechr. f. b. K, 
iv. 359. 
GERVEX, HENRI, born in Paris in 
1848. History and 
genre painter, pu- 
pil of Cabanel, 
Brisset, and Fro- 
mentin. Medals : 
2d class, 1874, 
1876. Works: 
Satyrplaying with 
a Bacchante 
(1874), Luxem- 
bourg Museum ; 
Diana and Endymion (1875) ; Autopsy in 
the Hospital, In the Woods (1876) ; Com- 
i at Church of Trinity, My Friend 

Brispot (1877); Return from the Ball (1879)-, 
Souvenir of the 4th of December (1880); 
Civil Marriage (1881), Mayor's Office of 19th 
District, Paris ; Reservoir of La Villette 
(1882); The Department of Charities (1883); 
First Communion (1884) ; Meeting of the 
Jury on Painting (1885). 
sterdam, March 22, 
1814, died in Dnssel- 
r dorf, Jan. 5, 1878. Genre 
painter, pupil in Wesel 
of Welsch, then in 1834 
-41 of Dusseldorf Acad- 
' emy under Schadow. 

First painted romantic 
genre and history, after- 
wards scenes of do- 
mestic life, with great 
poetic charm, and soon ranked among the 
foremost artists of Dnsseldorf. Member of 
Amsterdam Academy. Works : Faust in 
his Study (1839) ; Fiancee at Grave of her 
Lover (1840) ; Gotz von Berlichingen before 
Council of Heilbronn (1842) ; Death of Val- 
entine (1844) ; Romeo and Juhet (1845) ; 
Entombment (1846) ; Herodias with Head 
of St. John (1847) ; Adoration of Magi, 
Finding of Body of Gustavus Adolpbus 
(1848) ; Night Camp of Wallenstein's Sol- 
diers in Old Church (1849) ; Christmas 
Presents (1850) ; St. Nicholas' Eve (1852) ; 
Grandmother's Bible, Children's Bath on 
Saturday, Old Woman at Spinning Wheel 
Grandfather rocking Grandson to Sleep ; 
St. Martin's Eve (1862), Kunsthalle, Ham- 
burg ; Singing School (1867), Musical Even- 
ing Party (1867), Maternal Joy (1868), Co- 
logne Museum ; Christmas Morn, Stockholm 
Museum ; Endangered Meal, Stettin Mu- 
seum ; Mother's Birthday; Evening Service. 
— Allgem. d. Biogr., ix. 86; Eunst-Ohronik, 
xiii. 258; Wolfg. Mailer, DOsseldorfer KstL, 
272 ; Wiegmsnn, 304. 

GESSL FRANCESCO, bora in Bologna, 
Jan. 20, 1588, died in 1649. Bolognese 
school ; pupil of Cftlvaert and of Cremonini; 
afterwards of Guido, whose assistant he was. 


together with Sementi, in his great works 
in Ravenna, Naples, and Mantua. Some of 
his earlier pictures nearly approach the 
cellence of his master, but hia facility of 
execution led him to abuse his talents, and 
his later works show the coldness of a man- 
nerist. He had a well-attended school at 
Bologna. Many of hia pictures are in Bo- 
logna, e.g., St Francis receiving the Stig- 
mata, Madonna, Christ praying to the East, 
Holy Family and Angels, St. Bonaventura, 
Madonna with Angels, in the Finacoteca ; 
Martyrdom of St Catharine, in S. Caterina 
Madonna and Saints, in S. M della Cariti 
St Francis at the Nunziata. Other works : 
St Francis, Estense Gallery, Modena ; Cu- 
pid, Madrid Museum ; Madonna with Saints, 
Brera, Milan ; Morpheus appearing to Hal- 
cyon, Vienna Museum ; Magdalen, Dresden 
Museum ; Diana and Actseon, Stuttgart Gal- 
lery ; Infant Christ, Christ crowned with 
Thorns, Stockholm Museum. — Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole bolonaise ; Burckhardt, 764 ; Gual- 
andi, Guida, 117, 135 ; Malvasia, ii 243 ; 
Lanzi, Hi. 97. 

GESSNER, SALOMON, born in Zurich, 
April 1, 1730, died there, March 2, 1788. 
German school. Well-known Swiss poet 
Landscape painter, self-taught ; began to 
paint in Berlin, where he was sent in 1749 
to learn the book trade. Later in Hamburg, 
and on his return home, he devoted himself 
alternately to poetry and painting, and to 
the latter art exclusively after 1765. Works: 
Well in the Woods, Dreamer, Arcadian Well, 
Fisherman, Zurich Gallery. His son, Koti- 
rad, painted with some reputation in Eng- 
land and Scotland. Works : Cavalry Skir- 
mish (2), View in Park (2), Driving up Hill, 
Horses Grazing, Zurich Gallery. — Allgem. 
d. Biogr., ix. 122 j Kugler (Crowe), ii. 56a 

Rothermel, Memorial Hall, Fairmount Park, 
Philadelphia ; canvas, H. 19 ft x 33 ft 
Painted in 1871 for State of Pennsylvania ; 
$25,000.— Art Journal (1872), 20. 

GEYER, ALE XIUS, born in Berlin in 
1826, died there, July 16, 1883. Landscape 

painter, pupil of Berlin, Munich, and Dres- 
den Academies ; studied then several years 
in Rome and Paris, and travelled for ten 
years through Italy, Greece, the East, and 
the greater part of Germany, Switzerland, 
Belgium, and Holland. Works : Ten pict- 
ures for King Frederick William IV. ; Series 
for Archaeological Museum in Rome; Cyclo- 
rama of the Bosphorus ; do. of the Nile ; 
Termini ; Civita Lavigna ; View in Volsker 
Mountains ; Palermo ; Arabian Landscape. 
— Brockhaus, viii. 7 ; Mailer, 203. 

GEYER, JOHANN, born at Augsburg, 
Jan. 1, 1807, died there, Nov. 26, 1875. 
Genre painter, pupil of Augsburg art-school 
and of Munich Academy under Clemens 
Zimmennann ; visited France and Belgium, 
and was from 1838 until 1865 professor at 
the Polytechnic Schoolin Augsburg. Treated 
rococo genre scenes with exquisite humour, 
and represented stuffs, especially satin, with 
great skill Works: Consilium Medicum, 
End of Masked Ball, Physician feeling Lady's 
Pulse, New Pinakothek, Munich ; Concert 
Rehearsal ; Christening Feast, Menagerie 
(1835), Leipsio Museum ; Frightened Watch- 
man ; Quarrelling Ministrants ; Capuchin *s 
Sermon in Wallenstein's Camp ; Council of 
Augsburg receiving Louis the Bavarian 
(1844), Town Hall, Augsburg ; Painter and 
Doorkeeper (1846) ; Fornarina in Raphael's 
Studio; Reception of a Prince in Small 
Town, Hanover Gallery ; Charles V. in Ti- 
tian's Studio (1850) ; Betrothal (1852) ; 
Anteroom of a Prince (1856) ; Opening of 
Will (1857), Seizure of a Patrician (1863), 
Bremen Gallery ; Giitz von Berlichingen 
(1859), Erfurt Gallery ; Duke of Alva at 
Castle Rudolstadt, Prague Gallery. — Brock- 
haus, viii. 7 ; Kunst-Chronik, xi. 193. 

GEYLING, RUDOLF, born in Vienna in 
1840. Genre painter, pupil of Vienna Acad- 
emy under Ruben and Wurzinger ; Bpent 
some time in Italy, and settled in Vienna. 
Works: Homeward Journey with Siegfried's 
Body (1868) ; Playing Amorettes ; Floren- 
tine Girl ; Interior of Peasant's Yard ; In- 
terior of Convent ; Sacrilegists, Vienna 


Academy; Peasant Woman in Studio; Labor 
in Tain ; View in Siena,— Mtffler, 204 ;, xiii. 376. 

GHENT, JUSTUS OP. See Justus ol 


GHERINGH, ANTON, died at Antwerp 
in 1668. Flemish school ; architecture 
painter, master of the guild at Antwerp in 
1662. Works: Church Interior (1664), 
Dresden Museum ; Interior of Jesuit Church 
at Antwerp (1663), Old Pinakothek, Munich ; 
da (1665), Vienna Museum ; do., Madrid 
Museum.— Booses (Reber), 435 ; Van den 
Bronden, 1035. 

GORDI called, bom in Florence in 1458, 
died there, July 17, 1497. Florentine 
school. Brother of Domenico Ghirlandajo, 
for whom he chiefly worked during the great 
painter's lifetime. To this mediocre paint- 
er, who lived several years in France, and 
was richly recompensed by the king, are 
ascribed a Resurrection, Berlin Museum ; 
St Lucy, in S. M. Novella, Florence ; and a 
Christ on the way to Golgotha, Louvre. — 
C. & C, Italy, iii. 518 ; Vasari, ed. Le Hon., 
xL 284 

called, born in Florence, March 14, 1452, 
died there in 1525. Florentine school 
Brother of Domenico and Benedetto ; mas- 
ter in guild of Florence when Domenico 
died. He was a mere mechanical work- 
man, with little talent, but superior to Bene- 
detto. Employed himself chiefly with mo- 
saics. David assisted his nephew Ridolfo 
in painting the Madonna della Misericordia, 
S Felice, Florence.— C. & C, Italy, iii 520 ; 
Burckhardt, 639. 

Florence in 1449, died there, Jan. 11, 1494 
Florentine school. Real name Domenico di 
Tommaso Curradi di Dosso Bigordi ; took his 
surname from his father, a goldsmith, who 
was called Ghirlandajo (garland-maker) from 
the wreaths of gold and silver, worn as head- 

ornaments, which he made. Domenico's 
earliest recorded works were painted about 
1480, before 
which he had 
perhaps re- 
'' ceived in- 

struction from 
Alesso Baldo- 
vinetti, and 
had learned 
v m u c h by 
j •. studying the 

of Masaccio at the Carmine. He began his 
career by decorating the Vespucci chapel 
in the Ogni Santi, Florence, with a series 
of frescos, now destroyed, of whose quality 
a St Jerome in the church and a Last 
Supper in the refectory give no very high 
idea. In those representing the Apothe- 
osis of Si Zanobius, the Madonna, and sev- 
eral Roman heroes afterwards executed in 
1481 in the Sala dell' Orologio, Palazzo Veo- 
chio, the style is still unformed, though ad- 
vance in technic is manifest. Called to Rome 
by Sixtus IV. in 1482, Ghirlandajo painted 
the Calling of Peter and Andrew upon the 
walls of the Sistine Chapel (finished before 
1484), in which he showed himself a fol- 
lower of Masaccio in composition. The dig- 
nity of the Saviour, the somewhat formal 
though varied grouping of the attendant 
figures, and the vast landscape which fills 
the background combine to form an impres- 
sive and effective picture. In his next work, 
the frescos in the Chapel of S. Fins, San 
Gemignano (before 1485), Ghirlandajo mani- 
fested a hitherto unrepealed grace and ten- 
derness, especially in that which represents 
the body of the Saint lying on a bier. After 
painting a Last Supper in the Convent of 8. 
Marco, Florence, which is little varied from 
his first in the Ogni Santi, Ghirlandajo exe- 
cuted the frescos of the Life of St. Francis 
(1485) in the Sassetti Chapel, S. Trinita, 
Florence, in which he gave the whole meas- 
ure of his admirable powers. Here land- 
scape and architectural backgrounds with 



local features are used to Bet off groups of 
figures conceived in a spirit of noble real- 
ism ; the compositions are formed in the 
spirit of Masaccio ; the heads, man; of them 
portraits, are drawn with the accurate and 
faithful pencil of a Holbein. In the por- 
traits of the donors, Francesco Saasetti and 
his wife Nava, Ohirlandajo equalled the great 
German master in truth, in character, and 
in modelling. The altarpiece of this chapel, 
an Adoration of the Shepherds (1485), is now 
in the Florence Academy. Even more im- 
portant than the frescos at S. Trinita are 
those of the Life of the Virgin (1490) in the 
choir of & M. Novella. Among them, the 
Birth of the Virgin is a typical example of 
Ghirlandajo's style. Of the former altar- 
piece of this chapel, the Munich Gallery pos- 
sesses the Madonna appearing to St Domi- 
nic and other Saints, together with side- 
panels of Saints Catherine and Laurence ; 
and the Berlin Museum the Resurrection of 
Christ and Saints. Other works by Ghir- 
landajo are, a Madonna with Saints, and a 
predella, sacristy of 3. Martino, Lucca ; Ma- 
donna with Saints and Adoration of the Magi 
(1487), Adoration of Shepherds (1485, Uffizi), 
Florence ; Madonna with Saints, Academy, 
ib. ; Adoration of the Magi (1488), Chapel of 
the Hospital of the Innocenti, ib.; Christ in 
Glory, Palazzo Publico, Volterra ; Visitation 
(1491), Louvre ; St Anthony, Hew York 
Museum.— C. A C, Italy, it 459 ; Vasari, 
ed. Mil, iii. 253, 279 ; Dolime, 2L 

called, born in Flor- 
ence, Feb. 14, 1483, 
died there in 1561. 
Florentine school ; son 
of Domcnico; brought i 

up under guardianship f 

of his uncle, David. 

Vasari says he studied &■ 

under Fra Bartolom- 
meo, but he was prob- 
ably most indebted for 
guidance in art to Granacci, Piero di Cosi- 
mo, and perhaps Roaselli. His Procession 

of Christ and the Marys to Calvary, in Pa. 
lazzo Antinori a 9. Gaetano, Florence, and 
his Coronation of the Virgin (1504), Louvre, 
are among his earliest works. Later works 
show the influence of Fra Bartolommeo and 
of Raphael, as the Nativity, Berlin Museum; 
Nativity, Eezterhazy Collection, Vienna; and 
a predella in the Oratory of Bigallo, Flor- 
ence. Raphael had great esteem for his 
talent, and vainly tried to persuade him to 
join him in Rome in 1508, as Bidolfo was 
satisfied with his success in Florence. His 
skill reached its highest point in his richly- 
coloured, well-composed, and expressive St 
Zanobius raising a Dead Child, and the Bur- 
ial of St Zanobius, Uffizi, Florence. His 
Madonna dropping her Girdle to St Thom- 
as is in the church at Prato, and M. della 
Misericordia in S. Felice, Florence. Ridolfo 
became the most noted painter of his time 
in Florence, where he executed many com- 
missions for the Medici — C. & C, Italy, iii. 
518 ; Vasari, ed. Le Hon., xi. 284 J Mar- 
ches!, ii. 141 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole florentine. 

GHISOLFI (Grisolfi), GIOVANNI, horn 
in Milan in 1632, died there in 1683. Bo- 
man school ; architecture, landscape, and 
history painter, pupil in Rome of Salvator 
Rosa ; esteemed as a painter of architecture, 
he devoted himself after his return to Milan 
to large histories and altarpieces, and ex- 
ecuted frescos for the Certosa of Pavia and 
the Santuario of Varese. Works : Ruins of 
Carthage, Ruins of Splendid Buildings, 
Ships in a Seaport, Dresden Museum ; 
Ruins (2), National Gallery, Edinburgh. 

GIACOMELLI, HECTOR, born in Paris 
of foreign parents; contemporary. Bird 
and flower painter in water-colours. L. of 
Honour, 1878. Works : Birds and Flowers 
(1878, 1879); Wounded (1879); Perch in a 
Cage, Farniente (1883). 

Quingey (Doubs), Nov. 18, 1828. French 
school ; genre and portrait painter, pupil of 
Picot and the Ecole des Beaux Arts ; won 
the grand prix de Rome in 1854. In 1859 
he sent to the Salon his portraits of Edmond 


About and of Jules David. His pictures 
have a certain elegance of style and are 
agreeable in colour. Medals in 1861, 1865, 
and 1866 ; L. of Honour, 1867. Works : 
Martyrdom of St Hipporytus, Nymph and 
Satyr (1861), Besancon Museum ; Love 
quenching his Thirst (1863); Agrippina 
leaving the Camp (1864), Lille Museum ; 
Abduction of Amymone (1865), Luxem- 
bourg Museum ; Christ blessing Little Chil- 
dren (1867); Carmela's Last Pin (1868); Pen- 
tecost (1870); Cupid and Venus (1873); 
Calvary, The Cemetery (1875); Sonnino 
(1876); Night (1877); Chriat among the 
Doctors, Christ blessing the Children, De- 
scent of the Holy Ghost, Si Stienne du 
Mont, Paris ; Portraits of Generals Manilaz 
and Mo rand, Hotel de Ville, Besancon ; 
Portrait of Chancellor d'Aguesseau, Palais 
de Justice, Paris; La Giottina (1879); Cen- 
taur and Nymph (1880); Innocence (1884). 
— Bellier de la Chavignerie, i. 643 ; La- 

school, middle of 15th century. A humble 
follower in the path of Jacobello del Fiore, 
but showing an improvement in technical 
handling, due to the study of Gentile da 
Fabriano and of Pisanello. Giambono 
treated mosaic with more skill than painting. 
— C. & G, N. Italy, L 13 ; Lermolieff, 395. 


Givlio Bomano. 

born at Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe, January 
24, 1803. Landscape painter, pupil in Paris 
of Guillon-Lethi&re and of the Ecole des 
Beaux Arts ; obtained in 1829 the grand 
prix de Home, in which city he settled. 
Works : Forest of Nettuno ; Battle of Eck- 
mtlhl, Versailles Museum ; Calydonian Boar- 
Hunt ; Banks of the Teverone (1850); Acrop- 
olis of Athens (1863); View in Pontine 
Swamps (1855), Avignon Museum ; View of 
Ardea (1859); View of Abu Mandur in Egypt 
(1863); View from Terrace of French Acad- 
emy in Borne (1872); Views in Sicily. 

ton Copley, Guildhall, London ; canvas. 
Scene : the repulse of the Spanish floating 
batteries ; the firing has partly ceased, and 
the English officers are endeavouring to res- 
cue the sufferers from the burning vessels. 
Painted in 1789-90 for Court of Common 
Council of City of London. Study (4 ft 4 
in. x 6 ft 2 in.) in National Gallery; en- 
graved by William Sharp. — Cat Nat Gal. 

GIDE, THEOPHHiE, born in Paris, 
March 15, 1822. History and genre painter, 
pupil of Delaroche and Cogniet. Usually 
paints scenes from life in Italian monas- 
teries. Medals : 3d class, 1861 ; Medal 
1865, 1866 ; L. of Honour, 1866. Works : 
Condemnation of Cinq Mars (1855); Raising 
of Youth at Nain (1857); Sully leaving the 
Court of Louis XHL (1863), Angers Muse- 
um : Farewell to the Convent (1864), Ami- 
ens Museum; Neapolitan Singer (1864); 
Studious Monks (1865), Alencon Museum ; 
Pius IX. visiting a Convent; Practising a 
Musical Mass (1866), Boubaix Museum ; 
School ; Letter of Recommendation, Co- 
Ugny visited by Charles EX., Two Bad Ac- 
quaintances, Cooper's Shop (1874); Indis- 
creet Confidence, Another Glass! (1875); 
Charles IX. forced to sign the Order for the 
Massacre of the Huguenots (1876); Interior 
of St Mark's in Venice, Louis XL surprised 
by his Fool when at Prayer (1877); Young 
Invalid (1878); Othello narrating his Ad- 
ventures, Father Fiorista (1879); Marie An- 
toinette in the Conciergerie (1880); Cavalier 
and Maid-Servant, Interior of a Monastery 
in Nice (1881); Mazarin receiving a Mes- 
senger (1882); The Importunate Person, 
Visitors to the Palace of Fontainebleau 
(1883); Take Care! Checkmate (1884); No 
Jesting with edged Tools (1885).— Bellier 
de la Chavignerie, i. 645. 

GIERYMSKI, MAX, born at Warsaw, 
Oct 15, 1846, died at Reichenhall, Bavaria, 
Sept. 16, 1874. Landscape and genre paint- 
er, pupil of Munich Academy under Alex- 
ander Wagner, then of Franz Adam, and 
later led to landscape by Eduard Schleich. 



Adoration of the Magi 



; „ :: i, Google 

Digitized t>» G00gle 


A visit to Poeen in 1872, to Meran in 1873, 
and to Borne in the winter of 1873-4, failed 
to restore his health, broken by privations 
undergone in Poland during the insurrec- 
tion, in which lie took part in 1863, with 
the rank of officer. Honorary member of 
the Berlin Academy. "Works : Return with- 
out the Master, Attack of Cossacks, Funeral 
in Polish Town (1868); Alarm-Shot, Recon- 
noitring, Spinning-Room in Poland, Duel 
on Horseback, The Train is Coming, Light- 
Horse Marching (1869); Return from the 
Chase, Spring Promenade (1870); Meeting 
before the Chase, On the Vistula, After the 
first Ball, Starting for the Chase, Hunting 
Scene (1871); Night Scene, Country Road 
in Poland, Ride through Beech-Grove, Po- 
lish Village Street, In front of Polish Inn 
(1872); Morning in Polish Camp, Moonlight 
Scene, Advance Guard Alarmed, Cossacks 
on the March (1873); Stag-Hunt in Eigh- 
teenth Century (1874), National Gallery, 
Berlin. — Allgem. d. Biogr., ii. 150 ; Allgem. 
Zeitg., Aug. 27, 1872, Beilage, 240; Dios- 
kuren (1874), 357 ; Eunst-Chrotuk, vi 7 ; 

Leipsic, Dec 31, 1810, died in Munich, 
Sept 27, 1847. History painter, pupil of 
Dresden and Munich Academies, in the lat- 
ter under Julius Schnorr, from whose car- 
toons he painted five great compositions in 
the new Royal Palace. Works : Scenes from 
Life of Charlemagne, Rudolph von Haps- 
burg, and Frederick Barbarossa, and 4 other 
pictures, Royal Palace, Munich ; Prodigal 
Son.— Allgem. d. Biogr., is. 166. 

New Bedford, Mass., in 1844. Landscape 
and bird painter; wife of Robert Swain 
Gilford ; studied at the Cooper Institute 
schools, New York, and under Samuel Gerry 
of Boston. Studio in New York. 

the Island of Naushon, Gosnold, Mass., Dec. 
23, 1840. Landscape painter and etcher ; 
studied in New Bedford under Albert van 
Beest, marine painter, in 1864, and settled 

in New York in 1866 ; made sketching 
tours in California and Oregon in 1869, and 
in Europe and 
North Africa in 
1870-71, and again 
in 1874-75. Began 
to paint in water- 
colours in 1865, 
and soon became 
a prominent mem- 
ber of the Water 
Colour Society. 
Elected an A.N.A. 

in 1870, and N.A. in 1878. Works in oil : 
Scene at Manchester (1867); Mount Hood 
— Oregon (1870); Entrance to Moorish 
House — Tangier, View of the Golden Horn 
(1873); Halting for Water, Passenger Boats 
on Nile (1874); Booth in Algeria, Rossetti 
Garden — Cairo (1875); Freight Boat on 
Nile, Egyptian Caravan (1876); Border of 
the Desert (1877); Dartmouth Moors (1878); 
Salters Beach (1879); Coast of New England 
(1880); Hillside, Old Fields (1881); Non- 
quitt Cliff (1882); Near Zaandam— Holland, 
Salt Marshes (1863); Point Road, Zuyder- 
Zee (1884); On the Paskamansett, Shores 
of Buzzard's Bay, Salt Mills at Dartmouth 
(1885). Water-colours: Deserted Whaler 
(1867); Autumn on the Sea-shore (1868); 
Return from Philaj— Egypt (1871); Low 
Tide,01dFort(1874); Venetian Companion, 
Guerande (1876); Evening in the Sahara, 
Scene on the Campagna, Oasis of Filiarch 
— Algeria (1877); On the Lagoon — Venice 
(1878).— Am. Art Rev. (1880), 417. 

born at Greenfield, N. Y., July 10, 1823, 
died in New York, Aug. 29, 1880. Land- 
scape painter, graduate of Brown University 
in 1842 ; in 1844 went to New York, and 
became pupil of J. R. Smith and of the 
National Academy. Elected an A. N.A. in 
1851, and N.A. in 1854. In 1855-57 studied 
in Paris and Borne, and sketched in differ- 
ent parts of Europe ; in 1868-69 sketched in 
Italy, Greece, Syria, and Egypt, and in 1870 
in the Rocky Mountains. Works : Kautera- 


kill Clove, Twilight (1859) ; Bivouac of the 
7th Regiment at Arlington Heights (1861) ; 
Shrewsbury River 
(1868); San Giorgio 
(1869) ; Fishing-Boats 
on the Adriatic, Charles 
Stewart Smith, New 
York ; Pallanza, Tivoli 
(1870); 8. M. di Salute 
—Venice, R C. Taft, 
Providence ; Lago 
Maggiore, R L. Stew- 
art, New York ; Monte 
Ferro(1871); Golden Hom (1872); Venetian 
Sails (1874),J. J.Astor, New York; Pallanza 
— Lago Maggiore, T. R Clarke, ib. ; Castle 
of Chillon, Samuel Hawk Collection, ib. ; 
October in the Catskills, J. P. Morgan, ib. ; 
Lake, Mountains of Vermont, M. K. Jesup, 
ib.; Autumnal Scene, Marine and City, J. C. 
Coale, Baltimore ; View in Venice, H B. 
Hurlbut Collection, Cleveland ; Mansfield 
Mountain — Vermont, Mrs. Joseph Harrison, 
Philadelphia ; At Beni-Hassan, Near Paler- 
mo (1876) ; Leander's Tower, Sunset on the 
Hudson, Fire Island Beach (1877); Sunset- 
Bay of New York (1878) ; Villa Malta- 
Rome, Claversack Creek, Sea-shore, looking 
Eastward at Sunset (1879) ; Ruins of the 
Parthenon (1880), Corcoran Gallery, Wash- 
ington ; Sunrise on the Matterhorn (1880). 
—Am. Art Rev. (1880), 851 ; Kunst-Chron- 
ik, xvi. 25. 

GIGNOUX, REGIS, born in Lyons in 
1816, died in 1882. Landscape painter, 
first instructed at Freiburg, Breisgau, then 
pupil of Lyons Academy, and in Paris of the 
£cole des Beaux Arts and of Delaroche ; 
went to America in 1844, became member of 
the National Academy in New York in 1851, 
and returned to France in 1870. Works : 
Bernese Alps by Sunrise, Indian Summer in 
Virginia, Niagara in Winter ; Four Seasons 
in America, Baron Rothschild, Paris ; Dis- 
mal Swamp; Mount Washington, Mrs. A 
T. Stewart, New York ; Niagara by Moon- 
light, August Belmont, ib.; Mammoth Cave, 
Historical Society, ib.'; Winter Scene, Cor- 

coran Gallery, Washington ; Moonlight on 
the Saguenay (Johnston Sale, New York, 
1876); Spring.— Mtlller, 205; Tuckerman. 

Besancon, Jan. 8, 1806. History and genre 
painter, pupil of the Ecole des Beaux Arts. 
A skilful painter, and a good lithogra- 
pher. Medals : 2d class, 1833 ; 1st class, 1835 
and 1848 ; L. of Honour, 1842 ; officer, 
1880. Works : Henry TV. writing Verses in 
the Missal of Gabrielle d'Estrees (1833) ; 
Mme. Dubarry Dressing ; A Good Advent- 
ure ; Count Comminges recognized by bis 
Mistress ; Death of Leonardo da Vinci 
(1835), Besancon Museum ; Anthony and 
Cleopatra after the Battle of Actium ; H6- 
lotee receiving the Remains of Abelard ; 
Magdalen, bought by State ; St. Genevieve ; 
Si Philip healing a Sick Man ; Baptism of 
Clovis (1844), ordered by State ; Nativity 
(do.) ; Death of Manon Lescaut ; Death of 
Cleopatra (1850), Good Samaritan (1857), 
Portrait of Fourier, Luxembourg Museum ; 
Charlotte Corday (1848) ; Galatea (1852) ; 
The Vintage (1858) ; The Eve of Austerlitz 
(1857), Besancon Museum ; An Arrest dur- 
ing the Terror (1859) ; Head of Sarassin 
(1861) ; Poetry of Southern France (1866) 
First Meditation (1867) ; Magdalen (1870) 
The Fisherman and the Little Fish (1872) 
Father Lacour (1875) ; A Boy (1876) ; Youth 
of De Ruyter (1877) ; Fountain of Youth, 
Magdalen in the Desert (1878) ; Beauty 
Asleep in the Woods (1879) ; In the Desert, 
Martha (1880) ; A Luxurious Man (1883) ; 
Capture of Ghent, Portrait of Charles VHL, 
Versailles Museum. He has also executed 
the decorations of a chapel in Saint Gervais, 
Paris, and religious pictures for Si Germain 
lAuxerrois, Si Herri, and Si Protais. — 
Bellier de la Cbavignerie, i. 646 ; Gaz. des 
B. Arts (1864), xvi. 168; Meyer, Gesch., 
286 ; Mtlller, 205. 

GILBERT, Sir JOHN, born at Black- 
heath, Kent, in 1817. History and portrait 
painter, self-taught, excepting a few lessons 
from George Lance ; began as an illustrator 
for newspapers and books ; exhibited first 

d by Google 

oilpftmtingatRoyQlAciidemyinl83G. After- 
wards turned his attention to water-colour 
painting ; elected 
an associate of the 
Water Colour So- 
ciety in 1862, a 
member in 1853, 
and president in 
1872, when he was 
knighted; became 
also an A.RA. in 
1872, and R.A in 
1876. Medal, Par- 
is, 3d class, 1878 ; L. of Honour, 1878. 
Works : Don Quixote giving Advice to San- 
cho (1841) ; King Henry IV. (1845) ; Des- 
demona, Charlemagne visiting the Schools, 
Death of Cardinal Beaufort (1846) ; Murder 
of Thomas a Becket (1849) ; Touchstone and 
the Shepherd (1850) ; Destruction of Job's 
flock (1851) ; Royalist Cavalry at Edgehill 
(1857) ; Cardinal Wolsey and the Duke of 
Buckingham (1862) ; Army on the March 
(1863); Rembrandt (1867); Convocation of 
Clergy (1871); Charles L leaving Westmin- 
ster Hall after Sentence (1872); Naseby, 
First Prince of Wales (1873); Field of the 
Cloth of Gold ( 1874) ; Wolsey at Leicester Ab- 
bey, Doge and Senators of Venice in Council 
(1877); May Dew, Ready (1878); Return of 
the Victors (1879); Fair St George (1881); 
Youth and Age, Fight for the Standard, 
Winchelsea in Sussex (1882) ; Don Quixote 
and Sancho, Trumpeter, Thomas a Becket, 
The Baron's Raid (1883); Morning of Agin- 
court (1884); A Standard Bearer (1885) ; 
Rubens in his Studio, W. H. Vanderbilt, 
New York. — Meynell, 17; Art Journal 
(1857), 241; Portfolio (1871), 49; EL Lon- 
don News, 1869. 

Paris ; contemporary. Genre and portrait 
painter, pupil of Adam, Levasseur, and Bus- 
son. Medal, 2d class, 1880. Works : Prep- 
arations for Dinner (1873); Vender of 
Household Utensils, Poultry Vender (1878); 
Corner in Fish-Hall (1880); Pavilion de la 
Maree-Halles centrales, Soup Vender (1881); 

Departure for Night-fishing, Return from 
Fishing (1882); Stall in Pavilion de la Mares 
(1883) ; Viand Carriers (1884) ; Sunday 
Afternoon in a Parisian Market, Bather 

GILDER See Doreur. 

New York ; contemporary. Figure and 
still-life painter. Visited Europe in 1879. 
One of founders of Society of American 
Artists. In 1877 she contributed The Last 
Arrow to its first exhibition. Sent to the 
National Academy in 1878, Young Mother; 
in 1881, Flowers; in 1883, Portrait and 
Water Lily. Studio in New York. 

born at Antwerp in 1618, died there after 
Aug. 12, 1675. Flemish school ; still-life 
and portrait painter, master of the guild in 
1648. Works: Silver Plate with Grapes, 
etc, Table with Ham, Beer-mug, etc, Th. 
van Lerius, Antwerp ; Fruit-piece, Rotter- 
dam Museum; do., Lille Museum; Table 
spread, with Fruit, Oysters, etc., Liechten- 
stein Gallery, Vienna; Garland around Ma- 
donna, Bamberg Gallery ; Fruit-piece, Ta- 
ble spread, with Flowers, Fruit, costly 
Vessel, and Lute, Schwerin Gallery. — Van 
den Bran den, 1113. 

er, born at Antwerp, baptized Sept 3, 1651, 
died there after March 31, 1702. Flemish 
school; still-life painter, son of Jan Pauwel 
G., the elder, pupil of JorisvanSon; master 
of the guild in 1674. Works : Offering to 
Mercury, Jos. de Bom, Antwerp ; Garden 
Fruits, Breakfast Table, Schwerin Gallery ; 
Still Life, Schonborn Gallery, Vienna. — 
Rooses(Reber),433; Van den Bran den, 1115. 

GLLLIG, JACOB, born at Utrecht about 
1636, died there in 1688 (?). Dutch school; 
still-life painter, especially of fish, which he 
represented with great skill ; afterwards 
also painted portraits, and, it is said, land- 
scapes. Works : Dead Fish (1668), Berlin 
Museum ; do. (1678), Carlsruhe Gallery ; 
Burning of Troy(?), Cassel Gallery.— K 


GILLISEN, KARL, bora at Aachen, 
April 23, 1842. Military genre painter, 
pupil of Antwerp Academy under Nicaise do 
Keyaer, and in Dusseldorf of Hllnten ; joined 
in 1861 the Belgian Corps for Mexico as a 
volunteer, returned in 1866, and took part 
in the campaign of 1870 in France. Works 
Guerillas are Coming I (1870) ; Morning 
after Battle, Volunteer Nurses on Battle- 
field ; Temporary Dressing ; Outposts near 
Paris ; Indians before Invasion of Mexican 
Estate; Prairie Hunters in Flight— Mailer, 

GILLOT, CLAUDE, bora at Langres, 
Haute-Marua, in 
1673, died in Paris, 
May 4, 1722. French 
school; genre paint- 
er and engraver, 
first instructed by 
his father, then pu- 
pil of J. B. Coraeille 
Paris. He was 
. one of the first ar- 
tists in France to 
paint conversation pieces, tragic and comic 
actors, satyrs and fauns, charlatans, mas- 
querades and balls. These paintings, clev- 
erly conceived, and executed with spirit and 
taste, were for a long time the object of 
universal admiration, and led to his admis- 
sion into the 
Academy in 
1715. Works : KSl/C/AO Aj 

Feast of Pan; S~**s* 
do. of Bac- A £^ 
chus, Raczyn- *^ J 
ski Gallery, x «— * 



Berlin ; do. of Diana disturbed by Satyrs ; 
the Milkmaid. — Ch. Blanc, £cole frnncaise, 

GHjMAN, Mrs. C. R., born at Steuben- 
ville, O. ; contemporary. Flower painter, 
pupil of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine 
Arts, later of Carol us Du ran. Studied abroad 
from 1878 to 1882. Studio in Philadelphia. 
Work, Roses, T. B. Clarke, New York. 

GILPIN, SAWREY, bom at Carlisle, 
England, Nov. 11, 1733, died at Brompton, 

March 8, 1807. Pupil of Samuel Scott, 
marine painter, London, but devoted him- 
self to painting of animals, especially horses. 
Exhibited in 1763-64 at the Society of Ar- 
tists, of which he was for a time president, 
portraits of horses ; in 1770, Darius obtain- 
ing the Persian Empire by the Neighing of 
his Horse; and in 1771, Gulliver taking 
leave of the Houyhnhnms. In 1795 he 
became an A.RA., and in 1797 R.A. His 
brother, Rev. William Gilpin (1724-1804), 
was an amateur landscape painter and a 
writer on art; and his son, William Sawrey 
Gilpin, was a water-colour painter, and first 
president (1804) of the Water Colour So- 
ciety.— Redgrave; F. de Conches, 344; Cb, 
Blanc, Ecole anglaise ; Sandby, i. 310. 

GIMIGNANI (Gemignani, Giminiani, 
Geminiani), GIACINTO, born at Piatoja in 
1611, died in 1081. History painter, Ro- 
man school ; pupil at Rome of Nicolas Pons- 
sin, whom he followed in composition and 
design, and later in the school of Pietro da 
Cortona, whose style of colouring he adopt- 
ed. He painted in fresco in the Baptistery 
of S. Giovanni in Laterano, Rome, subjects 
from the life of Constantine. Works : Le- 
ander, Ariadne, Uffizi, Florence ; Rebekah 
at the WelL Palazzo Pitti, ib.; two pictures 


from life of St John, S. Giovanni, Piatoja; 
St Boch, Duomo, ib. His son, Lodovico 
(1644-97), excelled in fresco ; also painted 

Paris, July 28, 1818. Military and horse 
painter, pupil of Charlet and of Abel de 
Pujol. In 1840 he followed the campaign in 
Algeria, and in 1846 one in Spain. Medals : 
3d class, 1857, 18C1 ; 2d class, 1863 ; L 
of Honour, 1878. WoritB : Duo d'Orleans 
during the Campaign' of Teni&h (1841); Re- 
view in Champ de Mors (1849), Versailles 
Museum ; Colonel Daumas receiving the 

: eabyGOOglC 

Submission of Mahi-ed-Dra in 1835, Algiers 
Museum ; Bull Ring at Seville (1853), Due 
de Montpensier ; Towing the Daumont 
(1855); Death of General Desaix at Marengo 
(1857), Versailles Museum ; Zouaves in the 
Battle of Afroun, Camp of Chalons (1857) ; 
Military Exercises (1859) ; Return of the 
Army of Italy to PariB in 1859 (1861), Ver- 
sailles Museum ; Journey of the Emperor 
to Algiers (1863); Fantasia (1864); Tow- 
Horses, Arab Horseman (1865) ; The Grand 
Sherif Adi-Ali-Ben-Brahim(1866); El Halib 
(1868) ; Column returning from a Raid 
(1869) ; Horse of Gaada (1870) ; Algerian 
Campaign of 1840 (1872) ; Review of June 
29, 1871 (1873), bought by State ; Assembly 
of a Ooum by the Caid (1874) ; On the Boad, 
Entrance to the Stable, A Hurdle (1875) ; 
The Sherif, The Retreat (1876) ; Artillery 
on the March (1878) ; The Horse Folletto 
(1879).— Mailer, 207. 

Borgenhout, near Antwerp, July 24, 1810. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Moerenhout, 
then in Paris of Le Poittevin. Works : View 
of Antwerp (1838) ; View of Boulogne 
(1839) ; View in Normandy (1840) ; DeVer- 
wachting ; Beturn of Fishermen. — Immer- 
zeeL L 279. 

See Monna Lisa. 

GIOLFTNO, NICCOLO, born at Verona 
about 1465, died after 1518. Venetian 
school ; history painter. Works : Portraits 
of the Giusti Family (2), National Gallery, 
London ; Madonna and Saints, Berlin Mu- 
seum ; do. (2), Museo Civico, Verona ; Fres- 
cos in Santa Maria in Organo, ib. 

GIORDANO, LUCA, called Fa-Presto, 
born in Naples in 1632, died there, Jan. 12, 
1705. Neapolitan school ; son of Antonio 
Giordano, a poor painter, who taught him 
design ; studied nine years with Spagnoletto, 
then went to Rome and became pupil and 
assistant of Pietro da Cortona for three 
yearn Visited Bologna, Parma, Venice, and 
other cities, making many copies of the pict- 
ures of the great masters, which his father 

sold. He acquired at this time the surname 
of Fa-Presto, because he painted with such 
extreme rapidity. 
In 1679 Luca was 
called to Florence 
by the Grand Duke, 
who gave him large 
through which he 
acquired a great 
reputation. In 
1692 he was invited 
to Spain by Charles 

H., who gave hirn titles, honour, and wealth. 
Giordano painted many frescos in the Esco- 
rial in the palace of Buen Re tiro, the Cathe- 
dral of Toledo, and other churches, and 
numerous portraits. He returned to Italy 
in 1 702, was splendidly received by Clement 
XL, and settled in his native city. Giordano 
was the last of the great Italian painters. 
Some of his works show marks of genius, 
and with more conscientious labour be 
might have equalled the greatest masters, 
but owing to his fatal facility of execution 
he violated all the rules of good taste. 
WorkB : Christ driving out the Money- 
changers, S. Filippo, Naples ; Ceiling fres- 
cos, S. Martino, ib. ; Judgment of Paris, 
Berlin Museum ; St. Francis Xavier baptiz- 
ing, Madonna del Bosario, Naples Museum ; 
ceiling fresco, Palazzo Biccardi, Florence ; 
Galatea, Portrait of himself, Uffizi, ib. ; 
Rape of the Sabines, Palazzo Adorn o, Genoa ; 
Clorinda, Palazzo Brignole Sale, ib. ; Per- 
seus, Palazzo Reale, ib. ; Madonna with 
Saints, Brera, Milan ; Descent from the 
Cross, Venice Academy ; Fall of the Angela 
(1666), twelve others, Vienna Museum ; Lu- 
cretia and Tarquin, Perseus and Phineus, 
Hercules and Omphale, Bape of the Sabines, 
Lot and his Daughters, Susanna, Jacob and 
Rachel, Ariadne, and others, Dresden Gal- 
lery ; Massacre of the Innocents, Artist's 
Portrait, five others, Old Pinakothek, Mu- 
nich ; Judgment of Paris, three others, Co- 
penhagen Gallery ; Glorification of St. Cath- 
arine, An Astronomer, Portrait of a Priest, 


Cologne Museum ; Mars and Venus, Lou- 
vre ; Pieta, Sleeping Bacchus, Diana and 
Callisto, and others, Hermitage, St Peters- 
burg ; 68 pictures in Madrid Museum. — 

£ CtordcuM 


Kugler (EaBtlake), ii. 508 ; Burckhardt, 768, 
etc; Lavice, 41, etc 
GIORGIONE, LL, born at Caatelfranco 
about 1477, died at 
Venice in 1511. Ve- 
netian school. Real 
name Giorgio Barba- 
relli ; pupil of Giovan- 
ni Bellini and fellow- 
pupil of Titian, who 
afterwards became his 
(Giorgione's) pupil. 
Of his life nothing is 
known, save that it 
was passed at Venice and Caatelfranco, in 
which latter place the house where he was 
born, now called Casa Pelizzari, contains 
remains of his decorative frescos. Giorgi- 
one decorated the exterior of many houses 
and palaces at Venice with frescos now ef- 
faced ; his oil paintings, owing to the short- 
ness of his life, are comparatively few. He 
treated subjects of the class introduced by 
Bellini, such as allegories, legendary epi- 
sodes, and bacchanals, in which figures are 
set off by landscape with the happiest effect, 
and painted many splendid portraits. His 
works are conspicuous for rich and brilliant 
colour, for breadth and nobility of style, and 
for a poetical, sensuous charm which fas- 
cinates and delights the beholder. Works : 
Ordeal of Moses, Judgment of Solomon, 
Uffizi, Florence ; Concert, Palazzo Pitti, ib.; 
Family of Oiorgione, Prince Giovanelli, ib.; 
Madonna with Saints (before 1504), Parish 
Church, Caatelfranco ; Christ bearing Cross, 

Casa Loschi, Vicenza ; Judgment of Solo- 
mon, Kingston-Lacy, near Wimborn, Eng- 
land ; Adoration of Magi, Leigh Court, near 
Bristol, England ; Nativity, Beaumont Collec- 
tion, London ; Knight in Armour, Story of 
Myrrha (Hamilton Palace sale, £1,360), Na- 
tional Gallery, ib ; Chaldean Sages, Vienna 
Museum. Among works ascribed to him 
are : Rustic Concert, Holy Family, Louvre ; 
Assumption, Madrid Museum ; Entomb- 
ment, Monte di Pieta, Treviso ; Knight of 
Malta, Uffizi, Florence ; Nymph and Satyr, 
Finding of Moses, St. John Baptist, Portrait 
of a Lady, Palazzo Pitti, ib. ; Youth attacked 
by a Soldier, Vienna Museum ; Jacob and 
Rachel, Adoration of Shepherds, Horoscope, 
Dresden Gallery ; Finding of Moses, Brera, 
Milan ; Apollo and Daphne, Archiepiscopal 

II Giwno, Corr* ggio. Pirmi Gllltiy, 

Seminary, Venice ; Repose in Egypt, Prince 
of Palermo, Historical Society, New York. 
— C. & C, N. Italy, ii. 119 ; Lttbke, Geach. 
ital MaL, ii 485 ; Vasari, ed. Mil, it. 91 ; 
Lermolieff, 193 ; W. &. W., ii. 721 ; Meyer, 


KM st Lex., ii. 692 ; Dobme, 2iii. ; Ch. Blanc, 
ficole venitienne. 

Palazzo Giovanelli, Florence ; canvas, H. 2 
ft 9 in. x 2 ft. 5 in. A man in tights and 
slashed doublet, said to be Giorgione, stand- 
ing leaning on a staff to the left ; a mother 
seated on the bank, giving the breast to her 
child, to the right ; background, a beautiful 
landscape. Formerly in 
Palazzo Manfrini, Venice. 
— C. & C N. Italy, ii 136; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K. (1866), 

or Madonna of St Jerome, 
Correggio, Parma Gallery ; 
wood, H. 6 ft 6 in. x 4 ft 
8 in. The Virgin, with Je- 
sus on her arm, sitting; 
Jesus is playing with the 
hair of the Magdalen, who 
is half kneeling beside him; 
behind her is a boy with a 
vase of ointment; on the 
other side, St Jerome, with 
the lion behind him, is 
standing, carrying a book 
which an angel aids him 
in supporting. Called II 
Giomo because represent- 
ed in full daylight, and to 
distinguish it from La 
Notts.. Ordered in 1523 by 
Donna Briseide Golla Ber- 
gonzi, of Parma, and placed 
in 1528 in S. Antonio Ab~ """'"' 

bate. Carried to Paris, but returned in 
1816, though the French government is said 
to have offered 1,000,000 francs forit Many 
copies r one in Bridge water House, supposed 
by Lodovico Carracci ; another in Palazzo 
Pitti, Florence, byBarocci. Engraved by Aug. 
Carracci ; Villamena ; Cort ; Giovanni ; Des- 
bois; Strange ; Devilliers ; Bovine t — Meyer, 
Correggio, 313, 477 ; Landon, GHuvres, viii. 
PL 27 ; Musee, L PI. 37 ; Musee royal, it Ptl ; 
FilhoL, a. PL 79 ; Kiss, der Malerei, i. PL 49. 

GIOTTINO, born {?), died after 1369. 
Florentine school. Probably identical with 
Giotto di Maestro Stefano, whose name ap- 
pears in the register of Florentine painters 
in 1368. Vasari calls him Xommaso di Ste- 
fano, and says he was born in 1324, thus 
confounding bim with Maso di Banco (died 
after 1351), whom Ghiberti makes the pupil 
of Giotto, and who was admitted to the guild 

of Speziali in 1343, and to the Company 
of St Luke in 1350. To Maso, Ghiberti as- 
cribes the series of frescos in the chapel of 
S. SilveBtro in S. Croce, Florence, represent- 
ing the legend of Constantino, while Vasari, 
who made one painter out of two, gives them 
to Giottino. The fresco of the Last Judg- 
ment in the Bardi Chapel, S Croce, belong- 
ing to the monument of Ubertino de' Bardi, 
is probably by the artist who painted two 
frescos, the Birth and Crucifixion of Christ, 


in the mortuary chapel of the Strozzi, Flor- 
ence, and in a panel in the TJffizi, the Be- 
wailing of Christ The last is given in the 
catalogue to Giottino, but whether it and 
other works mentioned belong to him or to 
Maso remains to be proved.— C- & C, Italy, 
L 410 ; Lilbke, Gesch. itaL Mai., L 153 ; Bal- 
dinucci, i. 253 ; Vaaari, ed. Mil., L 622 ; W. 
& W., i 453. 
GIOTTO, bom at Colle in the district of 
Veepignano in 1266 ; 

Jan. 8, 1337. Flor- 
entine school. Son 
of a shepherd named 
Bondone; found 
drawing sheep upon 
flat stones, by Cinia- 
bue, who, struck 
* with his talent, took 
him to Florence and 
taught him to paint Dante tells in the 
Divina Coinmedia (Purgatorio, xi. 93) how 
the master was outdone by the pupil, who 
is called the reviver of painting, because he 
broke loose from Byzantinism and took nat- 
ure for bis guide. In simple and unaffected, 
although necessarily imperfect, language, he 
represented scenes from holy writ, legends 
and allegories, according to the dogmas of 
the Church ; and, though living at a time 
when art was wholly in her service, worked 
in a comparatively independent spirit In 
his pictures there is no striving after ideal 
beauty, no attempt at deceptive imitation of 
natural objects, no difference of handling in 
the treatment of flesh, drapery, or architect- 
ure, and but a scant supply of that techni- 
cal knowledge which in later times enabled 
men of infinitely less genius to surpass them 
in execution, in chiaroscuro, perspective, 
drawing, and colour. In all these things 
the apprentices of the next century were 
Giotto's superiors ; though in earnestness, 
in the power of telling a story with dramatic 
effect, and in truth of expression, but few of 
their masters equalled, and still fewer sur- 
passed, him. He worked in many parts of 

Italy: in Asaisi before 1296 ; in Borne from 
1298 to 1300; in Florence from 1300 to 1304 ; 
in Padua from 1304 to 1306 ; later in Rimini, 
and in Naples, where he painted the Miracle 
of the Loaves and Fishes in the old convent 
church of S. Chiara (but not the Incoronats 
frescos), from 1330 to 1333. In the follow- 
ing year he was appointed master of the 
works at the Duomo, Florence, for which he 
designed the facade, commenced but after- 
wards destroyed, and built its exquisite cam- 
panile. Giotto's twenty-eight frescos repre- 
senting scenes from the lives of the Saviour 
and of St Francis, in the aisle of the upper 
church of S. Francesco, Assisi, were proba- 
bly painted before the ceilings of the lower 
church (1296), in which he allegorized the virt- 
ues of the Franciscans, Poverty, the spouse 
chosen by St Francis, Obedience and Chas- 
tity, the rules of his Order. In Borne Giotto 
next decorated the tribune of the church of 
S. Giorgio in Velabro with frescos, designed 
the so-called Navicella represented by a mo- 
saic in the portico of St Peter's, and painted 
the three panels of a predella now in the 
sacristy of the canons of St Peter, represent- 
ing the Redeemer and Angels, the donor 
Cardinal Stefanescbi, and the Martyrdoms 
of Si- Peter and St Paul The same Apos- 
tles, with the Madonna and Saints, appear 
upon other predella panels in the sacristy. 
In the Lateran Basilica is a fragment of a 
fresco by Giotto representing Pope Boni- 
face VUL proclaiming the opening of the 
Jubilee in 1300, when Giotto and Dante 
were in Rome. The frescos of the Palazzo 
del Podesta or Bargello, Florence, portions 
of which have been recovered, were paint- 
ed about 1302 or 1303. As containing the 
well-known portraits of Dante, and some of 
his contemporaries, that which represents an 
incident in the feud of the Bianchi and the 
Neri factions haa a peculiar interest. About 
1305, Giotto went to Padua to paint the thirty- 
eight frescos of the Cappelladell' Arena of En- 
rico degli Scrovegni They represent scenes 
from the lives of Christ and the Virgin, the 
Last Judgment, and the Virtues and Vices, 


and ore the most important works of the 
master. Several Crucifixes by Giotto exist ; 
one is in the Sanctuary of this chapel, others 
in S. Marco, S. Felicita, and the Gondi Doni 
chapel of the Ogni Santa, Florence. Other 
mural paintings by the master are: Incidents 
from the lives of 8S. Anthony and Francis, in 
the chapter house of S. Antonio, Padua ; a 
ceiling with the four Doctors of the Church 
and the four Evangelists, in S. Giovanni 
Evangelists, Ravenna; the frescos of the 
Peruzzi, Giugni, and Bardi chapels, S. Croce, 
Florence ; and the remnants of frescos in 
the Carmine. Among the works of Giotto 
in public galleries are : a Madonna with 
Angels, and many small panels of incidents 
in the lives of Christ and St. Francis, Flor- 
ence Academy ; two of the same series in 
the Berlin Museum, and two at Munich ; 
Madonna, Brers, Milan ; Si Francis receiv- 
ing the Stigmata, Louvre, Paris ; Two Apos- 
tles, National Gallery, London.— W. & W., 
L 435 ; C. & C, Italy, i. 234 ; Lubke, Gesch. 
ital. Mai, i. 113 ; Vasari, ed. MiL, L 369 ; 
Burckhardt, 492; Dohme, 2i; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole fiorentine. ■ 


da Murano. 

GIOVANNI D'ASCIANO, of Siena, born 
in Asciano, flourished latter part of 14th 
century. Sienese school ; pupil of Barns, 
and n weak imitator of Ms style. He fin- 
ished the frescos in the church at S. Gimig- 
nano, begun by his master. Vasari says he 
executed paintings in the hospital of Siena, 
and in the ancient palace of the Medici, 
Florence, which gave him reputation, but 
they are all lost.— C. & C, Italy, ii 110 ; 
iii 62 ; Vasari, ed. Le Hon., ii. 163. 





born latter half 15th century, died at Udine, 
Aug. 30, 1635. Venetian school. Son of 
Haiti no daTolmezzo, a carver of Udine, and 
called Martini to distinguish him from his 
cousin, Giovanni Mione. Pupil of Luigi 
Viuarini, but how long he was in Venice 
is not known. Had returned to Udine in 
1497, where he resided until his decease, 
his later days being principally devoted to 
carving. As a painter he imitated Luigi 
Vivarini's early stylo, and in many respects 
he recalls Jacopo da Valentia. Works : Ma- 
donna (1498), Museo Civico, Venice ; St 
Mark Enthroned (1501), Cathedral, Udine ; 
others in the Spilimberg Cathedral, and in 
the Brera, Milan.— C. & C, N. Italy, ii 182 ; 
Lubke, Gesch. ital. Mai, it 562. 

in 14th century. Florentine school. Real 
name Giovanni Jacobi ; long an assistant to 
TaddeoGaddi ; settled at Florence in 1366. 
He made no advancement in composition 
beyond Taddeo, but he was less conventional 
than his master, and more finished and 
elaborate in execution. His earliest extant 
picture, a Bewailing of Christ, in the Flor- 
ence Academy, dated 1365, Bhows excessive 
conscientiousness, but lacks elevation. A 
larger and more important picture is the 
Virgin Enthroned, Municipal Gallery, Prato. 
An altarpiece in five compartments, in the 
Uffizi, Florence, and the frescos of scenes 
from the story of the Virgin and Mary Mag- 
dalen, in the Rinuccini Chapel, S. Croce, 
are also by this painter. — C. &. C, Italy, i 
402 ; Lubke, Gesch. ital Mai, i 143; Va- 
sari, ed. Le Mon., ii 116, 179 ; ed. Mil, i 
572 ; W. & W., i 455. 

da Murano. 

GIOVANNI DI PAOLO, died about 1481. 
Sienese school. Commonly called del Pog- 
gio. On the roll of Sienese artists in 1428 ; 
in the service of Sano di Pietro in 1447. 
According to Ricci, he attended the school 
of Gentile da Fabriano. His strange fancy 
in composition and awkwardness in repre- 
senting action are shown in a Last Judgment 


(1463) in the Siena Academy, and in seven 
panels, Bamboux. Collection, Cologne.— C 
A C, Italy, iii 80 ; Vasari, ed Le Mon., iv. 
168 ; vi 186. 
GIOVANNI DA UDINE, born in Udine, 
Oct. 15, 1487, died 
in Home in 1564, 
> Uinbrian school. 
Real name Giovan- 
ni de' Becamatori, 
son of Francesco 
de' Becamatori (of 
the Embroiderers). 
Pupil of Giorgione, 
but afterwards of 
Raphael, under 
whom he superintended the ornamental 
decorations in the Vatican Loggie, such as 
animals, birds, fruit, flowers, and grotesques. 
His arabesques have ever since been con- 
sidered models of their type. In 1527, when 
Borne was sacked by the Constable de Bour- 
bon, he went to Florence and painted for 
the Medici ; worked also in Udine, Venice, 
and in other cities, but finally returned to 
Borne about 1550. Most of his works are 
mural decorations. Among the easel pict- 
ures attributed to him are : Christ among 
the Doctors, Holy Family, Venice Academy; 
Madonna and Saints, Palazzo Mt"fn ni, Ven- 
ice ; do., Museo Civico, ib. The only au- 
thenticated work of this kind is a Madon- 
na Enthroned (1517), belonging to Signor 
Frizzoni, Bergamo. — Ch. Blanc, Ecole om- 
brienne ; Vasari, ed. Mil., vi 549; ed. Le 
Mon., xii 300 ; Burckhardt, 178 ; Lflbke, 
Gesch. itaL Mai, ii 374. 
GHUBD, ALBERT, born in Paris, Dec. 
13, 1839. Genre and landscape painter, 
pupil of his father, of Flandrin, and of 
Bellei Medal, 3d class, 1882. Works: 
Moorish Festival at Algiers (1873); Negro 
Dance at Algiers, Moorish Interior (1875) ; 
Women Bathing (1877) ; Nymphs (1879) ; 

Coast of Villerville, The Sea at Trouville ; 
Le Vieux Deauville, Norman Pasture (1882); 
Arab Hunters in Mountains of Blidah, 
Strand at Villerville (1883) ; Oat-field in 
Picardy, Marsh of Conde-Folie, ib. (1884) ; 
Charity Office of the Twentieth Arrondisse- 
ment, On Way to Work (1885). 

GIRABD, FIBMIN, born at Poncin (Am), 
May 31, 1838. Genre painter, pupil of 
Gleyre; paints fresh and brightly coloured 
pictures of trivial subjects. Medals: 3d 
class, 1863 ; 2d class, 1874. Works : Flowex- 
Girl (1872); JapaneseToilet(1873); Bevery, 
Fishing, Betrothed (1874) ; Godmothers 
Garden, First Caress (1875) ; Bear-Trainer 
at Aurillac (1877) ; Wedding in the 18th 
Century (1878) ; Caught in the Bain (1879); 
Close of Autumn, Going to Market (1881); 
Visiting the Farm (1882) ; Christening in 
the 18th Century (1883) ; Sunday at Bas- 
Meudon (1884); A Happy Meeting, An Alley 
of Roses (1885)- Works in the United 
States : Toilet, A. Belmont, New York; Fish- 
ing, G. L Seney sale (1884), ib ; Street in St 
Bambert— Loire, B. Hoe, New York; Wed- 
ding in the Last Century, R- G. Dun, ib.; 
Paris I 'tower-Market (1876), Study for da, 
T. R Butler, ib.; Book of Hours, Fishing, 
Betrothal, E. D. Morgan Collection, ib.; 
Coming Shower, 0. 9. Smith, ib. ; Spring- 


Time, William Astor, ih. ; Scene in Japan, 
H C Gibson, Philadelphia ; Pensive, Tete- 
a-tete, Borie Collection, ib.— Mailer, 208. 

at Neufchitel, July 21, 1819, died at Ver- 
sailles, Jan. 5, 1880. Genre painter, son 
and pupil of Charles Samuel Girardet, the 
engraver. Medals : 3d class, 1842 ; 2d class, 
1847, 1859, 1867 ; L of Honour, 1866 ; 1st 
class, for engravings, 1861 and 1863. Works: 
The Common Bath (1839); Wounded Goat 
(1840); Fortune-teller, Barber-shop in Brit- 
tany, Snowball Fight, After the Battle, Basle 
Museum; Grandmother's Story (1842); Fa- 
ther's Blessing (1843); Interrupted Meal 


(1844); Mauler's Love (1846); Revelations 
(1849) ; Departure of the Landsturra in 
1798, Neuchatel Museum ; Blind Beggar in 
Cairo (1845); Peasants and Bears, Difficult 
Letter, Little Apple Thieves (1846); Wooing 
in Bernese Oberland, Alms, Going to School 
(1848), Berne Museum ; Sick Child, Zurich 
Gallery ; Nest of Blackbirds (1849); Bad 
Weather on the Mountains (1850); A Land- 
Slide ; Village Wedding (1859). Was also an 
engraver. — Bellier de la Chavignerie, i. 665 ; 
Vapereau (1880), 809. 

GIRARDET, JULES, born in Paris ; con- 
temporary. Genre and landscape painter, 
pupil of CabaneL Medal, 3d class, 1881. 
Works : Little Fadette (1877); Return from 
Market at Tanjier (1878); Skaters (1879); 
Environs of Biskra (1880), Episode in Siege 
of Saragoasa (1881); Defeated Army of Gen- 
eral Lescure passing the Loire (1882); Bout 
at Chalet, October, 1793 (1883); The Giron- 
din Louvet and his Friend Lodoiaka, An 
Arrest during the Reign of Terror (1884); A 
Failure (1885). 

GERAEDET, KARL, born at Lode, 
Switzerland, May 13, 1810, died in Paris, 
April 24, 1871. Genre and landscape paint- 
er, brother of Edouard Henri, pupil of Leon 
Cogniet Travelled much in Europe and 
the Levant, and accompanied the Duo de 
Montpensier to Spain. Medals: 3d class, 
1837; 2d class, 1842; Grand Medal of 
Prussia, 1843 ; Member of Academy of Am- 
sterdam, 1853 ; honourable mention, 1855. 
Works : Hedge-School, Babbits' Breakfast 
(1836); The Righi, Starting for the Market 
overBrientz Lake (1837); Protestants Bur- 
prised at Worship (1842), Neuchatel Mu- 
seum ; Views of Sorrento, Capri (1842), and 
Vesuvius (1843); The Nile; Mosque in 
Cairo, Due de Montpensier; The Bey's Tent 
at Isly, Ioways dancing in the Tuileries 
(1846), Versailles Museum ; Egyptian La- 
bourers (1847) ; Restaurant on the Nile 
(1849); Odalisque, Soldier's Return (1850); 
Old Franciscan Convent at Alexandria, Lady 
Claypole reproaching her Father Cromwell 
with the Death of Charles L (1853); Cere- 

mony of Hand-Kissing in Hall of Ambassa- 
dors at Madrid, Lake of Brienz, View in 
Val-de-Travers, Village and Lake of Brienz, 
Neuchatel Museum ; Episode in Battle of 
Morat (1856), Berne Museum ; Meadow on 
the Aar, View on the Euro, Solitude (1859); 
five views of Valais, Drinking -Place on the 
Moors of Gascony (1861); View near Sion, 
Fishermen of Albengo (1863); Mouth of the 
Toccia, Moors of Gascony (1864); Sunrise 
on Lago Maggiore (1866) ; Storm in the 
Valais, Lake of Wallenstadt (1870). Made 
designs for illustrations of the Orlando Fu- 
rioso, Thiers's Consulate and Empire, and 
other works. — Bellier de la Chavignerie, i 
655 ; Vapereau (1865), 748. 

GENE, born in Paris, Aug. 9, 1806, died in 
Paris, Dec 29, 1881. Genre painter, pupil 
of Theodore Richomme, of Hersent, and of 
the Ecole des Beaux Arts, where he won the 
grand prix de Rome for engraving in 1826. 
After his return from Italy he travelled with 
Alexander Dumas in Spain, and later in Al- 
geria and the Levant Medals : 3d class, 
1833; 2d class, 1863; L. of Honour, 1851; Of- 
ficer, 1866. Works : Volunteer Enlistments 
(1835) ; Marcel saving the Dauphin Charles 
(1836) ; Armies of Conde and of Coligny 
crossing the Loire (1839); The Promenade, 
The Guide's Children (1840); Wasps (1843); 
111 of a Fever in the Roman Campagna 
(1846) ; Dance in a Posada, The Gust of 
Wind, Fire in Constantinople (1853); Alge- 
rian Women, Flower-Girl (1859); Henri IV. 
in the Tower of St. Germain -dcs-Pr 6s, Gypsy 
Woman of Seville (1861); Overflow of the 
Nile, Moucharaby in Cairo (1863); Dancing 
Girl in Cairo (1866), formerly in Luxem- 
bourg Museum ; Night in Paris (1866); Com- 
ing from Vespers, Fatima (1868); LaDevisa, 
or Incident of a Bull-Fight (1869), formerly 
in Luxembourg Museum ; Confession before 
the Battle, Hunting for Herbs (1870); Mes- 
sage, Defended Gate (1872); Conde going 
to the Army, Disenchanted (1873) ; Rest, 
Jeweller in the Seraglio (1874) ; Second- 
hand Booksellers (1875) ; Flower-Market 


under the Directory (1876); Criminal Court, 
Return from the Tavern (1877); Terrace 
near the Nile, Agreeable Meeting (1878); 
Hungarian Caarda (1880).— Bellier de la 
Chavignerie, i 658 ; Meyer, Gesch., 706 ; 
Vapereau (1880V 814. 

in Paris, Jan. 18, 1819. Genre painter, 
brother and pupil of Eugene, and pupil of 
the Ecole des Beaux Arts. Has accompa- 
nied as artist various expeditions, such as 
that under Prince Napoleon to Northern 
Europe, and has visited America. L. of 
Honour, 1847. Works : Studio, Scene in 
Hayti (1853); End of the Haytian War, 
Princess Mathilde's Dining-Boom, M. de 
Nieuwerkerkes Library (1859); Fifteenth 
Century Interior, View of Tinyvalla in Ice- 
land (1861); Hunter Returning (1863), Be- 
sancon Museum ; Fifteenth Century Inte- 
rior (1863); Interior of a Conservatory, 
Breton Tavern (1865); Napoleon HI, Gal- 
lery of the Louvre, Interior of a Parlour 
(1866); Boom in the Musee Cluny (1867), 
Luxembourg Gallery ; Torture Boom in 
Castle of Pierrefonds (1868); Bowling at 
Pont-Aven (1869); Return from Fishing 
(1870); Women Spinning (1873); Landing- 
Place at Brienz (1874); The Farewell (1875); 
Flemish Interior (1876); Gathering Apples 
(1877); A Sunday in Brittany (1878); Fif- 
teenth Century Interior (1883).— Bellier de 
la Chavignerie, i 659. 

GIRAUD, VICTOR, born in Paris, Jan. 
12, 1840, died there, Feb. 21, 1871. Genre 
painter, son and pupil of Eugene, and pupil 
of Picot. Works : Slave Merchant (1867), 
formerly in Luxembourg Museum ; The 
Husband's Return (1868), Montpellier Mu- 
seum ; The Charmer (1870). 

called Girodet Trioson, bora at Montargis 
(Loiret), Jan. 5, 1766, died in Paris, Dec. 9, 
1824. French school ; history and portrait 
painter, pupil of Luquin and of David; won 
2d prix de Rome in 1788, and grand prix in 
1789. After five years in Rome he returned 
to Paris, won the ten-years prize for history 

(1810), and entered upon a successful career. 
He painted few pictures, but made many 
studies and de- 
signs, and illustra- 
ted numerous 
books. Member 
of Institute, 1815 ; 
L. of Honour, 1816. 
Louis XVm. or- 
dered the cross of 
an officer of the L. 
of Honour to be 
placed on Girodet's 
coffin. Works: Death of Tatius (1788), 
Angers Museum ; Joseph discovering him- 
self to his Brethren (1789) ; Hippocrates re- 
fusing the Presents of Artaxerxes (1792), 
Ecole de Medecine, Paris; Antiochus and 
Stratonice (1793) ; Danae (1798), M. Chatil- 
lon ; Landscapes representing the Four 
Parts of the Day (1798) ; The Seasons (4 
pictures, 1799, for King of Spain, copied in 
1817 for Palace of Compiegne) ; Osaian and 
his Warriors (1802), Leuchtenberg Collec- 
tion, Si Petersburg ; Deluge (1810), Sleep 
of Endymion (1792) ; Burial of Alala (1808), 
Louvre; Napoleon receiving Keys of Vienna 
(1808), Revolt of Cairo (1810), Versailles 
Museum; Minerva, Apollo, Mercury, Nymphs, 
and Bacchus (6 pictures), Hymen and Fe- 
cundity (1817), Gods and Nymphs (1818), 
Titon and Aurora, Dance of Greeks, Dance 
of Nymphs, Justice and Valour, etc (4 pict- 
ures, 1822), Departure and Return of the 
Warrior, all at Compiegne ; Napoleon's 
Father (1805) ; Portrait of Napoleon L, 
Chateauroux Museum ; Male portrait, Cher- 
bourg Museum ; Young Woman's Head, 
Lyons Museum ; Burial of Atala, Amiens 
Museum ; Gorgon Head, Perpignan Museum ; 
Anacreon, Dante and Virgil, Old Man, and 
others, Montpellier Museum ; Au- 
rora (1806), Leipsie Museum ; Pyg- 
malion and Galatea, Count Som 
mariva sale, 1839, 14,000 francs; |Q|1 
Head of the Virgin (1812), Count ° 
Perregaux sale, 1841, 3,155 francs; Fair 
Elizabeth (his favourite model), M sale, 



1857, 8,100 franca— Bellier de la Chavig- 
nerie, i 661 ; Ch. Blanc, l£oole fruncaise : 
Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Gaz. des B. Arte (1874), 
x. 464 ; Gaatier, Guide au Louvre, 13 ; 
Meyer, Gesch., 91. 

1470, died in 1524. Sienese school ; 
and pupil of Benvenuto del Guasta. Fainted 
in 1508 a Virgin of the Snow, in S. Doroen 
ico, Siena, whicli, though reaembling his 
father's productions, is more pleasing. 
There are several pictures by him in the 
Siena Academy, and a S. Chiara with a 
kneeling Pilgrim in the Osservanza out- 
side Siena.— C. &, G, Italy, iii. 73. 


GIBOLAMO DA CARPI, born at Ferrara 
about 1501, died about 1561. Lombardo- 
Ferrarese school. Beal name de' Sellari or 
de' Livizzani, but called da Carpi because 
his father, Tommaso, was born there. Pu- 
pil of Benvenuto Garofalo ; afterwards 
painted at Bologna, and later studied works 
of Correggio and Parmigianino in Modena 
and Parma. Though he imitated them, " 
was not a servile copyist, but had a style of 
his own. Painted in fresco and in oil, and 
was very successful in portraits ; was also an 
architect. Among his works are ] Adora- 
tion of the Magi, and Madonna, Bologna 
Academy ; Christ in the House of Martha 
and Mary, Uffizi, Florence; Entombment, 
Palazzo Pitti, ib. ; Portrait of Archbishop 
Salimbeni, ib.; Christ on the Mount of Ol- 
ives, ib. ; Venus and Cupid, Dresden Gal- 
lery. — Vasari, ed. Mil., vi 469 ; Tanri, iii, 
204 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole ferraraise ; Cittadella, 
Memorie di . . . Garofalo (Ferrara, 1872); 
Lavice, 63. 

Cotignola about 1481, died in 1550. Bo- 
lognese school. Beal name Girolamo Mar- 
chess, son of Antonio M. ; pupil of Zaga- 
nelli (?) and of Francesco Francia, but in his 
later days an imitator of Raphael and Michel- 
angelo. A Nativity of 1513, in his early 
style, is in Lord Ashburton's Collection. 
Examples of his later manner, dated 1516 

and 1526, are in the Berlin Museum ; Ma- 
donna and Saints, dated 1518, L'Annunzi- 
ata, Parma ; Marriage of the Virgin, and 
the Annunciation, Nativity, and Flight into 
Egypt, in a predella, Bologna Pinac. Va- 
sari says he was chiefly known as a portrait 
painter.— C. & C, N. Italy, i. 601 ; Vasari, 
ed. Mil., v. 182 ; Ch. Blanc, iScole bolonaise. 

GIBOLAMO DAI LIBBI, bom in Verona 
in 1474, died July 22, 1655. Venetian 
school. Son of Francesco dai Libri, a min- 
iaturist (or illuminator of books, whence he 
got his name), of whom no vestige has been 
preserved, and grandson of Stef ano da Zevio. 
His first picture, Christ deposed from the 
Cross, in the Church of Malaeaine, painted 
when sixteen years old, is an illustration of 
his education in the school of a miniaturist, 
but in his later works, inspired by a deep 
study of the Mantagnesques, he exhibits the 
form and the spirit of a greater art. His 
Madonna and Saints, lately in Hamilton 
Palace, near Glasgow, is a good example of 
this style. Later he shows the influence of 
Francesco Morone, as in the Madonna and 
Saints, Berlin Museum. Still later he ac- 
quires a more modern treatment in every 
branch of practice, as seen in the Concep- 
tion, in 3. Paolo, Verona. The culminating 
point in his career is reached in the Virgin 
in Glory and the Madonna and Saints 
(1530), Verona Museum ; and in the Ma- 
donna and St. Anne, National Gallery, Lon- 
don. Beginning as a miniaturist, he rose to 
a high place amongst the painters of North 
Italy, being neither a plagiarist nor a servile 
copyist. His son, Francesco (born 1500), 
was a miniature and oil painter. — C. & C, 
N. Italy, L 493 ; Burckhardt, 606 ; Lnbke, 
Gesch. d. ital MaL, il 578. 

at Santa Croce (?), near Bergamo, flourished 

Venice in 1520—49. Venetian school ; 
history and landscape painter, perhaps pu- 
pil and assistant of Francesco da Santa 
Croce, of whom he may and may not have 
been a relative ; further developed under 
influence of Giovanni Bellini and the great 


Venetian masters. Works: Nativity, Mar- 
tyrdom of St. Sebastian, Coronation of the 
Virgin, Crucifixion, Berlin Museum ; Na- 
tivity, Martyrdom of St. Lawrence, Dres- 
den Gallery; St. Thomas Aquinas Enthroned 
(1520), S. Silvestro, Venice ; Adoration of 
the Magi, Manfrini Gallery, ib. ; Resurrec- 
tion (early work), Last Supper (1549), S. 
Martino, ib.; Head of Christ, A Bishop, 
Academy, ib.; Crucifixion, Adoration of the 
Shepherds, Museo Civico, Verona ; Corona- 
tion of the Virgin, God Father and Holy 
Family, Museo Civico, Padua ; several in 
Bergamo Gallery; Nativity, Resurrection, 
Basle Museum. — Lubke, Gesch. ital. Mai., ii. 

Sermoneta about 1510 (?), died in Rome 
about 1580. Umbrian school. Real nam< 
Girolamo Siciolante ; pupil of Perino del 
Vaga, whom he assisted in his frescos in 
Castello S. Angelo and in other works. 
Employed by Gregory XHL in the decora- 
tions of the Sala Regia in the Vatican ; also 
executed works in many churches in Rome. 
His heat work is the Madonna and Saints, 
in S. Bartolommeo, Ancona. Said to have 
been a good portrait painter. His style is 
antiquated, more like that of the Perugi- 
nesques than of any of his contemporaries. 
—Vasari, ed. LeMon., x. 170, 185 ; ed. MiL, 
vii. 571 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole ombrienne. 

GIROLAMO DA TREVISO, the elder, of 
Padua, latter half of 15th century. Vene- 
tian school. Probable pupil of Squarcioue, 
but painted chiefly at Treviso, where he is 
said to have finished an altarpiece and fres- 
cos in S. Niccol6 in 1470. His oldest known 
picture is the Death of the Virgin, at Lo- 
nigo, painted in 1478. Better than this is 
the Christ at the Column, in Casa Rinaldi, 
Treviso, in which there is an echo of Aiito- 
nello da Messina. Virgin with Saints, Du- 
omo, Treviso (1487).— C. <fc C, N. Italy, L 
855 ; Kugler (Eastlake), i. 294 

GIROLAMO DA TREVISO, the younger. 
See PewuKchi, Girolamo di Pier 1 Maria. 

GIRON, CHARLES, born at Geneva; 

contemporary. Genre and portrait painter, 
pupil of Cabanel. Medals : 3d class, 1879 ; 
2d class, 1883. Works : Education of Bac- 
chus, Musee Rath, Geneva ; The Two Sis- 
ters, Mary (1883); Portraits. 

Piloty, George A. Drummond, Montreal ; 
canvas. Scene : the Place de la Revolu- 
tion, now called Place de la Concorde, with 
the guillotine in background, left ; in front, 
the Girondists dragged to execution in carts, 
amid the jeers of the fishwives, who ait, knit- 
ting in hand, on platforms under umbrellas. 
In the rear cart is the dead body of Valaze, 
who stabbed himself with a concealed dag- 
ger on the passing of the sentence. Photo- 
gravure in Art Treasures of America, ii. 66. 

GIEOUX, ANDRE, born in Paris, April 
30, 1801. Genre and landscape painter, son 
and pupil of the animal painter, Achilla G., 
of Thibault, and of the Ecole des Beaux 
Arts ; won grand prii de Rome in 1825. 
Medals : 2d class, 1822 ; 1st class, 1831 ; L. 
of Honour, 1837. Works : Preparing the 
Market (1819); The Basement, Stable, Mar- 
ket by the Sea-shore (1822); Fish-Market, 
Orpheus and Eurydice (1824); View of 
Capri (1827); View in the Sabine Country, 
Shepherd of Casaprota, Sixtus V. and the 
Gypsy Women (1831); View at Larco Os- 
i near Rome (1831), Douai Museum ; 
Plain of Gresivaudan near Grenoble (1834), 
Luxembourg Museum ; French Alps (1837), 
Ministry of Interior, Paris ; Ruins of Resti, 
Chalets (1837); Knife-Grinder's Shop (1857); 
Ravine of Colling in Austria (1863); Valley 
of Gresivaudan near Grenoble (1866); Val- 
ley of the Dranse in Savoy (1868); Valley 
of Mag Ian in Savoy, Mill at Vichy, View at 
Willegen, Switzerland (1874); Landscape, 
Ravene Gallery, Berlin. — Bellier de la Cha- 
vignerie, i 663 ; Meyer, Gesch., 772. 

thenburg, Silesia, in 1822, died in 1870. 
Landscape painter, pupil in Breslau of Beech, 
went to Munich in 1849, studied four years 
there and from nature in the Bavarian High- 
lands and the Tyrol ; lived some time at 


Liegnitz, and in 1864 went to Berlin. 
Works : Mill in Sileaia ; Windmill ; Moon- 
light Night in Tyrolese Alps ; Tauern Moun- 

GIRTJN, THOMAS, born at Southwark, 
Surrey, in 1776, died in London in 1802. 
Landscape painter, one of the founders of 
the English school of painting in water-col- 
ours, and nest in importance to Turner, 
with whom he was intimate ; exhibited at 
the Royal Academy in 1791-1801. Works : 
View of Bridge north, Great Hall in Conway 
Castle, Ethel Castle, Melrose Abbey, View 
of Ripon, York Cathedral, Interior of Can- 
terbury Cathedral and others, British Mu- 
seum, London ; Rievaulx Abbey (1798), View 
on the Thames, Warkworth Hermitage, 
three others, South Kensington Museum, ib. ; 
View of St. Asaph, Jedburgh Abbey, Nation- 
al Gallery, Dublin. 

Miller, Turner and Girtin's Picturesque 
Views (London, 1864). 

GISBERT, ANTONIO, born at Alcoy, 
Valencia ; contemporary. History and genre 
painter, pupil of Madrid Academy. Direc- 
tor of S. Fernando Museum, Madrid. Med- 
als : Paris, 1865, 1867 ; Officer L. of Hon- 
our, 1870. Works ; Landing of Puritans 
in North America ; Execution of Padilla ; 
Death of Don Carlos ; Francis L meeting 
his Betrothed; Columbus embarking at 
Palos ; Paolo and Franceses ; Guitar Player, 
Grandfather's Birthday, Flute Player, In 
the Garden, Students' Household ; Modern 
Paris and Three Graces (1882) ; Prestidigi- 
tator, William Astor, New York.— Mailer, 

G I S L E R , EDOtJARD ; contemporary. 
History painter, pupil of Navez. Works : 
Jeremiah on Ruins of Jerusalem (1836), St. 
Gudule's, Brussels ; The Virgin (1841).— 
ImmerzeeL i. 280. 

Susa, North Italy, in 1825. Genre and land- 
scape painter, professor at Milan Academy. 
Works : Faust and Marguerite ; Parisina ; 
Difficult Passage ; In Thoughts ; Drinking 
Girl (1866).— Mailer, 209. 

GIULIO ROMANO, born in Rome in 
1492, died in Mantua, Nov. 1, 1546. Real 
name Giulio Pippi de' Gi- 
annuzzi, but called Romano 
from his birthplace. Um- 
brian school ; became the 
assistant of Raphael when 
quite young, and with II 
Fattore and Pellegrino da 
Modena sided him in the ' 
decoration of the Vatican. 
He was Raphael's favour- 
ite pupil and was, with H 
Fattore, his heir and art executor. He 
painted frescos in Rome in the Villa Lanti, 
in the Villa Madama, which he built, and 
in Trinita de' Monti. Having fulfilled Ms 
duties towards Raphael by finishing his 
incomplete works in the Vatican, and in 
painting, with II Fattore, the Assumption 
which Raphael had promised to the Convent 
of Monteluce, now in the Vatican, he went 
(1524) to Mantua and entered the service of 
Duke Federigo Gonzaga. There he directed 
works in architecture as well as in painting, 
having under him many scholars and assist- 
ants. While under Raphael's care he was a 
cloae imitator of his style ; but when left to 
himself his taste soon became depraved, and 
he was largely responsible for the decay of 
Italian art. Among his works in Mantua 
are frescos in the Palazzo del T&, which he 
built They represent the Defeat of the 
Giants, and the History of Cupid and Psyche, 
the latter with a licentious freedom of treat- 
ment which ill accords with the traditions of 
the school in which he was bred. He also 
painted other frescoB in the Uffizio della 
Scaccheria and in several churches in Man- 
tua. In 1646 he was chosen architect of St. 
Peter's, Rome, as successor toSansovino, and 
was about to Bet out for that city when he 
died. Among the best of his few easel pic- 
tures are : Madonna del Bacino, Pan and the 
young Olympus, Dresden Gal; Martyrdom 
of St Stephen, S. Stefano, Genoa; Madon- 
na, Sacristy of St Peter's, Rome ; Julius BL 
(copy of Raphael), Fornarina (copy of the 


Barberini picture), Venus, Borghese, Borne; 
Galatea (copy of Raphael's fresco), Accad. 
S. Luca, Rome ; Madonna, TJffizi, Florence ; 
Dance of Muses, PaL Pitti, ib. ; Madonna 
della Gatta, Naples Mus ; Nativity, Triumph 
of Titus and Vespasian, Venue and Vulcan, 
Madonna and St John, Repose of Holy 
Family, and portrait of himself, Louvre ; 
Madonna and Child, da with St John, 
and several others, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg ; Infancy of Jupiter, Vision of the 
Magdalen (fresco), Capture of Carthage, 
Continence of Scipio, Abduction of the Sa- 
bine Women, Nat GaL, London ; Juno and 
Hercules, Bridgewater House, London ; Ma- 
donna with Saints, S. Francesco, Brescia ; 
Madonna with Saints, S. M. dell' Anima, 
Rome. — Vasari, ed. Le. Mod., x. 87 ; ed. 
Mil, v. 523, 563 ; Burckhardt, 8, 128, 179, 
180 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecoto ombrienne ; Dohme, 

GIUNTA PISANO, of Pisa, first half of 
13th century. First mentioned as master 
in 1210, and still living at Pisa in 1255. 
Frescos by him or by artists of his school 
are in S. Pietro in Grado, near Pisa. He 
is said to have painted in 1236, in the 
upper church of S. Francesco Assisi, a Cru- 
cifixion with Father Elias. Other pictures 
in the Academy, and in the Campo Santo at 
Pisa, are ascribed both to him and to Cima- 
bue.— C. & C, Italy, L 166; Ldbke, Gesch. 
ital. MaL, i. 86 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., L 221, 
307 ; Morrona, Pisa Illustrate (Leghorn, 
1812), ii. 116. 

GIUSEPPINO. See Cesare, Giuseppe. 

entine school, flourished second half of 15th 
century. Son of Andrea di Giusto, Masac- 
cio's assistant ; worked under Neri di Bicci 
in 1458-59, with Fra Filippo in 1460, and 
assisted Benozzo Gozzoli in the Campo 
Santo, Pisa. His style is a mixture of that 
of Fra Filippo and of Gozzoli, but inferior 
to both. By him are, perhaps, a Madonna 
and Saints in 8. Gimignano Gallery (attrib- 
uted to Gozzoli); do. in S. Girolamo, Vol- 
terra ; do. in Gallery Comunale, Prato ; do. 

in Florence Academy. — C. & C, Italy, ii. 
516 ; Vasari, od. Le Mon., ii. 268 ; iv. 191. 


GLADIATORS (Combat de Gladiateurs), 
Jean Leon Ger&me, Mrs. A T. Stewart, New 
York ; canvas. Scene in the Coliseum, Roma 
The victor in a gladiatorial combat stands 
over his prostrate foe and turns to the spec- 
tators for the signal of life or death, given by 
turning the thumbs, whence the picture is 
sometimes called Polliee Verso. 

GLAESEB, GEORG, born at Altorf, near 
Nuremberg, in 1719, died at Boirenth in 
1748. Portrait and history painter ; became 
court-painter to Margrave Frederic of Bai- 
reuth, who sent him to Vienna and then to 
Italy, where he remained seven years. 
Works : Death of Lucretia, Death of Cleo- 
patra, Germanic Museum, Nuremberg; Alex- 
ander's Entry into India, Baptism of Christ, 
Portraitof a Rabbi (1735), Landauer Brflder- 
haus, ib. 

born at Montpellier, Dec 15, 1813. Genre 
painter, pupil of the brothers Deveria ; be- 
longs to the realistic school ; is more suc- 
cessful with mythological than with Chris- 
tian subjects. Medals : 3d class, 1842 ; 2d 
class, 1844, 1848, and 1855 ; 1st class, 1845 ; 
L. of Honour, 1865. Works : Flight into 
Egypt, Luca Signorelli lamenting his Son 
killed in a Duel (1836); After the War 
(1838); Faust and Marguerite, Angels com- 
ing for the Body of the Magdalen (1839) ; 
Vision of Saint Theresa (1841); Flight into 
Egypt, Interior with Holy Family, Psyche 
(1842); Women Bathing, Humility of Saint 
Elizabeth (1843); Susannah at the Bath, St 
Elizabeth begging her Bread (1844); Acia 
and Galatea (1845); Blood of Venus (1816), 
Montpellier Museum ; Dante writing under 
the Inspiration of Beatrice and Virgil (1847); 
Death of the Precursor (1848), Toulouse 
Museum; Women of Gaul (1852), Autun 
Museum ; The Pillory (1855); What One sees 
at the Age of Twenty (1855), Montpellier 
Museum ; Cupids at Auction (1857), Beziers 
Museum ; Before the Shop of a Money- 

ed byGoOglC 

Changer (1857) ; Address of the Emperor 
on the Distribution of Eagles (ordered by 
State in 1855); Around the Bowl (1861), 
Anvera Museum ; Misery (1861); Dangerous 
Reefs (1864), Luxembourg Museum ; Slav- 
ery (1865), Narbonne Museum ; St Gene 
vieve stopping Attila, St Genevieve saving 
Lives of Prisoners, Devotion to St Gene- 
vieve (1865, frescos), St Gervais, Paris ; 
Monna Belcolore (1866); Posterity address- 
ing Joan of Arc (1867); Blood of a Martyr 
(1868); Caligula's Jest (1869); Insulting 
Christ (1869), Ministry of Fine Arts, Paris; 
Jesus the Saviour, Psyche Abandoned (1870); 
Spectacle of Human Folly (1872); Path in 
Eosebois (1874); Two Neighbors (1879); 
Psyche (1880); First Steps (1881); Foolish 
Virgins, Subject from Mubbbub (1882); Vote 
of Gaspard Duchatel (1883); Around the 
Truth, Hours of Life (1884).— Bellier de la 
Chavignerie, i 665 ; Claretie, Peintres, etc 
(1874), 199 ; Larousse ; Meyer, Gesch., 403 ; 
Muller, 209. 

in Paris, Feb. 3, 
1842. History and 
genre painter, son 
and pupil of Aug- 
uste, and pupil of 
GerSine ; received 
honourable mention 

in 1859 for his > 

Treason of Delilah. '. ' 

Medals : 1864, 1866, 
and 1868 ; 1st class, 

1878 ; L. of Honour, 1877. Works: Faun 
and Nymphs (1861), Montauban Museum ; 
Samson taken by the Philistines (1861) ; 
^eop at House of Xanthus (1863), Dijon 
Museum ; Samson breaking his Bonds 
(1864), Mulhouse Museum ; Christ and 
the Ten Lepers (1866), Church of White 
Friars, Paris ; Penelope's Nights (1866), 
Brussels Museum ; Minerva's Shield (1867), 
Montauban Museum ; Young Girl facing 
Death (1869) ; The First Duel (1870), Aries 
Museum ; Death of Saint Louis (1872), 
Church of St Louis d'Antin ; Lucia, Bielle 

the Bouquet-Seller (1874) ; Conspiracy in 
Early Rome (1875), Luxembourg Museum; 
Orpheus (1876) ; Fugitives (1877) ; portrait 
of J. L. Gerdme (1879) ; The Awakening 
(1881) ; Feast in Honour of Theseus (1885). 
—Bellier de la Chavignerie, L 665 ; Muller, 

Hal!, Tyrol, in 1661, died at Bozen in 1722. 
German school ; history painter, pupil of 
Deutenhofer, then in Venice of Heinrich 
Frisch and Carlotto; travelled in Italy, 
Switzerland, visited Munich, and settled in 
Bozen in 1686. Painted also attractive 
genre pieces, with figures in Tyrolese cos- 
tume, found in many private collections. 
Works : Legend of St Francis of Assisi 
(1712), Franciscan Church, Bozen ; The 
Three Magi, St Catharine, Parish Church, 
ib. ; Christ feeding the Five Thousand, City 
Hall, ib. His son and pupil, Josef Anton 
(1695-1750), was also an able and versatile 
artist, who worked for many years at Wurz- 
burg.— Wurzbach, v. 205. 

GLASS, JAMES W., bom about 1825, 
died in 1857. Historical genre painter, pu- 
pil of Huntington in New York in 1845. 
Lived and painted in London from 1847 to 
1856. His Last Return from Duty, an 
equestrian portrait of the Duke of Welling- 
ton, painted in England, was bought by 
Lord EUesmere, and repeated for the Queen. 
Works: Free Companion ; Puritan and 
Cavalier ; Edge Hill ; Battle of Naseby, 
Wright Collection ; Royal Standard.— Tuck- 
erman, 421. 

GLAUBER, JAN, called Polydor, born at 
Utrecht in 1646, died at Amsterdam or 
Schoonhoven in 1726. Dutch school; land- 
scape painter, pupil of Berchem. After 
spending a year (1671) in Paris with the 
flower-painter, Picard, and two years in 
Lyons with Arij van der EabeL he went to 
Rome, in company with his brother, Jan 
Godlieb, and his sister, Diana, also a skilful 
artist, and was received under the name of 
Polydor into the society of Dutch and Ger- 
man artists there, called the S chil derbent 


Having spent two years in Borne, one year 
in Padua, and two years in Venice, he went 
in 1680 to Hamburg, and resided there and 
in Copenhagen until 1685, when he settled 
in Amsterdam, in the house of Gerard de Lai 
resse, who painted figures in his landscapes. 
His pictures show a conception kindred to 
Poussin, combining elevated composition 
with excellent drawing. In colouring, chi- 
aroscuro, and individuality, he often sur- 
passed his model. Works: Landscapes in 
the Louvre, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Bruns- 
wick, Cologne, Berlin, Vienna, and Madrid 
Museums, and Augsburg, Munich, Dresden, 
Copenhagen, Oldenburg, and Christiania 
Galleries, and Historical Society, New York. 
— Ch. Blanc, ficole hollandaiBO ; Immerzeel, 
i, 280 ; Kramm, ii. 57S ; Riegel, Beitrage, 

a. 411 

GLAUBER, JAN GODLD2B, called Myr- 
tiL born at Utrecht in 1656, died at Breslau 
in 1703. Dutch school; landscape painter, 
brother and pupil of Jan, whom he after- 
ward accompanied to Italy, where his charm- 
ing pastorals earned him the nickname 
Myrtil. After his return he sojourned in 
Vienna, Prague, and Breslau. His pictures, 
in the style of his brother Jan, are of poetic 
composition, warm in colouring, and care- 
ful in execution. Works : Landscapes, 
Augsburg Gallery, and Vienna Academy ; 
Snake in the Grass, Glasgow Gallery. — Im- 
merzeel, i. 280 ; Krntnm, ii, 575. 

GLAUCION, painter of Corinth, date un- 
known. Master of Athenian.-— Pliny, xxxv. 
40 [134], 

GLEANER, Jules Breton, Luxembourg 
Museum ; canvas, H. 7 It. G in. x 4 ft. 1 in. 
Full-length, with bare head, arms, and feet, 
standing with her left arm akimbo, her 
right holding a sheaf upon her left shoul- 
der ; in background, other gleaners. Salon, 

GLEANERS, Jean Francois MOlet, Bis- 
Bchoffabeim Collection, Paris. Three wom- 
en gleaning in the foreground of a wheat- 
field ; in background, two great stacks of 
grain, on one of which men are packing 

sheaves which another man is pitching up 
from a wagon drawn by oxen. Salon, 1857; 
Exposition universelle, 1867. 

des Glaneuses), Jules Breton, Luxembourg 
Museum ; canvas, H. 3 ft x 5 ft 9 in. The 
gleaners, a dozen or more women and girls, 
at work in a field on a sultry evening, are 
called from their labours by a " garde oham- 
petre," who, leaning against a post at left, 
with his dog beside him, is shouting with 
both hands up to his mouth. Painted in 
1859.— Gaz. des B. Arts (1859), iL 288. 

GLEICHAUF, RUDOLF, born at Hflfin- 
gen, Baden, July 29, 1826. History painter, 
pupil of Munich Academy under Julius 
Schnorr, whom he followed to Dresden, 
where he copied in the Gallery, then studied 
in the Stadel Institute in Frankfort, and 
devoted himself especially to monumental 
painting. Works : Decorations in New 
Theatre at Carlsruhe ; Frieze in Castle Heili- 
genberg on Lake Constance ; Frieze in 
Trinkhalle at Baden-Baden ; Scenes from 
's Aventiure ; sevoral altarpicces ; 
allegories in fresco in kuilding of United 
Col. at Carlsruhe.— Mailer, 210. 

LUDWIG VON, Baron, born at Greifen- 
stein-ob-Bonnland, Bavaria, Oct 25, 1836. 
Landscape painter, grandson of Schiller, 
pupil of Weimar Art School under Max 
Schmidt and Theodor Hagen. Works : On 
the Harbour-Pier at Bregenz ; Summer 
Afternoon ; Beech Wood in Autumn ; In 
Harvest-Time.— Mailer, 211. 

at Chevilly, Switzerland, May 2, 1806, died 
in Paris, May 5, 1874. Genre painter, pu- 
pil in Paris of Hersent for a short time, then 
worked by himself until he went to Egypt, 
where he spent several years ; visited Italy 

his way home, in 1833, and in 1840 ex- 
hibited at the Salon his St John, which at- 
tracted much attention. In 1849 he had a 
quarrel with the administration, and thence- 
forth sent his pictures to Swiss exhibitions. 
He had many pupils. Medals in 1843, 1845. 


Works : Young Nubian Woman, Diana in 
the Bath (1838); Vision of St. John (1840); 
Lost Illusions (1843), 
W. T. Walters, Balti- 
more ; Departure of 
the Apostles (1845); 
Nymph Echo ; Dance 
of the Bacchantes 
(1849) ; Venus on a 
Bam (1855); Death of 
Major Duval, Battle of 
Lake Leman (1858), 
Portraits of General 
Jomini and of M. W. Haldimand, Lausanne 
Museum ; Diana Hunting, Nausicaa, Daph- 
nis and Chios, Virgin with Christ and St 
John, Joan of Arc in the Forest, Ruth and 
Boaz, Deluge, Return of Prodigal Son (all 
before 1863) ; Hercules and Omphale (1863) ; 
Minerva and the Graces, Sappho ; Pentiums 
panned by the Mainades, The Charmers, 
Basle Museum ; Young Roman's Bath (1868), 
C. S. Smith, New York— Gaz. des B. Arts 
(1875), xi. 233, 404 ; Larousse, viii. 1301 ; 
Meyer, Gesch., 393 ; Clement, Life (1858). 

at Wotfenbuttel, Brunswick, Dec 26, 1822, 
died in Dresden, April 25, 1872. Portrait 
painter, pupil of the Dresden Academy 
under Julius Hubner. Was for many 
years the favourite portrait painter in Dres- 
den. Works : Jew's Head, Dresden Gal- 
lery ; Portrait of King John of Saxony, 
Leipsic University. — Allgem. d. Biogr., ix. 

GLINK, FRANZ XAVTER, born at Bur- 
gau, Bavaria, in 1795, died in Munich, Feb. 
22, 1873. History painter, pupil of the 
Munich Academy under Peter von Longer ; 
went in 1824 to Rome, and after bis return 
painted altarpieces and subjects from Ger- 
man epics and from Taaso ; then 
JKJ^ turned again entirely to religious 
yfX art Works : Flight into Egypt ; 
* *• Mary's Visit to Elizabeth ; Madon- 
na ; Christ as a Gardener ; St Cecilia ; 
Christ in Glory ; Sermon on the Mount ; 
Cycle from Wilkina Saga and the Niebel- 

ungen ; Scenes from Tasso ; Story of An 
tharis. — Allgem. d. Biogr., is. 237. 

GLINZEB, KARL, born at Breitenau, 
near Cassel, in 1802, died at Cassel in 1878. 
History and landscape painter, pupil of 
Munich Academy, and, in 1825, of Dussel- 
dorf Academy under Schadow, then of Gros 
in Paris ; visited Rome and Naples in 1833. 
Works : Susanna at the Bath (1837), Kunst- 
lialle, Hamburg ; Joseph's Bloody Coat 
(1838); Good Samaritan; Slave Dealer 
(1840); Pan and Syrinx (1852). 

GLORIA, LA, Titian, Madrid Museum ; 
canvas, H. 11 ft 4 in. x 7 ft 10 in.; signed. 
High in the heavens, in a. halo of light, the 
Father and the Son are seated, with crystal 
orbs and sceptres in their hands ; around 
them countless cherubim and seraphim fad- 
ing away in a brilliant mist ; lower down in 
the clouds the Virgin stands interceding for 
sinners, at whose head Charles V., to the 
right, with the crown at his feet, is kneel- 
ing ; behind him is the Empress ; lower 
down Mary of Hungary, Philip and his sis- 
ter, all in winding-sheets, praying; still 
lower are Job (portrait of Vargas), Moses, 
Noah, and the Magdalen, and to the left in 
ascending lines the Evangelists and Proph- 
ets. Painted in 1554 for Charles V., who 
ordered it as a record of his intention to 
quit the throne. On his abdication (1555), 
he took it, with other pictures, to the Monas- 
tery of Yuste, where it was hung at the foot 
of his bed. Charles ordered the picture, 
which he called the Lost Judgment, to be 
placed after his death on the high altar of 
the Monastery, but Philip removed it to the 
EscoriaL from which it passed to the Mu- 
seum. Sometimes called also the Trinity. 
Engraved by Cort ; in reverse by Hondius. 
— Vasari, ed. Mil., vii. 451 ; C. & C, Titian, 
ii. 232 ; Gachard, Retraite et Mort de Charles 
V. (Brussels, 1855), ii 90 ; Revue Universelle 
des Arts, iii 227. 

at Cracow in 1802, died there, July 28, 1847. 
Landscape and portrait painter, pupil of 
Cracow Academy, then studied in Prague 


and under Steinf eld at the Vienna Academy, 
and after his return to Cracow became pro- 
fessor at the university. Visited Munich, 
and having spent two years in Borne, re- 
turned in 1835. His landscapes, views in 
the Carpathian mountains and in Oalicia, 
were in great demand, and are mostly in 
private collections at Cracow. — Wurzbach, 
v. 220. 

GOBAUT, GASPABD, born in Paris, 
December 27, 1814. Landscape and battle 
painter, pupil of his father and of Simeon 
Fort. Medal, 3d class, 1847 ; L. of Hon- 
our, 1871. Works: Eleven water-colour 
views in Algiers, nine views near Paris 
(1847); Siege of Borne in 1849 (1852); Bat- 
tles and Skirmishes in Italian Campaign of 
1859 (10, 1861); Views in Jura Mountains, 
Pyrenees, etc. (1864-70) ; Battles of Magenta 
and Solferino (1870); Arm of the Seine, 
Skirmish at Villeraexel in 1871 (1877).— 
Bellier de la Chavignerie, i 667. 

GOBBO, ANDREA DEL. See Solario, 

GOBBO DA MILANO. See Solario, An- 

GOBEL, KARL, born in Vienna in 1824 
Portrait, genre, and landscape painter in 
water-colours, son of Karl Peter, pupil of 
Vienna Academy ; travelled extensively in 
France, Spain, Italy, Hungary, and Russia. 
Works: Fisherman's Family returning 
Home ; Camp of Army-Train ; Gibraltar ; 
Cathedral of Valencia ; Escorial ; Painters 
in Gypsy Camp ; Pilgrimage to Mariazell ; 
Coal Sledge ; Pifferari.— Mttller, 92 ; ffun- 
bach, v. 234. 

GOBEL, KARL PETER, born at Wurz- 
bnrg in 1791, died in Vienna in 1823. 
Portrait and history painter, pupil of 
Vienna Academy, where he won several 
prizes. Works : Jacob blessing Sons of 
Joseph (1820), Vienna Museum ; Moses 
(1821); Death of Dido (1822).— Wurzbach, 
v. 234 

Fra Bartolommeo, Lucca Gallery ; wood, 
figures under life-size ; dated 1509. The 

Eternal, enthroned on the clouds, attended 
by cherubim and seraphim, with right hand 
raised in benediction ; below, Si Catherine 
of Siena on the left, and Mary Magdalen on 
right, both kneeling in testacy and raised 
from the ground by a band of cherubim. 
Painted for Convent of S. Pietro Martire, 
Murano ; but it remained in the hands of 
Fra Bartolommeo, who is supposed to have 
presented it to the Prior Santi Pagnini, of 
the Convent of S. Romano, Lucca ; removed 
lately to the gallery. — Vasari, ed. Mil, iv. 
192 ; Marchess, ii. 52, 246, 363 ; C. & C, 
Italy, iii 44a 

Stanza d' Eliodoro, Vatican ; fresco on ceil- 
ing. God the Father, accompanied by two 
angels, descending from heaven, and about 
to address Noah, who kneels in adoration ; 
one of Noah's sons is near him, the two 
others with their mother, who, holding one 
in her arms, looks oat from the door of her 
house. Vasari calls this the Covenant with 
Abraham. Painted in 1513-14 Engraved 
by Fr. Aquila; Michel Comeille; S. Rouille- 
mont — Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 346 ; Mttntz, 
370 : Passavant, ii. 128. 

W. Turner, National Gallery, London ; can- 
vas, H 4 ft 11 in. x 7 ft The Goddess of 
Discord choosing the apple of contention in 
the Garden of the Hesperides. The three 
daughters of Hesperus, Jigle, Hespere, and 
Erythels, dwelt in the garden, where they 
had charge of the tree of the golden apples, 
the gift of Earth to Juno on her wedding- 
day. The Hesperides and the garden were 
guarded by the dragon Ladon, destroyed by 
Hercules in his eleventh labour. The God- 
dess of Discord, not having been invited to 
the marriage feast of Peleus and Thetis, 
procured one of these apples, and writing 
upon it, "For the most beautiful" threw it 
among the guests at the feast It was 
claimed by Juno, Minerva, and Venus. 
Jupiter, to end the strife, ordered that the 
dispute should be settled by Paris, the 
Mt Ida. The Judgment of 


Paris, who awarded it to Venus, that god- 
dess having promised him Helen of Sparta 
for his wife, led to the Trojan war. In 
Turner's picture, a glorious mountain land- 
scape, with the River Lethon and nymphs 
in foreground, the Goddess of Discord is 
seen receiving the apple from the Hesperi- 
des ; in the background, the fiery dragon is 
lying at length along the summit of a lofty 
crag. British Institution, 1806. Engraved 
by T. A. Prior in Turner Gallery. 

Long, Thomas Taylor, London ; canvas, H. 
4 ft. 9in.x7ft.9in. Interior of an Egyp- 
tian studio, with grotesque images against 
the wall ; at right a sculptor modelling a cat 
after a living model, held by a negress ; at 
left, young girls seated on floor painting 
images. Royal Academy, 1878 ; sold at 
Thomas Taylor's sale (1883), for £2,725. 

GOES, HUGO VAN DEB, born in Ghent 
about 1430, died in the Booden Cloister, 
near Brussels, in 1482. Flemish school; 
history and portrait painter. In 1465 he 
was a member, and in 1473-75 dean, of the 
painters' guild at Ghent, where, in 1468, he 
assisted in preparing decorations for the 
marriage of Charles the Bold and Margaret 
of York. About 1475 he took refuge in the 
Booden Cloister, of the Augustine Choir- 
Masters, whence, in 1479-80, he was called 
to Louvain, as one of the greatest painters 
in the country, to value an unfinished pict- 
ure by Dierick Bouts. About 1481 he be- 
came insane. The one authentic picture by 
Hugo van der Goes is the altarpiece in the 
Hospital of S. Maria Nuova, Florence, which 
was ordered at Bruges by Tommaso Porti- 
nari, and painted about 1470-75. The mid- 
dle picture represents the Adoration of the 
Shepherds ; on the wings are the portraits 
of Tommaso Portinari and his two sons, 
presented by S9. Matthew and Anthony, 
and of Folco Portinari, with his wife and 
daughter and their patron saints, Margaret 
and Mary Magdalen. Heads earnest and 
severe, draperies broken into stiff folds, 
colour wanting in harmony, cold, though 

clear in tone. Attributed to him is also an 
Annunciation in the Old Pinakothek at Mu- 
nich.— Allgem. d. Biogr., is. 322; Ch. Blanc, 
£cole flsmande ; Ed. De Busscher, Recher- 
ches but lea peintres Gantois, 65, 105, 113, 
117, 205 ; C. & G., Flemish Painters, 155 ; 
Forster, Denkmale, XL iii 1 ; Immerzeel, 
ii 62 ; Kramm, iii. 764 ; Wauters, Hugues 
van der Goes, etc (Brussels, 1872) ; W. & 
W., ii 27. 

Dresden in 1803, died at Naples in 1866. 
Landscape painter, went to Italy in 1823 ; 
member of Dresden Academy in 1835. 
Sorrento, Capo di Monte, Naples, with 
dancing Italians (1830), Kunsthalle, Ham- 
burg ; Two Scenes from Taking of Catania, 
Berne Museum. 

GOLDEN CALF, Claude Lorrain, Gros- 
venor House, London ; canvas, H 4 ft 7 in. 
X 8 ft 1 in. ; dated 1653. Companion to 
Sermon on the Mount. The golden calf 
upon a high pedestal in a rocky valley, with 
Israelites worshipping it Liber Veritatds, 
No. 129. Engraved by Jazet, Paris, by 
Lerpiniere (1781), and in Grosvenor Gal- 
lery. Study in bistre, British Museum; 
sketch in Louvre. — Pattison, Claude Lor- 
rain, 73, 218, 234 ; Waagen, Treasures, ii 

GOLDEN CALF, Tintoretto. See Moses 
on the Mount 

GOLDEN HORN, Sandford R Oifford, 
private gallery, New York ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 
3 in. x 4 ft. The harbour of Constantinople, 
so named in ancient times from the wealth 
of its commerce. The picture shows an ex- 
panse of rippled water, to which the noon- 
day sun gives a golden glow ; on each side 
rows of shipping extend back until almost 
lost in the golden haze through which the 
roofs and spires of the city are just visible. 

GOLDMANN, OTTO, bom in Berlin, 
April 8, 1844. Genre painter, for a short 
time pupil of Berlin Academy ; since 1878 
has followed the realistic manner of Karl 
Gussow. Works: Not Alone? Check and 
Mate ? In Great Expectation ; Disturbed 


Rest ; Quod erat demonstrandum. — Hlustr. 
Zeitg. (1882), ii. 435 ; Leixner, D. mod. K, 
ii. 67 ; Rundschau, iviii. 306. 
GOLTZIUS, HENDRIK, bom at Mubl- 
brecht, Duchy of 
Julich, in Feb., 
1558, died in Haar- 
lem, Dec. 29, 
161G, or Jan. 1, 
1617. Dutch 
school; history, 
portrait, and land- 
scape painter, al- 
u though his great 
1 reputation rests 
upon his skill as an engraver, which was ex- 
ceptional He did not begin to paint until 
he was forty-two years old. Unhappily 
married to a rich widow much older than 
himself, he lost his health, and by the ad- 
vice of his physicians travelled through 
Germany (1590), then went to Borne and 
(1592) to Naples. After his return to Haar- 
lem he suffered from the harsh climate and 
gradually declined. He was a versatile, 
skilful, and extravagant mannerist^ who, like 
Spranger, delighted in forced attitudes and 
unnaturally-developed muscles, and carica- 
tured the style of Michelangelo, whom he 
endeavoured to emulate. Works r Female 
portrait, Brussels Museum ; Adoration of 
the Magi, St Maurice Chapel, Nuremberg ; 
Adoration of the Shepherds, Stuttgart Gal- 
lery ; Ecce Homo, Gotha Gallery ; The Del- 
uge (1592), Oldenburg Gallery; Titius at- 
tacked by the Vulture (1613), Haarlem 
Museum ; Mercury presenting the Eyes of 
Argus to Juno (1615), Rotterdam Museum ; 
Adam and Eve, Wiesbaden Gallery; Circum- 
cision, Baptism of Christ, Adam and Eve, 
Hermitage,St.Peters- __ 

burg; Family Group, [wl "Iwl 

Historical Society, 

New York.— Allgem. w fifty _ /fr 
d. Biogr. ix. 361; jHMy \Hf 
Ch. Blanc, Eoole hoi- ■* *** - 1 W 
landaise ; ImmerzeeL i. 287 ; Kramm, ii 
584 ; Van der Willigen, 133, 34a 

GOMEZ, JACINTO, born at San Hdefon- 
so in 1746, died in 1812. Spanish school. 
History painter, pupil of Francisco Bayeu ; 
chamber painter to Charles IV. Works : 
The Angelic Hierarchy adoring the Holy 
Spirit, Madrid Museum. 

GOMEZ, SEBASTIAN, called El Mulato 
de Murillo, born about 1646 {?), died in Se- 
ville in 1682 (?) or 1690 (?). Spanish school, 
the mulatto slave of Murillo ; learned his 
art by watching his master at work. Accord- 
ing to the story, he once ventured to finish 
a Virgin's head which had been sketched 
by .Murillo, who thereupon encouraged and 
aided him. His pictures, mostly religious 
subjects, are defective in drawing and in 
composition, but are much like Murillo's 
in colouring. Works : Holy Family, Seville 
Cathedral ; Conception, Seville Museum ; 
St. Francis of Assisi, Hermitage, St Peters- 
burg.— Stirling, ii. 928 ; Viardot, 226 ; Cur- 
tis, 340. 

bom in Dresden, May 30, 1813. Genre, 
history, and portrait painter, pupil of Dres- 
den and Antwerp Academies ; lived then in 
Berlin, Munich, and Borne, visited France, 
England, and Sweden, and became professor 
at the Dresden Academy in 1857. Honor- 
ary member of the Dresden Academy in 
1864, and of Antwerp Academy in 1859. 
Works : Card-Players ; Antiquary ; Bobber's 
Repentance ; Ballad-Singer ; Conventional 
Marriage ; Kiss of Judas ; Burning Mem- 
ories (1869), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Lady 
Macbeth (1872) ; Banquet in 16th Century 
(1874) ; Portrait of King John of Saxony, 
City Hall, Leipsic ; Clown in State of De- 
jection, Pennsylvania Academy, Philadel- 
phia.— Brockhaus, viii. 190 ; Mailer, 212. 

Mantua, portrait, Raphael, lost (?). Begun 
in 1513, but left unfinished. Represents a 
young man of great beauty, dressed in black, 
with a white shirt, and a red cap on his 
head. Waagen and Passavant think it the 
portrait at Charlecote Park, near Warwick, 
England, which was formerly in collection 


of Charles L, and then in possession of Mr. 
Edward Gray, London ; but Gampori is of 
opinion that it perished in the sack of Man- 
tua in 1630.— Muntz, 389 ; Waagen, Treas- 
ures, ii. 476 ; Passavant, ii. 96 ; Campori, 
Gaz. des R Arts (1872), ii 357. 

zaga ; Belie Ferronierre. 

ladotid in 1664, died in Madrid in 1627. 
Spanish school ; pupil of Patricio Caxea in 
Madrid ; employed by Philip HL at the 
Pardo in 1608, and afterwards in various 
works in Burgos, Valladolid, Lerma, and 
the Escorial ; succeeded Fabricio Castello 
as royal painter in 1617. Painted many 
portraits of the qneen and the infantas, and 
devotional subjects for convents. Works : 
Portraits of Queen Margaret of Austria, and 
of the Infanta Clara Eugenia, Madrid Mu- 
seum ; Interior with Young Scholar and 
Wife, Family Group in Painter's Sitting- 
Boom, Cassel Gallery; Portrait of Infanta 
Margareta Franceses, Germanic Museum, 
Nuremberg. — Stirling, i 431 ; Madrazo. 

Chiclana, Spain ; contemporary. Genre 
painter, pupil of Pils and of Rodriguez. 
Medal Paris, 3d class, 1876. Works : 
Sancho Panza relating the Adventures of 
Don Quixote (1869); Gallery of Armour- 
Museum of Cluny, Before the Evening Party 
(1870); After the Ball (1872); Coquetry, 
Young Woman and Cat (1873) ; Persuasion 
(1874); Music Lesson, Grandpapa's Portrait 
(1875); Return from Baptism (1876); Wed- 
ding Presents (1877); At the Impresario's 
(1879) ; Romance (1880) ; Grandparents' 
Visit (1882).— La Bustracion (1877), it 241 ; 
(1883), ii 179. 

Madrid in 1633, died there in 1709. Span- 
ish school ; pupil of Escalante and of Car 
refio ; painted chiefly religious compositions, 
but also water-colour and crayon pieces. — 
Stirling, iii. 1028. 

temporary. Architecture painter, in Sai-a- 

gossa; has acquired reputation especially 
since the Philadelphia Exhibition of 1876. 
Medal, Paris, 3d elass, 1867. Works : Ca- 
thedral de lo Seo in S&ragossa, Chapels and 
Mausoleum of Ferdinand and Isabella in 
Granada Cathedral, Chapel in Avila Cathe- 
dral, Sacristy in do. (1876); View of Canal 
Grande, Interior of S. Marco, Venice. — 
Mailer, 212. 

GOOD, THOMAS SWORD, born at Ber- 
wick-on-Tweed, Dec 4, 1789, died there, 
April 15, 1872. Genre painter. Bred a 
house-painter, then studied Wilkie's style, 
and in 1820 sent his picture, A Scotch Shep- 
herd, to the Royal Academy, where he ex- 
hibited for fourteen years. Went to Lon- 
don to reside in 1822, but in 1833 inherited 
a fortune and gave up painting. Works : 
Scotch Shepherd (1820); Music, Two Old 
Soldiers, Northumbrian Piper, Rummaging 
an Old Wardrobe ; Practice (1828); Idlers 
(1829); The Truant (1830); Medicine (1831); 
Industrious Mother ; Merry Cottagers ; 
Smugglers Resting ; Fishermen (1832), No 
News, The Newspaper, Study of a Boy, Na- 
tional Gallery, London. — Redgrave ; Cat 
Nat Gal 

don, Sept 17, 1822. 
Genre painter in oil 
and water-colour, son 
and pupil of Edward 
Good all, engraver; 
won silver medal of 
Society of Arts for his 
first oil picture, Find- 

ig of Dead Body of ' 
a Miner by Torchlight; 
first work exhibited 
at Royal Academy, French Soldiers playing 
Cards (1839) ; elected an A.R. A. in 1852, and 
RA. in 1863. Has sketched in Ireland, 
France, Italy, and Egypt Works : Tired 
Soldier (1842), Village Holiday (1847), Na- 
tional Gallery, London ; Hunt the Slipper 
(1849); Woodman's House (1850); Raising 
the Maypole (1851) ; Last Load (1852) ; Cran- 
merat the Traitor's Gate (1856); Summer 


Song, Song of the Nubian Slave (1864); 
Rising of the Nile (1866); Bedouin Mother 
and Child (1872); Arab Improvisators, Sub- 
siding of the Nile (1873); Time of Roses, 
Egyptian Water-Carriers (1877); Palm Sun- 
day, Daughter of Laban (1878); Water for 
the Gamp (1879); Road to Mecca, Return 
from Mecca, Artist and Model, Rebecca 
(1881); Memphis (1882); Caf6 at Cairo, 
Crossing the Desert (1883); Gordon's Last 
Messenger (1885). His son, Frederick 
Trevelyan Goodall (died April 11, 1871), 
was a painter of much promise. — Art Jour- 
nal (1850), 213 ; (1855), 108 ; Sandby, ii. 
831 ; Cai Nat. Gal. 

GOODWIN, ALBERT; contemporary. 
Water-colour landscape and genre painter. 
Exhibits at Royal Academy and Grosvenor 
Gallery. Works : Venice, from S. Giorgio, 
Venetian Butterflies (1875); Sixth Voyage 
of Sindbad the Sailor, An Arabian Night 
(1879); Low Tide in the Harbour (1880); A 
Summer Sea, St. Michael's Mount— Corn- 
wall (1881) ; Voyage of Sindbad the Sailor, 
Fisherman and Genius (1882); Enchanted 
Lake, Scene from Tempest (1883) ; Pass- 
ing, Unveiling of the Enchanted Palace 

GOOL, JAN VAN, born at The Hague in 
1690 or 1691, died there in 1765. Dutch 
school ; landscape and animal painter, pupil 
of Mattheus Terweaten and of Simon van der 
Does. Imitated Paul Potter. He published 
" De nieuwe Schonburg der Nederlantsche 
Kunst-schilders," biographies of the artists 
of the Netherlands, which work may be 
considered as a continuation of that by Ar- 
nold Houbraken. Twice visited England. 

His works show the decadence of the 
Dutch school in colouring, effect, and style. 
Works : Landscape with Cattle, Amsterdam 
Museum ; Girl milking a Cow, Rotterdam 

Museum ; Landscape with Satyrs, Lille Mu- 
seum ; Wood Landscape with Figures and 
Herd (1719), Schwerin Gallery.— Immense! 

GOOSE GIRL (Gardeuse d'Oies), Jean 
Francois Millet, private gallery, New York. 
A little peasant girl watching a flock of 
geese. Sold by PiUet in Paris (1881), for 
35,000 franca 

Edinburgh in 1790, died there, June 1, 
1864. Son of Captain Watson, RN., and 
nephew of George Watson, portrait painter; 
assumed name of Gordon in 1826. Having 
first tried historical painting with little suc- 
cess, he turned his attention to portraiture, 
and became the leading portrait painter in 
Edinburgh, after the death of Raeburn. 
Elected in 1841 an A.R.A., and in 1851 
HA.; succeeded, in 1850, Sir William Allan 
as President of the Scotch Academy, being 
appointed at same time limner to the Queen 
in Scotland, and knighted. Works : Sir 
David Brewster, National Gallery, London ; 
Marquis of Dalhousie, De Quincey, Profes- 
sor J. Wilson, National Portrait Gallery, ib. ; 
Lord Murray, Lord Cockburn, Sir Walter 
Scott, Grandfather's Lesson, six other male 
portraits, National Gallery, Edinburgh ; Earl 
of Hopetoun, Earl of Dalhousie, Archers* 
Hall, ib.; Sir James Hall, Royal Society, ib. 
— Redgrave ; F. de Conches, 416 ; Sandby, 
L 287. 

GORGASUS, painter and modeller in 
clay. Decorated, in company with Damo- 
phUns, the Temple of Ceres, Liber, and 
Libera, at Rome (dedicated 494 rc). — Pliny, 
xxxv. 45 [164] ; Brunn, i. 530; ii 57. 

GOSSART(Go«saert),JAN. Seeifofc/se. 

born in Paris, Oct. 2, 1787, died at Sonoourt 
(Haute-Marne), Feb. 9, 187a History and 
portrait painter, pupil of Vincent ; painted 
in a hall of the Louvre scenes from Greek 
and Roman mythology. Medals : 3d class, 
1819; 2d class, 1824 ; L of Honour, 1828 ; 
Officer, 1870. Works : Crossing the Styx 
(1819); Adoration of the Magi (1827) ; The 


Wounded of the July Revolution (1833) ; 
St Vincent de Paul (1824), formerly in 
Luxembourg Museum ; Death of St Vin- 
cent Ferrer (1845), Vannes Cathedral ; Bish- 
op of Lhtieux protecting Protestants on St 
Bartholomew's Night (1835), Lisieux Muse- 
um ; Napoleon receiving Queen of Prussia 
at Tilsit, Meeting between Napoleon and 
Alexander at Erfurt, Arrival of Charles X. 
at Notre-Darae, Louis Philippe refusing 
Crown of Belgium offered to Due de Ne- 
mours, Portrait of Marshal Contades, Ver- 
sailles Museum.— Bdli or de la Chavignerie, 
L 676; Vapereau (1880), 834. 

GOSSELIN, CHARLES, bom in Paris, 
Jan. 26, 1834 Landscape painter, pupil of 
Gleyre and Busson. A distinguished painter 
of the realistic school Medals : 1865, 1870 ; 
2d class, 1874 ; L. of Honour, 1878. Works : 
Woods in Autumn (1863) ■ Autumn Evening 
(1864); Eoad (1865) ; Environs of Bougival 
(1866) ; In the Woods (1867) ; Drinking- 
Place, Twilight in Woods (1868) ; Hollow 
Boad, Environs of Foncine-le-Bas (1869) ; 
Road in the Woods (1870); Summer Even- 
ing (1872); Environs of Crotoy, Farm of 
H£douville (1873); Woodsmen (1874) ; Low 
Tide, Borders of the Woods (1875) ; Pasture 
on the Downs (1876) ; Forest of Isle Adam 
(1877) ; Mouth of the Somme (1878) ; De- 
cember Landscape (1879) ; Ford of St 
Martin 1'Eghse (1880) ; Moor of Varenge- 
ville (1881) ; Horses in a Meadow (1882) ; 
Castle of Arquea (1883) ; Between Dieppe 
and Tourville (1884). 

GOTTLAND, PETER Sbo Roddelstedt. 

Heidelberg in 1800, died in Darmstadt, Oct 
6, 1866. History painter, pupil of Corne- 
lius from 1820 in Dusseldorf, and from 1824 
in Munich ; went in 1828 to Rome, and in 
1832, with Forster and Hermann, painted the 
frescos representing the Faculties, in the 
aula of the university of Bonn. Was made 
court-painter and director of the Mannheim 
Gallery, visited Paris and London with Cor- 
nelius, and being dismissed for some misde- 
meanour, went in 1847 to England, where 

he executed several decorative fresco paint- 
ings for English lords, as well as portraits. 
In 1863-65 he was in Lucerna Works : 
Jurisprudence, Medicine, Philosophy (1832), 
Bonn University (cartoons in Carlsruhe Gal- 
lery) ; Cycle in fresco, Chapel at Nierstein, 
Hesse ; Series with Fairy-Tales from Black 
Forest (1644), Trinkhalle, Baden-Baden ; 
Decorative Cycle in fresco, Bridgewater 
House, England. — Allgem. d. Biogr., is. 515; 
Fdrster, v. 11 ; Kunst-Chronik, ii. 7. 

GOUBATJ (Goubou, Goebouw), AN- 
TOINE, born at Antwerp, May 27, 1616, 
died there, March 11, 1698. Flemish school; 
landscape and genre painter, pupil of Jan 
de Facius (Farms?); master of the guild in 
1636, then spent several years in Italy. 
Works : Study of Arts in Borne (1662), Pi- 
azza Navona, ib. (1680), Museum, Antwerp; 
Last Supper, St James', ib. ; Italian Market 
(1651), Baron de Pret, ib.; do., Lille Muse- 
um ; Landscape, Hague Museum ; Landscape 
with Roman Ruins, Brunswick Museum ; 
Adoration of the Magi (1670), Amalienstift, 
Dessau ; do., and Soldiers at Cards, Schwcrin 
Gallery ; Rocky Landscape with Ruins and 
Figures, Augsburg Gallery ; Vestal in a 
Landscape, Old Man playing Guitar, Uffizi, 
Florence. — Cat du Musee d'Anvers (1874), 
190 ; Kramro, ii 579; Messagerdea sciences, 
historiques (1868), 346; Riegel, ii. 119; 
Rooses (Reber), 95, 408 ; Van den Branden, 
1010; Zeitschr. 1 b. K, xlv. 844. 

GOUBATJ, FRANS, born at Antwerp, Sept 
27, 1622, died there, Oct 20, 1678. Flemish 
school; history and portrait painter, prob- 
ably pupil of Geeraard Zegers ; master of 
the guild in 1649. Works: Adoration of 
the Holy Sacrament (1650), Museum, Ant- 
werp ; The Dead Christ (1655), Portrait of 
Pastor Frans van den Bossche (1657), St 
James', ib. — Cat du Musue d'Anvers (1874), 
190 ; Van den Branden, 931. 

Paris, Jan. 12, 1842. Genre and animal 
painter, pupil of Gcrdme. His animals are 
well drawn, but rather carelessly painted. 
Style spirited and subjects interesting. 


Medal, 3d class, 1874. Works : "So Fond 
of those Animals," An Academy in the 18th 
Century (1874) ; Return from Hunting Sea- 
Birds (1875) ; Wedding Journey (1876) ; 
Flight across the River, Horse and Donkey 
(1877) ; Buying Mares, Amorous Lion, Edu- 
cation of Fillette, Theft of the Crow (1878) ; 
Lunch in the Ruins of Hunaudaye (1879) ; 
Chasseurs walking their Horses, Morning 
Meeting (1880) ; The Ladies' Carriage, Vis- 
iting the Mothers (1881) ; Sunday After- 
noon in the Zoological Garden in Paris, 
Catching a Crab (1882) ; On the Way to the 
Fair (1883); Chamant's Equipage at Belcroix 
(1884) ; A Bowl of Milk, Spring (1885). 

GOULD, WALTER, born in Philadelphia 
in 1829. Portrait and subject painter, pu- 
pil of J. R Smith in Philadelphia, and a 
student in Paris. Has lived and painted in 
Florence, Italy, since 1849, making sketch- 
ing tours in the East Works : Portrait of 
Kossuth, Governor of Hungary (1851, 
painted in Asia Minor) ; Grand Vizier, Res- 
chid Pasha, Sir Stratford Canning (painted 
in Constantinople) ; An Eastern Story Teller, 
Matthew Baird, Philadelphia. 

Paris, May 7, 1839, died at Neuilly, April 
30, 1883. Genre and portrait painter, pu- 
pil of Ary Scheffer. His genre pieces are 
carefully drawn and bright in colour, but of 
no great depth. Medals : 3d class, 1873, 
1874 ; 1st class, 1875 ; 2d class, 1878 ; L. 
of Honour, 1881. Works : Trying on the 
Dress (1864) ; Calling on a Young Mother 
(1865) [ Charity (1866) ; News, For the 
Poor (1867) ; Sister's Festival (1869); News 
in the Provinces (1872) ; Young Citizen of 
the Year V. (1873) ; The Betrothal (1874) 
In 1795, Interior of a Studio (1875) ; Visit 
of Condolence (1877); A Village Woman, 
Not at the 

/d&4 f€MplT\ MeVt* n 
* / / ' (1878) ; The 

— ■ '' Agreeabl. 

Friend, Rest (1879) ; Mme. Roland's Last 
Day in Prison (1880), Luxembourg Muse- 

; A Dining-Room (with David de Noter), 
New York Museum. 

in Paris, June 13, 1813, died there, March 
7, 1869. Landscape painter, pupil and imi- 
tator of Corot Medals : 3d class, 1841 ; 
honourable mention, 1855. Works : Cima- 
bue and Giotto, Island of Capri (1841); In- 
fancy of Bacchus (1844), Cbartres Museum ; 
Baptism of Christ (1846); Autumn Evening, 
Seine at Meudon, Grottos of Cervara (1848); 
Sunset (1850), Rodez Museum ; Street in 
Rome (1852) ; Village of Saint Georges 
(1853); Springtime, Autumn (1855); Au- 
tumn Day (1857), Nancy Museum ; Banks 
of the Seine (1863); Banks of the Tiber 
(1867); Baptism of Christ (1868). 

born at Antwerp, baptized Aug. 30, 1589, 
died there, Sept. 13, 1626. Flemish school; 
landscape painter in the manner of Jan 
Brueghel, and possibly his pupil ; master 
of the guild in 1607, its dean in 1623. 
Works : Oak Wood (1612), Hague Museum ; 
Allegory of Autumn (attrib. to Jan Brueghel), 
Brussels Museum ; Repose of Diana (1614), 
Bordeaux Museum ; Landscape with Abra- 
ham's Sacrifice (1615), Brera, Milan ; The 
Four Elements (1624), Brunswick Museum; 
Wood Landscape with Huntsmen, GOttingen 
University; do. Schwerin Gallery ; Two 
Landscapes, Augsburg Gallery. — Gaz. des 
B. Arts (1868), i. 119 ; Michiels, v. 374 ; Ke- 
gel, Beitrage, ii. 95 ; Van den Branden, 461 ; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K., xvi. 59 ; xx 217. 
GOW, ANDREW C, born in London in 
1848. Genre painter, 
pupil of bis father and 
student at Heatberly's 
School of Art First 
exhibited picture at 
Royal Academy, A Sus- 
. picious Guest (1870). 
- Member of Institute of 
Painters in Water Col- 
ours in 1868 ; elected 
an A.RA in 1881. 
Works : Belief of Leyden (1876); Tumult 


in House of Commons (1877); War Dispatch 
at Hotel de Vffle, News from the Front 
(1878); No Surrender, Musical Story by 
Chopin (1879); Last Days of Edward VL 
(1880); Montrose at Kilsyth (1881); Jacobite 
Proclamation (1882); Consuelo, Trophies of 
Victory (1883).— Art Journal (1881), 95. 

JOS£ DE, born at 
Fuendetodos, Ara- 
gon, March 30, 
1746, died at Bor- 
deaux, April 15, 
1828. Spanish 
school ; history, 
genre, and portrait 
painter, pupil for 
five years of Lujan 
Martinez at Sara- \1 <}$ls".it 
gossa ; spent several years in Borne, paint- 
ing little, but making a careful study of the 
great pictures there. In 1772 he took the 
second prize at the Academy of Parma, and 
three years later returned to Madrid and 
painted many genre pictures which soon 
made him popular. In 1780 he became a 
member of the Academy of San Fernando, 
in 1795 director of the same, and painter in 
ordinary to Charles IV. , an honour continued 
under Ferdinand VII. Goya painted also 
religions compositions and portraits, hut he 
is beat known as a satirist and caricaturist 
of very remarkable, though eccentric, genius, 
as his many etchings and sketches abundant- 
ly show. He has been called the Hogarth 
of Spain. Works : Equestrian Portrait of 
Charles IV., do. of Queen Maria Luisa, 
Charles IV. on foot, Queen Maria Luisa do., 
Charles IV. and his Family, Episode in 
French Invasion of 1808, Scenes of May 3, 
3808, thirteen others, Madrid Museum ; 
Equestrian Portrait of Ferdinand VH., do. 
of Prince of the Peace (Godoy), Madhouse, 
Bull-Fight, Gallant Dressed, Gallant Nude, 
and others, Academia San Fernando ; Cruci- 
fixion, Mnseo de Fomento ; St Francis 
Preaching, S. Francisco el Grande, Madrid 
Treason of Judas, Toledo Cathedral ; Sts. 

Justina and Rufina, Seville Cathedral ; St 
Francis de Borja's Farewell to his Family, 
Valencia Cathedral ; Portraits (2), Valencia 
Museum ; do. (2), Louvre ; Frescos in Er- 
mita de San Antonio de Florida, Madrid, 
and Madonna del Pilar, Saragossa. — Stir- 
ling, iii. 1260 ; Viardot, 305 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole espagnole ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1867), 
xxii. 198 ; (1868), xxiv. 169, 385 ; (1875), 
iii 506 ; (1876), xiii. 336 ; (1876), riv. 500 ; 
La Bustracion (1882), i 371 ; Madrazo, 404 ; 
Portfolio (1879), 38, 67, 99 ; L'Art (1877), 
ix. 25 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, x. 193 ; xx 254. 

GOYEN, JAN VAN, born at Leyden, Jan. 
13, 1596, died 
at The Hague 
in 1656. Dutch / 
school ; became ' 
pupil of Esaias 
van de Velde in 
Haarlem about 
1616, after hav- 
ing studied 
under various 
artists of no 

great repute, and made a tour through 
France. In 1618 settled in Leyden and 
married ; in 1631 removed to The Hague, 
where in 1640 he was president of the guild. 
The date 1657, on a picture which he left 
unfinished at the time of his death, was 
added by his son-in-law, Jan Steen, who 
painted in the figures. Works : View of 
Nymwegen, Grosvenor Gallery, London; 
River Views (2), Marine, Winter Scene, two 
others, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge ; 
River Scene (1644), Marine View, Canal in 
Holland (1647), River in Holland (1653), 
Banks of Canal (1656), Louvre, Paris ; Land- 
scapes (8), Rothan Collection, ib. ; River 
Scene, Lille Museum ; View of Dordrecht 
(1644), Brussels Museum; River Scene 
(1645), The Valkenhof at Nymwegen, View 
ou the Meuse, Amsterdam Museum ; River 
in Holland, Rotterdam Museum ; Halt of 
Travellers (SaL Ruisdael?), Darmstadt Mu- 
seum ; Landscapes (4), Cassel Gallery ; da 
(7), Augsburg Gallery; do. (3, 1629, 1640, 


1643), Old Pinakothek, Munich; do. (3, 
1633, 1643), Dresden Gallery; View on 
Canal (1653), Leipsic Museum ; Village 
Scene (1623), Pasture (1635), Brunswick 
Museum ; Flat Country with Halt of Trav- 
ellers (1628), do. with Peasants Conversing 
(1631), View of Nymwegen (1642), FortLillo 
on the Scheldt (1643), Goths, Musenm ; 
Canal with Boats, Stadel Gallery, Frankfort ; 
do. (2), Musee Bath, Genera ; Landscape 
(1645), Am al ion stiff, Dessau ; View of Forti- 
fied Town, Marine (?), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; 
Winter (1621), Summer, View in the Downs 
(1629), View of Arnheim (1646), do. of Nym- 
wegen (1649), Winter Landscape (1650), 
River-Bank, Berlin Museum ; Flat Country, 
Museum, Vienna ; Marine View, Academy, 
ib. ; Dutch City (1645), Copenhagen Gallery ; 
Village on Canal, View of Vliessingen (1643), 
Downs near Scheveningen, Landscape with 
Skaters (1645), View of the Meuse (1645), 
Canals with Buildings (2), Hermitage, St 
Petersburg; Moordyke, Metropolitan Mu- 
seum, New York ; Castle and Seaport, His- 
torical Society, ib. ; Moonlight, River Scene, 

Pennsylvania Academy, Philadelphia. — All- 
gem, d. Biogr., is. 522 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
hollandaise ; Dohme, lii. ; Gaz. dea B. Arts 
(1876), xii. 138, 298 ; (1878), xvii. 134 ; Im- 
merzeel, i 290 ; Krftmm, U. 596 ; Kunat- 
Chronik, xix. 26, 602 ; Riegel, Beitrage, ii. 
362 ; Zeitschr. 1 b. K., ix. 12. 

GOTET, EUGENE, born at Chalon-sur- 
Saone, Feb. 7, 1798, died in Paris, May 17, 
1857. History and genre painter, pupil of 
Gtob. Son of Jean Baptiste Goyet, genre 
painter (1779-1864). Medals: 2d class, 
1831 j 1st class, 1839. Works : Cimabue 
or the Renaissance of Painting (1831) ; 
Chancellor Voysin and Louis XIV. (1833); 
Christ (1839), Chalon Museum ; Foulques 
de Villaiet (1841), Versailles Museum ; St 

Luke healing a Sick Child (1841), St Lake's, 
Paris; Four Evangelists (1842), Church 
of St Medard, ib. ; Simon the Just, 
St Cecilia (1842); St Germain, Bishop of 
Auxerre (1843), Montpellier Cathedral ; Ap- 
parition of Christ to St James (1844); Jesus 
in the Garden of Olives (1845); Portrait of 
Pius IX. (1848); Massacre of the Innocents 
(unfinished, 1857), Montpellier Museum. — 
Bellier de la Chavignerie, L 684. 

GOZZOLL BENOZZO, born in Florence 
in 1424, died 
there in 1498. 
school. Real 

Lese di Sandro; 
pupil of FYs An- 
gelico, whom, he 
followed to 
Rome, and bis 
assistant at Or- 
vieto in 1447. He parted from him in 
1449, and established himself at Montefaloo, 
near Foligno, where he remained until 1456 
and executed many important works in the 
manner of his master, though they are far 
from approaching him in spiritual power. 
Those in S. Fortunato consist of a Madonna 
with Saints and Angels, an Apotheosis of 
the titular Saint, an Annunciation, and St 
Thomas receiving the Girdle, now in the 
Museum of St John Lateran, Rome. In 3. 
Francesco, Benozzo filled the choir with a 
triple course of episodes from the life of St 
Francis, and painted a Madonna and Saints 
and other frescos in the Chapel of St Jerome 
in the same church. In 1456, after paint- 
ing in Perugia the Madonna and Saints, 
now in the Academy, Benozzo returned to 
Florence, and was employed by Piero de* 
Medici to paint a series of frescos represent- 
ing the Journey of the Magi to Bethlehem, 
in the Chapel of the Palazzo Biccardi. Id 
these, like the realists, he made Scripture 
incidents a vehicle for the treatment of rich 
costume, animal life, and landscape. In 
1463-67 he painted in S. Agostino, San 


Gunignano, a series of scenes from the life 
of St. Augustine, and other subjects in the 
Piere. Between 1469 and 1485 he painted, 
in the Campo Santo, Pisa, a series of frescos 
representing 24 subjects from the Old Tes- 
tament, the most pleasing of which is Noah 
and his Family, which contains the charm- 
ing episode of the vintage and a rich archi- 
teotnral and landscape background. Among 
his extant easel pictures are the Triumph of 
St Thomas Aquinas, Louvre ; Conception, 
Pisa Academy ; Miracles of St Hyacinth, 
Vatican, Borne ; Madonna with Saints, Vi- 
enna Museum ; Miracles of S. Jacinto, Vati- 
can ; Madonna with Saints, Eape of Helen, 
National Gallery, -. 
London; Historyof fl \ f /.Sv^/r^ 
Lucretia, National (J J CWfOw 
Gallery, Dublin.— •" \J t) 
0. & C, Italy, ii. /) /"> 
498 ; Vasaxi, ed Le l\ ff^ / ' 

Mon.,iv. 184; Bal- U \/0\>0^- 
dinucci, L 490 ; Ch. * ' 

Blanc, £cole florentine ; Burckhardt, 538; 
L'Art (1881), xxvii. 125; Lflbke, Gesch. 
& ital Mai., i. 818; Gautier, Guide au 
Louvre, 91. 

GBAAT, BABEND, bom in Amsterdam 
in 1628, died there in 1709. Dutch school; 
landscape, genre, and history painter, pupil 
of his uncle, an animal and landscape 
painter ; studied much from nature, and 
took Pieter van Laar for his model He 
established a school of design at his house, 
where the best artists of his time congre- 
gated to draw from life. Works : Home 
Scene, Buckingham Palace, London ; Hunt, 
Coursing (both with Beinier de Vries), New 
York Museum. — Immerzeel, i 290 ; Kramm, 
ii. 598. 

GBAATJW, HENDRIK, born at Hoorn, 
North Holland, in 1627, died at Alkmaar in 
1682. Dutch school ; history and portrait 
painter, pupil of Pieter de Grabber and of 
the architect Jacob van Campen; was then 
employed by Prince Maurice of Nassau to 
paint frescos in the cupola of the Palace in 
the Wood, which established bis reputation ; 

went in 1648 to Borne, where he was inti- 
mate with Poussin ; returned after three 
years, and lived successively at Amsterdam 
and Utrecht until 1672, when he removed to 
Hoorn. For the family of Bronckhorst he 
painted a series of historical and fabulous 
subjects, which were much admired. — Im- 
merzeel, i. 291. 

GBACES, THREE, Palma Vecchio, Dress- 
den Gallery; wood, H. 3 ft 1 in. x 4 ft. 4 in. 
Three young women, half-length, grouped 
in a landscape. Sometimes called Palma's 
daughters, but it is doubtful whether they 
were painted from three models or from 
one. In 1525 in collection of Taddeo Con- 
tarini, then in Giusbiniani and Comari 
families ; bought from the ProcurateBsa 
Comaro della Casa Grande for 600 ducats. 
— C. & C, N. Italy, ii 480 ; Bottari, Bao- 
colta, vii 374 

By Raphael, Due d'Aumale, Chantilly ; 
wood, H. 6J in. x 4} in. Three Graces, 
nude, grouped in the classical form, each 
holding one of the apples of the Hesperides. 

Probably suggested by the antique marble 
group in the Opera del Duomo, Siena. 
Painted in Perugia in 1504-5? Passed from 
the Borghese Collection to M. Reboul, 


then through the hands of the Woodbnrns 
to Sir Thomas Lawrence ; thence to Lord 
Word, afterwards Earl Dudley ; sold (1885) 
to Due d'Aumale for £25,000. Sketch of 
two Graces in Venice Academy. Engraved 
by P. Foster; J. K. Sherwin.— C. & C, 
Raphael, i- 207; Grayer, Raphael et l'Anti- 
quite, L 229 ; Miratz, 90, 220; Passavant, ii. 
50; Perkins, 63 ; Lubke, Raphael, 19, 135. 
The Hague in 1593, died in 1647. Flemish 
school; pupil of Raphael van Coxcyen. 
Principally known through a meritorious 
work on anatomy for artists, published at 
The Hague in 1634, but must also have been 
a good painter, to judge from an excellent 
portrait by him in the Weimar Museum. 
Spent most of his life in Italy. — Kramm, ii 


in Berlin, March 18, 1816, died there, April 
8, 1884 Architecture and landscape painter, 
pupil of Gerst and of Berlin Academy ; 
visited Switzerland, Southern France, and 
Paris, and in 1843 Italy and Sicily. Was 
made court-painter in 1851, professor in 
1855, and member of the Berlin Academy 
in 1860. Great gold medal in 1854 ; mem- 
ber of Amsterdam and Vienna Academies. 
Works : View of Palermo (1848) ; Cross- 
Way in Hatisbon Cathedral (1850); Interior 
of Halberstadt Cathedral (1854), Italian 
Landscape (1855), Cross-Way in a Monas- 
tery, Fontana Medina in Naples, Ravene 
Gallery, Berlin ; Strand of Amain, Mauso- 
leum of Charlottenburg (1855); City, Castle, 
and Park of Muskau, Stolzenfela ; Graves of 
Mansfeld Family in Eisleben (1860), View 
in Halberstadt Cathedral (1860), Thurin- 
gian Mill, National Gallery, Berlin ; Old 
City Hall in Berlin (1867) ; Choir of St 
George's in Tubingen (1869) ; Interior of 
Synagogue in Prague ; two views of ancient 
Athens and of Olympia, Berlin Museum. — 
Allgem. Kunst-Chronik, ix 114 ; Brock- 
baus, viu. 254 ; Rosenberg, Berliner Maler- 
schule, 348 ; Kunst-Chronik, xix. 445, 462 ; 
IT. 181. 

GRAEB, PAUL, bom in Berlin in 1842. 
Architecture painter, son and pupil of Karl 
Graeb ; travelled in Germany, Switzerland, 
and North Italy. Works : Vestibule of St 
George's, Tubingen (1869), Raczynski Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; S. Fosca at Torcello near Ven- 
ice.— Mailer, 215. 

GRAEF, GUSTAV, born at Konigsberg, 
Dec 14, 1821. History and portrait painter, 
pupil of Dusseldorf Academy under Th. 
Hildebrandt and W. Schadow ; was in Ibily 
in 1846-50, acquired a simpler and grander 
style, and settled in Berlin in 1852 ; visited 
Munich and Paris in 1853, Vienna and North 
Italy in 1872, London and Scotland in 1873, 
and Italy in 1874-75. Since 1862 has de- 
voted himself more especially to portrait 
painting. Member of and professor at Ber- 
lin Academy. Works: The Niebelungen 
Lay (1846) ; Jephthah and Ms Daughter ; 
Charlemagne and Wittekind ; four scenes 
from Myth of Hercules and Theseus ; De- 
parture of Prussian Landwehr (1860) ; 
Voluntary gifts in 1813 (1861), National 
Gallery, Berlin ; Farewell of Lithuanian 
Landwehrman, Solon, Phidias and Demos- 
thenes (1868-70), Konigsberg University. — 
Blustr. Zeitg. (1880), ii 346 ; MttUer, 215 ; 
Rosenberg, Berliner Malerschule, 137 ; Leix- 
ner, Mod. K., i 23 ; ii 44 ; D. Rundschau, 
ix. 470 ; Zeitsch., xv. 47. 
GRAFF, ANTON, born at Wuitertuur, 
Switzerland, Dec. 20, 
1736, died in Dres- 
den, June 22, 1813. 
German school ; por- 
trait painter, pupil of 
Johann Ulrich Schel- 
lenberg ; went about 
i 17 56 to Augsburg, 

- — • _ whence, being ham- 

"^ pered by the guild in 

the free exercise of his art, he proceeded 
to Ansbach, where he aided the court- 
painter Schneider in his portraits of fam- 
ous personages, and studied industriously 
after Rigaud and Kupeczky. In 1759 he 
returned to Augsburg, and soon acquired 


great reputation ; in 1766 was called to 
Dresden as court-painter and professor at 
the Academy. There he developed an ex- 
traordinary activity, painted temporarily 
also in Berlin and Leipeic, besides making 
excursions into Southern Germany and 
Switzerland. According to his own state- 
ment, he painted, in 1766-73, 943 portraits 
and family groups, besides copying old mas- 
ters for the Russian court and for his own 
improvement Works : Portrait of Frederic 
Augustus of Saxony, do. (3) of himself, of 
Gellert, and six others, Dresden Gallery ; 
do. of the Actor Eckhoff (1774), Gotha Mu- 
seum ; do. of the Pointer Zingg, Saint Gall 
Museum ; seven portraits, Leipsic Museum ; 
six do., Weimar Museum ; two do., Zurich 
Gallery ; two do., National Gallery, Berlin ; 
two do., Kunsthnlle, Hamburg ; Prince 
Friedrich Albrecht of Anhalt, Brunswick 
Museum ; portraits of himself in Old Pina 
kothek, Munich, and Christiania Museum ; 
do. of Leasing, Herder, Schiller, Moses 
Mendelssohn, Weisse, Rainier, Sulzer (Berne 
Museum), Hagedorn, Tiedge, Gluck, Chodo- 
wiecky, King Frederic William IL His 
son, Earl Anton (born in Dresden, March 
10, 1774, died there, March 9, 1832), was an 
able landscape painter, pupil of Zingg in 
Dresden. — Allgem. d. Biogr., ix. 565 ; Brock- 
hauB, viii 269 ; Muther, Ant. Graff, sein 
Leben, etc. (Leipeic, 1881). 

GRAFLE, ALBERT, bom at Freiburg, 
Baden, May 2, 1809. History and portrait 
painter, pupil of Munich Academy under 
Cornelius and Schnorr ; and in Paris in 1840 
under Winterhalter ; returned to Munich, 
went in 1848 to Alaace, where he painted 
portraits, then to England, again to Paris, 
and settled in Munich in 1852. Medal, 
Paris, 3d class, 1846. Works : Madonna, 
Triumphal Procession of Arminius, Carls- 
ruhe Gallery ; altarpieces in Lahr and Dun- 
denbeim, Baden ; Four Seasons, Royal Pal- 
ace, Carlsruhe ; Procession in Dachau ; 
Intimate Friends at Beethoven's ; Dance of 
Elves ; Woman with a Rose, Provinzial Mu- 
seum, Hanover ; portraits of Queen Victoria 

and Family, Princess of Wales, Crown Prince 
and Crown Princess of Prussia, Grand Duch- 
ess Louise of Baden, Emperor Maximilian 
and Empress of Mexico. — Mailer, 216. 

GRAHAM, JOHN, born in Scotland in 
1754, died at Edinburgh in 1817. History 
painter, first apprenticed to a coach painter 
in Edinburgh, then in London pupil at the 
Royal Academy, where he exhibited from 
17S0 to 1797. Appointed in 1798 master 
of Trustees' Academy in Edinburgh, where 
he had among his pupils Wilkie, Allan, 
Burnett, and Gordon. Works : Daniel in 
Lions' Den (1780) ; Una (1783) ; Ceres in 
Search of Proserpine (1786); Escape of Mary 
Stuart from Lochleven (1788), Portrait of an 
Alderman, Stationers' Hall, London ; Mary 
Stuart before Execution (1792); David in- 
structing Solomon (1797) ; The Disobedient 
Prophet, National Gallery, Edinburgh. 

GRAHAM, MART, portrait, Thomas 
Gainsborough, National Gallery, Edinburgh ; 
canvas. The Honourable Mrs. Graham, wife 
of Thomas Graham, of Balgowan, afterwards 
Lord Lynedoch ; full length, standing. 
Painted in 1778 ; after death of Lord Lyne- 
doch (1843), came into possession of Robert 
Graham of Rodgorton, who bequeathed it 
in 1859 to National Gallery. Study for the . 
head in same Gallery. Etched by Waltner ; 
C. 0. Murray in Portfolio. — Brock- Arnold, 
Biog. Great Artists, 50 ; Portfolio (1880), 
2 ; Athenaeum, Aug., 1869, 250. 

GRAHAM, PETER, born in Edinburgh 
in 1836. Landscape 
painter, pupil of 
School of Design, 
Edinburgh ; removed 
to London in 1866; 
elected an A.R.S.A. 
in 1860, but resigned 
in 1877, when he was 
made an honourable 
member ; A.RA. in 
1877, RA. in 1882. 
Paints chiefly Highland scenes with cattle, 
and rocky shores. Works : Spate in the 
Highlands (1866), Hermon sale, 1882, £787 ; 


Crossing the Moor (1876); Glint of Son- 
shine, Gently Heaving Tide (1877); Wan- 
dering Shadows (1878); Cloudlsnd and 
Moor, Sea-Birds, Resting Place (1879) ; 
Mountain Road, Scotch Cattle (1881); After 
Bain (1882); Quiet Noon, Lonely Shore 
(1883); Dawn, Sea Mist (1884).— Portfolio 
(1870), 148. 

GRAHAM, THOMAS, born in Scotland ; 
contemporary. Figure painter, educated 
in Edinburgh ; studio in London. Works : 
Monks playing Bowls (1867); The Dominie 
(1868); Laird's Pew, Billet-Doux (1869); 
Wayfarers (1870); Imogen in the Cave 
(1874); The Tire-Woman (1877); Mudlark, 
Philosopher's Breakfast (1878); Clang of 
Wooden Shoon (1879); Pleasant Pasture, 
Spring-Time (1881); Eyes to the Blind 
(1883); Stobhall— Perthshire (1884). 

Glasgow iu 1794, died there, June 5, 1866. 
Portrait and genre painter, pupil at Royal 
Academy, London, where he won the gold 
medal in 1821, then studied for two years 
in Italy, especially the Venetian masters ; 
returned to London, and in 1827 went to 
Edinburgh, where he was made member of 
the Academy in 1830 ; soon after settled at 
Glasgow, where his collection of paintings 
forms a valuable feature of the Corporation 
Galleries. Works : Women at a Foun- 
tain (1846) ; Roman Girl (1864) ; Portrait of 
Walter Scott, National Portrait Gallery, 
London ; do. of Watson Gordon, John Gib- 
son, sculptor, Italian Nobleman, Bandit's 
Bride, National Gallery, Edinburgh. — Bryan 
—Graves, 592. 

GRAN, DANIEL, born at Vienna or in 
Moravia in 1694, died at St Polten, Nether 
Austria, April 14, 1757. German school ; 
history painter, said to have studied in Vi- 
enna under Ferg and Wernle, and afterwards 
in Venice under Ricci and in Naples under 
Solimena, though this is doubtful After 
his return from Italy he became the first 
German fresco painter of bis time, and exe- 
cuted frescos and oil paintings for churches 
and palaces in Vienna and Moravia. Be- 

came court-painter between 1720 and 1726. 
Works : Ceiling frescos, Court Library 
(1730) and Schwarzenberg Palace, Vienna ; 
do., Summer Palaces at Hetzendorf (1742) 
and Schonbrunn ; do., Scbwarzspanier 
Kirche, Vienna ; Holy Family, Vienna Mu- 

D.Cran nk° 

scum ; Si Elizabeth, Karlskirehe, Vienna. — 
Allgem. d Biogr., is. 578 ; Brockhaus, viii. 
280 ; Wurzbach, v. 307. 

Florence, July 23, 1477, died there, Nov. 
30, 1548. Florentine school; pupil of Do- 
menico and David Ghirlandajo at same time 
with Michelangelo, with whom be formed an 
intimate friendship. His early tendency 
was to imitate the Michelangelo sque, at the 
same time endeavouring to acquire the tech- 
nical improvements of Mariotto Albertinelli 
and of Fra Bartolommeo. He was one of 
those whom Michelangelo invited to Rome 
in 1508 to aid in the frescos of the Sistine 
Chapel, but be did not satisfy him, and this 
led to their estrangement After that Gra- 
nacci came under Raphael's influence. On 
his return to Florence be became Ridolfo 
Gbirlandajo's partner, and devoted himself 
chiefly to the painting of banners and stage 
scenery. Among his best pictures are Vir- 
gin in Glory, Uffizi, Florence ; Holy Fam- 
ily, Palazzo Pitti, ib. ; Virgin and Saints, 
Academy, ib. ; Madonna and Saints, The 
Trinity, Berlin Museum ; The Virgin ador- 
ing the Child, Four Saints, Old Pinakothek, 
Munich ; Nativity, Hermitage, St Peters- 

f CfCurUttCt 

burg.— C. & C, Italy, iii. 534 ; Vasari, ed. 
Le Mon., ix. 217 ; Ch. Blanc, £cole floren- 
tine ; Baldinucci, ii. 89 ; Lubke, Gesch. d. 
ital. Mai., ii. 181. 


rsion of I I g^ I 


Ferrara about 1462, died there, July, 1531. 
Lombard school. Called also Ercole da 
Ferrara. Son of Giulio Cesare Orandi ; 
was in the service of the Duke of Ferrara in 
1492-99. He was a disciple of Costa, or 
rather of Francia as represented by Costa, 
in his later period. Among his typical 
works may be cited the Martyrdom of St 
Sebastian in 8. Paolo, Ferrara, and the St. 
George and the Dragon in the Corsini Gal- 
lery, Borne 
St Pa _, 

tional Gallery, fj t WGLtKMh 
London. — C. & / /*) ft 

C, N. Italy, L ' J L U 

531, 550; Cit- ' 

tadella, Notizie di Ferrara, 422 ; Vasari, ed 
MiL, iii. 141 ; ed. Le Mon., iv. 247 ; Burck- 
hardt, 582. 

in Ferrara before 1513. Lombard school 
Called also Ercole da Ferrara or Ferrarese. 
Son of Roberto Grandi, and partner of his 
brother as a painter and gold-beater in Fer- 
rara in 1479. Salaried by the Duke of Fer- 
rara, by whom he was frequently employed; 
finished a view of Naples in 1490-93 ; 
and painted in 1494 the likeness of Hercules 
L for Isabella of Mantua. Vasari, who con- 
founds him with Ercole the disciple of Costa, 
ascribes to him the frescos in the Garganelli 
Chapel of S. Pietro, now destroyed. His 
Capture and Procession to Golgotha in the 
Dresden Museum (the centre-piece, belong- 
ing to these, a Pieta, is in the Royal Insti- 
tution at Liverpool) show that he was a 
close follower of Mantegna rather than of 
Cost.ii. In similar style are ! Christ on the 
Mount, Ravenna Gallery ; Crucified Saviour, 
Museo Civico, Venice ; and the Lucretia, 
Modena Gallery.— C. & C, N. Italy, i. 530 ; 
Vasari, ed. Le Mon., iv. 247; ed. Mil., iii. 
141; Cittadella, Notizie di Ferrara, 583; 
Burckhardt, 582. 

GRANDSD3E, EUGENE, born at Or- 
leans, March 18, 1825. Landscape painter, 

pupil of J. Noel and Jules Dupr& Teacher 
of drawing in the Ecole des Arts efc Metiers, 
Paria L. of Honour, 1874. Works : Pout 
du Moulin (1865), Orleans Museum ; The 
Brook (1866), Nantes Museum ; River 
Meurthe (1874); Mill of Siinoneau, Boad to 
Fountain of St Guinole (1877) ; View near 
Gratain, Pasture in Sologne (1878) ; Valley 
of Plainfaing (1879) ; Valley of Bains, River 
Meurthe (1880) ; Port of Dieppe, Canal at 
Treport (1881), Luxembourg Museum ; Val- 
ley of the Bagnerot in November (1882) ; 
The Campine at Antwerp, Dieppe (1883) ; 
Kattendyk at Antwerp, Canal at Antwerp 
(1884) ; Sunrise, Sunset— Antwerp (1885).— 
Bellier de la Chavignerie, i. 687. 

in Aix, Provence, 
Dec. 17, 1775, 
died there, Nov. 
21,1849. Archi- 
tecture painter, 
first instructed 
by an unknown 
Italian, then by ' 
the landscape 
painter Constan- 
tin, and after- 
wards by David in Paris. In 1802 he went 
to Borne, where he spent the greater part of 
his life and painted most of his pictures. 
They were chiefly interiors of churches, 
monasteries, etc., with historical scenes. 
Returned to Paris in 1819, made custodian 
of the paintings of the Louvre in 1826, and 
member of the Institute in 1830. After 
the revolution of 1848 he retired to Aix, and 
bequeathed to his native city his fortune 
and all his pictures to found a museum. 
Medal, 1808 ; L. of Honour, 1819 ; Officer, 
1833 ; Order of St Michael, 1826. Works : 
Interior of the Coliseum (1806), The Painter 
Sodoma carried to the Hospital (1815), In- 
terior of the Basilica of St. Francis of Assisi 
(1823), Ransom of Prisoners in Algiers 
(1831), Portrait of Himself, Louvre, Paris; 
Funeral Honours to the Victims of Fieschi's 
Infernal Machine (1839), Invalides, ib. ; 


Godfrey of Bouillon hanging up the Trophies 
from Ascalon in the Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre, Versailles Museum ; Choir in 
Capuchin Monastery near the Piazza Bar- 
barini at Bome (1819, was repeated fifteen 
or more times) ; replica in Buckingham 
Palace ; St Louis delivering French Prison- 
ers at Damietta (1827), Amiens Museum ; 
Captivity of Vert^Vert (1834), Reception of 
a Cardinal by Carthusian Monks in Bome 
(1836), Hermits building a Chapel (1843), 
Eudorus the Martyr visiting the Catacombs, 
Michel Nostradamus, Christians drawing a 
Martyr's Corpse from the Sewers of Bome, 
A Quarter of on Hour before Service, Cele- 
bration of Mass in Beign of Terror (1847), 
Capuchins Writing (1849), Burial in a Crypt, 
and several others, Aix Museum ; Choir of 
St Scolastica at Subiaco, Reception of 
Jacques de Molay into the Order of Tem- 
plars (1843), Avignon Museum ; Choir of 
Capuchin Monks of Piazza Barbarini, Ex- 
amination of Savonarola (1846), Lyons Mu- 
seum ; Ruins of the Coliseum, Dijon Muse- 
um ; Alchymist's Laboratory, Stafford House, 
London ; Savonarola in Mb Cell, New Pina- 
kothek, Munich ; Jacques Stella in Prison 
painting the Madonna (1810), Leuchtenberg 
Gallery, St Petersburg ; Franciscan Monks 
at Early Mass (1818), Hermitage, ib. ; Choir 
^^ of Church at Assisi, 

f -~ . r—^- Academy, ib.;Bene- 

\fr\J\ N L I dictinefl ia tne O^- 
tory, New York Mu- 
seum. — Bellier de la Cbavignerie, i. 688 ; 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole francaise, iii.; Larousse, 
viii. 1453 ; Meyer, Gesch., 145. 

GRANGER, JEAN PERIN, born in Paris, 
May 10, 1779, died there, Dec 1, 1840. 
History painter, pupil of David, and a skil- 
ful imitator of hia style. "Won the grand 
prix de Rome in 1801. Painted chiefly 
Greek and Roman mythology and history. 
Medals, 1812, 1817, and 1820. Works: 
Ganymede (1812), Bordeaux Museum ; 
Apollo and Cyparissus (1816), Leipsic Mu- 
seum ; St Charles Borromeo (1819), Church 
of St Sulpice ; Homer and Glaucus the 

Shepherd (1819), Dijon Museum ; Titus re- 
ceiving the Homage of the Campanians 
(1822), Amiens Museum ; Jesus healing the 
Sick (1839), Notre Dame, Park ; Marshal 
Boucicault forcing Bajazet to raise the Siege 
of Constantinople (1840), Versailles Muse- 
um ; Mercury carrying Bacchus into Olym- 
pus, Besancon Museum ; Wounded Soldier, 
Nancy Museum. — Bellier de la Cbavignerie, 

Lebrun, Louvre, Paris; canvas, H. 15 ft 5 
in. x 33 ft 9 in. Alexander, contrary to the 
advice of his generals, crosses the rapid 
stream at the head of his cavalry, under a 
shower of missiles from the Persians, who 
occupy the opposite bank. He is attacked 
by Rossaces and Spithridates, two Persian 
captains, but, aided by Clytus, overthrows 
them ; and the Macedonian phalanx cross- 
ing at the ford, the Persians are put to 
rout (Plutarch, Alex., xvL). Series of His- 
tory of Alexander. Engraved by G. Audran 
(1672).— Landon, Musee, iii. PL 45 ; Filhol, 
i. PL 5. 
GRANT, Sir FRANCIS, born at Kilgas- 
ton, Perthshire, 
Scotland, in 1804, 
died in London, 
Oct. 5, 1878. 
Portrait painter, 
relinquished the 
law for art, and 
first became 
- known in 1835- 
40 as a painter of 
sporting pictures 
containing portraits of noted huntsmen and 
horses, such as Meet of the Queen's Stag- 
Hounds (1837),and The Melton Hunt (1839), 
well known through engravings. Later he 
turned bis attention to portrait painting ; 
in 1841 exhibited an equestrian portrait of 
the Queen, and was elected an Alt A.; in 
1851 became K.A., and in 1866 succeeded Sir 
Charles Eastlake asP.R A., andwas knighted. 
His portraits were noted for striking resem- 
blance, elegance, and simplicity. Among hia 


many distinguished flitters were the Duke 
and Duchess of Beaufort; Dukes of Cam- 
bridge, Roxborough, Rutland, and Backing- 
ham ; Duchess of Sutherland ; Earls of Derby, 
Fife, and Elgin ; Lords Falmerston, Her- 
bert, and Stanley; Sir Colin Campbell, Gen- 
eral J. Sir Hope Grant (his brother), Dis- 
raeli, Landseer, Macaulay, and Lockhart — 
Ottley ; Art Journal (1878), 232. 

GRAN VASCO. See Fernandez Yasco. 

GRANVELLA, NICHOLAS, portrait, lo- 
tion, Besancon Museum ; canvas, figure to 
hips, large as life. The Chancellor, in state 
dress, with white beard falling to his chest ; 

gians (1848) ; Russian Bear Hunt ; St Was- 
sUy ; Russian Pilgrims ; Odalisque ; Horses 
in Flight ; Russian Invalid ; Halt of Geor- 
gians ; Till Eulenspiegel ; Fight between 
Circassian and Russian ; St. William ; Scene 
from Nathan the Wise ; Portrait of Franz 
Liszt Many dog and horse portraits. — 
Kunst-Chronik, xi. 614. 

Serben, Livonia, Oct 8 (19), 1767, died in 
Rome, Aug. 4, 1814 Landscape painter, 
pupil in Zurich of Ludwig Hess, visited 
Paris in 1801 and with Rehf ues went to It- 
aly in 1803, where he spent considerable 

Piihii of Hi. Grinieui, CI 

the chain of the Golden Fleece round his 
neck. Painted in Augsburg in 1548. — C. &, 
C., Titian, ii. 183. 

GRASHOF, OTTO, born at Prenzkui, 
Brandenburg, in 1812, died in Cologne, 
April 23, 1876. German school ; history, 
genre, portrait, and animal painter, pupil of 
Dusseldorf Academy under Schadow ; spent 
several years in Russia, visited Mexico, and 
the La Plata States in South America, and 
settled in 1845 at Cologne. He became 
blind in 1861. Works : Realm's Salvation 
(1834); The Cid (1835); Guardian Angel 
(1845); Christ and Samaritan Woman (1846); 
Presenting the Sword, Wolves by Dead Horse 
(1847) ; Battle of Shumla, Vanguard of Les- 

time in Sicily. Works : Spring Morning 
in Valley San Angelo di Brolo ; Concordia 
Temple near Girgenti ; Falls of Carcacci 
under Mt Etna ; Idyl after Theocritus ; 
Two views of Mt Etna (1811).— Brockhaus, 
viii. 303 ; Tielemann, Karl Grass (Riga, 

la Fourmi), Jehan Georges Vibert, Comte 
de Camondo, Paris. Illustration of La Fon- 
taine, Fables, i. 1. Salon, 1875. 

GRASS! JOSEF, born in Vienna, April 
22, 1757, died in Dresden, Jan. 7, 1838. 
German school ; portrait and history paint- 
er, pupil of Vienna Academy ; was in War- 
saw during the revolution of 1793, and 


underwent great perils, but escaped by the 
aid of Kosciuszko. Went by invitation of 
the Duke of Courland to Sagan, and thence 
to Dresden, where in 1799 he became pro- 
fessor at the Academy. In 1816-21 was in 
Borne as director of the Saxon art pension- 
aries. Distinguished and decorated by the 
King of Saxony and the Duke of Got ha ; 
also member of several Academies. Works : 
St John Baptist, St Peter, Dresden Gal- 
lery ; The Arcadians, Callisto asleep, St. 
Ann instructing the Virgin, Female Figure 
walking, Fairy on Chariot, Portrait of Duke 
Frederic IV. of Saxe-Gotha, do. of Minister 
yon Lindenau (1814), and copies after Al- 
bani, Correggio, and Raphael, Gotha Gal- 
lery. — Allgem. d. Biogr., ix. 592 ; Wurz- 
bach, v. 314. 

GRATELLA See FUippi, Sebastiano. 
GRAY, HENRY PETERS, born in New 
York, June 23, 1819, 
died there, Nor, 12, 
1877. Portrait and 
genre painter, pupil 
of Huntington. Vis- 
ited Europe in 1840, 
studied in Rome and 
Venice ; went abroad 
- again in 1846, and to 
Florence in 1871, re- 
maining four years. 
Elected N. A in 1842, President of National 
Academy from 1869 to 1871. Works : Pride 
of the Village, R M Olyphant ; Wages of 
War, Metropolitan Museum, New York ; 
Portrait of William Cullen Bryant, Histori- 
cal Society, ib.; Cupid begging his Arrow, 
Pennsylvania Academy, Philadelphia ; Judg- 
ment of Paris, Corcoran Gallery, Washing- 
ton ; Twilight Musings ; Blessed are the 
Pure in Heart ; Truth ; Ophelia ; Normandy 
Girl ; Jessica or the Pride of the Rialto ; 
Model from Cadore ; Immortality of the 
Soul, Edwin Hoy t; Birth of our Flag(1875); 
Flower of Fiesole, Just Fifteen (1875), M. 
0. Roberts, New York ; Apple of Discord 
(1876).— Tuckerman, 442. 


in Philadelphia in 1857. Genre painter, 
pupil of Pennsylvania Academy and in Paris 
of Gcrome. Works : Breton Idyl (1881) ; 
Going to Market (1882) ; Un fichu temps 
(1883); Ohe, le canot! (1884); Fisher-chil- 
ren at Concarneau (1885). — Art Journal 
(1884), 222. 

GRAZIANI, ERCOLE, bom at Bologna 
in 1688, died in 1765. Bolognese school 
History painter, pupil of Donato Creti 
(1671-1749, a coronation of Charles V., by 
whom is in the Bologna Gallery), whom he 
surpassed in both design and colouring ; 
painted a great number of pictures for pub- 
lic buildings at Bologna and Piacenza, and 
especially for the churches of Bologna. 
Works : St Peter consecrating St Apollin- 
aris amidst an Assembly of Early Christians, 
Bologna ; Marriage of St Catherine, St 
Ann teaching the Virgin to read, S. Bar- 
tolommeo di Reno, ib. ; Ascension, Chiesa 
della Purita, ib. ; Annunciation, Madonna 
delle Rondini, ib. ; replica of first-named, and 
Baptism of Christ, Sant' Apollinare, Rome. 

GREATOBEX, FTJZA, born at Manor- 
Hamilton, Ireland, Dec. 25, 1820. Land- 
scape painter ; settled in New York in 1839. 
Pupil of Emile Lambinet in Paris, in 1861 ; 
earlier helped by the criticisms of Cafferty, 
W. W. Wotherspoon, and James M Hart 
Has visited Europe repeatedly. Elected an 
A.N.A. in 1868. Studio in New York. 
Works : Road Scene in Connecticut ; Old 
House in Bloomingdale ; Joy Bridge — Pel- 
tigor, Ireland ; Amsterdam ; Fort Hamil- 
ton — Long Island ; Bay Ridge ; Normandy 
Cottage (1881) ; Fontainebleau Forest, Cres- 
sonicres-VeulesenCaux{1882); Laurel Run 
— Virginia ; Louis Philippe House in 1868 
— Bloomingdale, M. de Mendon$a ; Somer- 
endyke Lake— Bloomingdale (1884). Eate 
and Eleanor, daughters of Mrs. Greatorex, 
also paint and exhibit at the National Acad- 
emy ; they have studied abroad and under 
their mother, whose studio they share. 
Miss Eate Greatorex has exhibited : Last 
Bit of Autumn (1875); Goethe's Fountain 
—Frankfort (1876); Thistles (1877); Alge- 


iian Messenger Boy (1682) ; Hollyhocks 
(1883). From Yuba's Kitchen— Ober Ani- 
inergau, was exhibited by Misa E. Great- 
ore je in 1876, and The Bath in 1884— Am. 
Art Rev. (1881), 12. 

born at Haarlem in 1570 or 1579 (?), died 
there in 1619. Dutch school ; history and 
portrait painter, pupil of Jacques Savery. 
Sean of the guild at Haarlem in 1627. 
Works : Four Banquets of City Guard Offi- 
cers (1600, 1610, 1619), Haarlem Museum ; 
Lot and his Daughters (?), Schwerin Gallery. 
— Allgem. d. Biogr., is. 618 ; Schlie, 220 ; 
Tan der Willigen, 135. 

GREBBER, PIETER DE, born at Haar- 
lem in 1600, died after 1665. Dutch school ; 
history and portrait painter, son and pupil 
of Fran s Pie tersz and scholar of H. Goltzius. 
His pictures recall Rubens and Lastmaim. 
Works : The Shepherds (1628), Works of 
Charity (1628), Barbarossa and the Patri- 
arch of Haarlem (1630), Hippocrates refus- 
ing the Presents of Artaxerxes (1637), Haar- 
lem Museum ; The Apostles giving Alms to 
the Poor, Oudemannenhuys, Haarlem ; Ja- 
cob receiving from his Sons the Bloody 
Garment of Joseph, City Hall, Haarlem ; 
Portraits (3), Moses in the Bulrushes 
(1634), Dres- 
den Muse- 
um ; Hera- 
clituB and 
Allgem. d. 
Biogr., ix. 618 ; Van der Willigen, 137 
Rembrandt, see Precurseurs, etc., 76. 

GRECHETTO, IL. See Cantiglione, Gio- 
vanni Benedetto. 

GRECO, EL, born in Greece (or in Ven- 
ice of Greek parents?) about 1548, died in 
Toledo in 1625. Spanish school; Real 
name Domenico Theotocopuli (Teoscopoli) ; 
surnamed in Venice, where he studied under 
Titian, B Greco (The Greek). Settled at To- 
ledo about 1577, and became known by on 

altarpiece, Parting of Christ's Raiment, in 
the sacristy of the cathedral, quite in Ti- 
tian's style. Called 
to Madrid to paint 
at the Escorial by 
Philip II. Hi a 
best work is the 
Burial of the 
Count of Orgaz, 
S, Tome, Toledo. 
Later he adopted 
a grayish style of 
colouring, and 

greatly deteriorated. He left some good 
portraits. Works : Dead Christ in the Arms 
of God the Father, St. Paul, Crucifixion, An- 
nunciation, Holy Family, Baptism of Christ, 
Male Portraits (8), Madrid Museum. — Stir- 
ling, i. 276 ; Viardot, 107 ; Ch. Blanc, Erole 

GREENGROCER, Gerard Dou, Louvre, 
Paris ; wood, H. 1 ft. 3 in. x 9 in. ; signed, 



dated 1647. At right, a woman, the green- 
grocer, standing behind a table holding bal- 
ances in her hand ; on other side of table, 



an old woman counting money ; a young 
servant with, a wooden pail, and a boy carry- 
ing a vase. The whole is Been through a 
window, on the sill of which are vegetables 
and a jug. Beunengen sale, Amsterdam 
(1716), 1,200 florins ; Backer sale, Leyden 
(1766), 7,150 florins; Bandon de Boiaset 
sale (1777), 15,500 livres ; Comte de Vau- 
dreuil sale (1784), 16,901 livres ; Due de 
Praslin sale (1793), 34,850 livres. Engraved 
by Dambrun.— Filhol, v. PL 356. 

GREENHUJj, JOHN, born at Salisbury 
in 1649, died in London, May 19, 1676. 
Pupil of Sir Peter Lely, whose style he imi- 
tated both in oil and crayons. Left a few 
fine portraits, but dissolute habits injured 
his reputation. Died suddenly by an acciden- 
tal fall in Long Acre. Works : Bishop Seth 
Ward, Town Hall, Salisbury ; Charles IL, 
Earl of Shaftesbury, National Portrait Gal- 
lery, London. — Redgrave ; F. de Conches, 60. 
GREFE, KONRAD, born in Vienna, 
Sept 7, 1823. Landscape painter, pupil of 
Schindler, then of Vienna Academy under 
Mosamer and Gaellhofer, but studied chiefly 
from nature ; devoted himself for several 
years to etching, and sines 1855 has painted 
in water-colours the mediaeval churches of 
Austria. Works: Woodland in Fog, Sun- 
set (1852); Ruin in Park of Schonbrunn, 
View near the Schneeberg (1853); Ruins 
near Hain burg, Evening Landscape (1855); 
Old Jewish Cemetery at Prague (1856); 
Deserted Kill (1858); Storm Landscape 
(1859).— Wurzbach, v. 321. 
Southampton in 1850. 
Portrait and landscape 
painter, pupil of 
Southampton and 
South Kensington Art 
Schools. Elected 
member of Institute 
of Painters in Water 
- Colours, where he ex- 
hibited his St. George 
in 1876. First exhib- 
ited at Royal Academy in 1875 ; elected an 

A.RA. in 1883. Visited Italy in 1882. 
Works : Portrait of Duncan McLaren, M.P. 
(1877); Portrait of Rev. Thomas Stevens 
(1879); The Signal, A Rehearsal (1882) ; 
Piccadilly — Drawing-Room Day, Grand 
Canal — Venice, Boat-Builder's Yard — Ven- 
ice, Gates of Arsenal — Venice, Ca d'Oro — 
Venice (1883); Startled, Fishing in Marlow 
Backwater (1884).— Art Journal (1883), 96 ; 
Portfolio (1878), 161 ; Mag. of Art (1884), 

DECRETALS, Raphael, Camera della Seg- 
natura, Vatican ; fresco, right of window. 
Pope Gregory IX. (portrait of Julius H) 
seated, blessing the Decretals, which he 
hands to a kneeling jurist of the Consistory; 
among the prelates around him are Giovanni 
de' Medici (Leo X.), Alessandro Farnese 
(Paul DX), and Antonio del Monte. Blus- 
trates the consecration of Canon Law; com- 
panion piece to Justinian promulgating the 
Pandects. Painted in 1511. Engraved by 
Ft. Aquila ; Giangiacomo. — Passavant, ii. 
87 ; Mttntz, 345 ; Vasari, ed. Mil, iv. 337. 

Saccki, Vatican ; figures life-size. Some 
ambassadors desiring to cany certain relics 
into their country were given by Gregory 
the Great a vase containing cloths which had 
touched the bodies of saints They having 
expressed dissatisfaction at the gift, Greg- 
ory took one of the cloths, and, piercing it, 
showed them, to their astonishment, drops 
of blood f allin g from it. Carried to Paris 
in 1799 ; returned in 1815, — Landon, Mu- 
sce, 2d Col., ii. PI. 41. 

Vasari, Bologna Gallery ; wood, H. 12 ft 2 
in. x 8 ft 4 in. ; signed, dated 1540. Pope 
Gregory I. (the Great) always had twelve 
poor men to sup with him ; but one night 
he saw thirteen at the table, though his 
steward could count but twelve, and he be- 
lieved the odd one to be Christ himself. 
The picture represents this scene. For- 
merly in refectory of monastery of S. Mi- 
cbele in Bosco. Engraved by G. Tomba,- — 


Pinac. di Bologna, PL 19 ; Vasari, ed. Mil, 
vii 664. 

GRETL, ALOIS, bora at Linz, Upper 
Austria, in 1841. Geure painter and illus- 
trator, pupil of Vienna Academy under 
Christian Ruben ; lived alternately in South- 
ern Germany and Upper Austria, and in 

liiracla at St Gregory. Andna Sacchi, Vatican. 

1873 settled in Vienna. His water-colours 
fetch high prices, and are to be found in 
many private galleries. Works : Imperial 
Huszars marching through Suabian Coun- 
try Town (1880) ; School Examination 
(1882) ; Knight Drama (1883). — Neue 
illustr. Zeitg. (1881), i 27 ; (1882), L 8, 14 ; 
(1883), i 3. 

COIS (Francisque Martin Grenier), born in 
Paris, July 22, 1793, died there, Dec. 21, 
1867. History and genre painter, pupil of 
Pierre Guerin, of David, and of the £cole 
dea Beaux Aria. He was a skilful genre 
painter, and several of his works have been 
engraved. Medals : 2d class, 1810 ; 1st 
class, 1834 ; L. of Honour, 1841. Works : 
Atala Dying (1810); St. Genevieve allaying 

a Storm (1822, 1827); Sentinel by a Gabion 
(1822), Montpellier Museum ; Battle of Cam- 
'pillo de Arenas (1823); Surrender of Ulm 
(1831); Little Peasants surprised by a Wolf 
(1833), Nantes Museum ; Little Thieves ar- 
rested by a Gamekeeper, Old Vagabond 
(1834); Marriage Proposals (1836); Battle 
of Muga (1838), Incident in Battle of Aus- 
terlitz (1840), Versailles Museum ; Stolen 
Child (1841), Rodez Museum ; Napoleon's 
Farewell to his Son (1844) ; Smuggler 
(1848); Poacher asleep in his Hiding- Place 
(1866); Rabbit Hunt (1857), Marseilles Mu- 
seum ; Country Doctor (1859); A Discovery 
(1863); Young Mother (1864); The Brook 
(1866). His sons, Henri Gustave and Theo- 
phile Yves Ren£, were also painters. — Bel- 
lier de la Chavignerie, i. 693 ; Meyer, Gesch. , 

GRETCHEN. See Marguerite. 
Tournus (Sadne- 
et-Loire), Aug. 
21, 1725, died 
in Paris, March 
21,1805. French 
school; genre 
and portrait 
painter, pupil in 
Lyons of Gran- 
don, and in Paris 
of the Academy ' 

in 1755. Hi« picture of the Father reading 
the Bible to his Children was exhibited and 
greatly admired in the same year, at the 
close of which he was taken to Italy by the 
Abbe Goujenot. After his return he ex- 
hibited at the Salons of 1757, 1759, and 
1761, at which latter his Accordee du Vil- 
lage (Louvre) excited the greatest enthusi- 
asm. Angry at being received into the 
Academy (1767) as a genre and not as a 
history painter, Greuze retired for a time to 
Anjou, whence he returned to exhibit pict- 
ures in his studio which attracted all Paris. 
He amassed a large fortune, but lost it at 
the Revolution. Neglected by the public, 
which admired only the new school of David, 



Greuze passed his last years in misery and 
regret His wife, Mile. Babuty, whose 
charming face appears in so many of his 
pictures, was an extravagant and worthless 
woman, from whom he was separated long 
before his death. Works : Septimius Sev- 
erus reproaching Caracalla (1769), Village 
Bride (1761), Broken Pitcher, Father's Curee, 
Punished Son, Portrait of Greuze (1761), 
Portrait of the Painter Jeaurat (1769), two 
studies of Young Girls, Head of Young 
Girl, do. of Young Man, Danae, Artist's and 
two other portraits. Louvre, Paris; Pelo- 
tonueuse, Inconsolable Widow, Female Por- 
trait, two Children's Heads, Duo de Momy, 
ib. ; Return from Tavern, Little Lazy One, 
Madeleine, and others, Baron Rothschild, 
ib.; Triumph of Galatea, Study of a Child, 
Aii Museum ; Lady with Spaniel, Angers 
Museum ; Boy's Portrait, Girl's Head, Be- 
sancon Museum ; Male Portrait, Cherbourg 
Museum ; Psyche crowning Love, Lille Mu- 
seum ; Artist's Portrait, Lyons Museum ; 
Male Portrait, Marseilles Museum ; Danao, 
Bacchante, Boy's Bust, Mole Portrait, Metz 
Museum ; Morning Prayer, Twelfth Cake 
(1774), little Mathematician, The Paralytic, 
Idle Child (1755), six studies of Girls, 
Montpellior Museum ; Portraits of M de St. 
Maurice and Son, Nantes Museum ; Girl's 
Head, Narbonne Museum ; Old Woman's 
Head.Nimes Museum ; Male Portrait (1776), 
Troyes Museum ; Napoleon as Consul, Por- 
trait of Fontenelle (1793), Versailles Muse- 
um ; Old Woman with Crutch, Madrid Mu- 
seum ; Girl with Apple, two studies of 
Girls, National Gallery, London ; La Trom- 
pette, two studies of Girls, Buckingham 
Palace, ib.; Innocence, Portrait of Artist's 
Mother, South Kensington Museum, ib. ; 
Innocence, Girl with Doves, Reflections, Sir 
It Wallace, ib.; Throwing a Kiss, Young 
Girl with Watch, The Letter, Baron Alfred 
de Rothschild, ib. ; Portraits of Madame de 
Pompadour and of Louis XVL, Hampton 
Court Palace ; Beggar Boy, Fitzwilliam Mu- 
seum, Cambridge ; Interior of Peasant Cot- 
tage, Girl with Dead Canary, Boy with 

Lesson Book, two studies of Girls, National 
Gallery, Edinburgh; Child's Head, Sulky 
Boy, Glasgow Gallery ; Young Woman and 
Child, Rotterdam Museum ; Portrait of 
Louis XVI, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Emperor 
Caracalla, Gotha Museum ; Young Girl, Old 
Pinakothek, Munich ; do. (1787), Berlin 
Museum ; do., Leipsic Museum ; Father 
reading the Bible to his Children (1755), 
Dresden Museum ; Paralytic with his Chil- 
dren, Young Girl, Boy with School-book, 
Male Portrait, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; 
Girl with Doll, Academy, ib. ; nine pictures 
in Leuchtenberg Gallery, ib. ; Five Studies 
of Heads, Academy, Vienna ; Others in 
Liechtenstein Gallery, ib. ; Contemplation, 
Accadenria San Luca, Rome ; Study for Head 
in Father's Curse, Museum, New York ; 
Nymph of Diana, Portrait of Louis XV-tT., 
do. of Due de ChoiseuL Replica of L'Aveu- 
gle troinpe, Virginie, two Female Heads, 
Historical Society, ib. Nearly all of his 
works have been engraved. — Bellier de la 
Chavignerie, i. 695 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole fran- 
caise ; Dohme ; Gautier, Guide au Louvre, 
181 ; Goz. des B. Arts (1860), vii. 349 ; viLL 
196, 236 ; (1862), xiiL 401, 612 ; (1870), iv. 
277 ; (1874), x. 193 ; (1877), xvL 201 ; Gon- 


court, L'art du XYDX Siecle, i 291 ; Hous- 
saye, GaL du XVDX Siecle, iv. 161 ; Jal, 658 ; 
Meyer, Gesch., 7 ; Renouvier, Hist de l'art 
pendant la RevoL, etc. (Paris, 1863) ; Wurz- 
bach, Fr. Maler des XVHI. Jahrh., 36; Zeit- 
schr. f. b. K, xx. 251. 

HENRI, born in Paris, Oct 17, 1776, died 
there, June 1, 1860. Portrait painter and 
lithographer, pupil of Regnault After ex- 
hibiting (1804) a picture of Achilles landing 


on the Shores of Troy, for which he received 
a first-class medal, he spent several years in 
St. Petersburg, where he painted many flat- 
tered portraits, and was made 
Member of the Academy. 
In 1812 he went to Stock- 
holm, then painted portraits 
in England, and after his re- 
turn to France in 1816 be- 
came popular as a lithographer. Medals : 2d 
class, 1824 ; 1st class, 1831 ; L. of Honour, 
1832.— Bellier de la Chavignerie, i 697. 

GKEVEN, ANTON, born in Cologne in 
1810, died there in 1836. Portrait and 
genre painter, studied in Dtlsseldorf and 
Munich. Works : Drinking Monks ; Coffee- 
Drinkere ; Knight and his Sweetheart ; 
Count Eberhard the BauBchebart, The To- 
per (1834). 

Paul Ddaroche, H. W. Eaton, M P., London ; 
canvas. Beheading of Lady Jane Orey in 
the Tower of London, February 12, 1554. 
She is kneeling upon the scaffold beside 
the block, her eyes bandaged, her hands ex- 
tended, while a priest encircles her form 
with his arm and whispers consolation ; at 
right, the executioner, standing, holding bis 
aze ; at left, two women overwhelmed with 
grief. Painted in 1834. Bought at San Do- 
nate sale (1868), 110,000 francs. Engraved 
by P. Mercury.— LTUustration (1870), i 100. 

GRIEF. See Qryeff. 

GRBSN or GRUN. See Baldung. 

Oldenburg, March 17, 1839. History and 
portrait painter, pupil in Vienna of Rahl ; a 
masterly colourist, with a predominant fancy 
for allegories ; executed decorations in the 
Vienna Opera House with Bitterlich after 
Bahl's compositions, then in 1878 in the 
Augnsteum at Oldenburg, afterwards in the 
Academy of Science at Athens, and in the 
new Houses of .Parliament in Vienna. Pro- 
fessor at Vienna Academy since 1875. 
Works : GMipus led by Antigone, Scenes 
from Anacreon, Baron Todesco, Vienna ; 
Myth of Orpheus, Opera House, ib. ; Coro- 

nation of Esther, Sentence of Hainan, Palais 
Ephrnssi, ib. ; Poseidon's Wedding Proces- 
sion, Demons of Storm, Guardian Spirits of 
the Sea, Baron Sina, Venice ; Wedding of 
Aphrodite and Adonis, Villa Simon, Hiet- 
zing, near Vienna ; Venus Urania, Genii of 
Truth and Fancy, Myth of Prometheus, Al- 
legorical Figures of Plastic Art (1878), 
Augusteum, Oldenburg; Myth of Prome- 
theus, Academy of Science, Athens ; thirteen 
pictures from Antique Mythology and His- 
tory, House of Lords, Vienna, — Brockhaus, 
viii. 417 ; IUustr. Zeitg. (1865) ; Kunst- 
Chronik, i-iv. ; xx. 755; Mailer, 217. 

GRUTIER, JAN, born in Amsterdam in 
1656, died in London in 1718. Dutch 
school ; landscape painter, pupil of Boeland 
Rogman, in whose atelier he became ac- 
quainted with Rembrandt, RuysdaeL Adriaan 
van de Velde, and Lingelbach. In 1667 he 
went to London, where he painted Italian 
landscapes with ruins, and views of the 
Thames. As the latter found great favour, 
he bought a vessel in 1695 and sailed about 
between Windsor and Graveaend in order 
to study coast scenery. In 1695 he sailed 
for Rotterdam, but was wrecked and lost all 
his property. Nevertheless, he bought a 
new vessel and again cruised from place to 
place to paint. In 1787 he returned to 
England, where his pictures were greatly 
valued. Works : Ruins, View of Windsor 
Castle, Hampton Court Palace ; Landscape, 
Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge ; View on 
the Rhine (2), Louvre, Paris ; do. Bordeaux 
Museum ; River View, Amsterdam Museum ; 
Landscapes (2), Stuttgart Gallery ; da (2), 
Augsburg Gallery ; do. (2), Brunswick Mu- 

J. 6-K.irrtER 
(f. GR1FF1EK. 

seum ; Winter Landscape near Leyden, with 
Skaters, Gotha Museum ; do. (15), Dresden 


Gallery ; Soldiers crossing a River, Stock- 
holm Museum ; Rhino Views (2), Vienna 
Museum ; landscape, Hermitage, St Peters- 
burg. His younger son, Jan (died about 
1750), was noted as a copyist of Claude Lor- 
rain. — Cb, Blanc, £cole hollandaise ; Immer- 
zeel, L 285 ; Kramm, il 604 ; Quellen- 
sohrif ten, xiv. 425. 

GRIFFTER, ROBEBT, born in London, 
Oct 7, 1688, died there or in Amsterdam in 
1750. Dutch school ; son and pupil of Jan 
Griffier, whom he often surpassed in painting 
Rhine views, marines, and battle pieces. He 
had an extraordinary talent for imitation, and 
deceived even connoisseurs with his clever 
copies after 

US-fde Velde, 

and Saft Lo- 

in. Works: 


Landscape, Amsterdam Museum ; da, 
Darmstadt Museum; do., Schwerin Gallery; 
do., Hermitage, St Petersburg. — ImmerzeeL 

born at Borai-grande di Pordenone, Aug. 
29, 1801, died in Venice, Feb. 10, 1870. 
History painter, pupil of Venice Academy. 
Visited Florence and Rome, and settled in 
Venice, where in 1839 he became professor 
at the Academy. His works, distinguished 
for their fine colouring, recall the old Ve- 
netian masters. Works : Jupiter caressing 
Love (1825) ; Last Interview of the two 
Foacari, Museum, Vienna ; St James and 
St Joseph, Liechtenstein Gallery, ib. ; Fran- 
cesca da Rimini ; Odalisques at the Bath ; 
Jacob receiving Joseph ; St Paul preaching 
at Ephesus ; Prodigal Son ; Madonna, St 
Anthony's, Trieste ; Christ on Sea of Galilee, 
Brescia Cathedral ; Altarpieces for Cathe- 
drals of Erlau and Arad, and Assumption 
(1846) for Cathedral of Gran, Hungary.— 
Wurzbach, v. 336. 

GRUFF. See Qryeff. 

born at Bologna in 1606, died in Rome in 

1680. Bolognese school. Called sometimes 
11 Bolognese. Pupil of the Carraoci ; be- 
came one of the leading landscape painters 
of his day. Employed many years in Rome 
by different popes, and in Paris by Cardinal 
Mazarin and Louis XIV. Works : Scenes 
from Old Testament, Quirinal, Rome; Series 
of Landscapes, Palazzo Borghese, ib. ; Land- 
scapes with Figures (2), Washerwomen, 
Louvre, Paris ; Landscapes, Bibliotheque 
nation alo, ib.; da, National Gallery, Edin- 
burgh ; Baptism of Christ, Darmstadt Mu- 
seum. — Lanzi, iii. 132 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecoie bo- 
lonaise ; Burckkardt, 764, 808. 

GEIMANL ANTONIO, Doge, portrait, 
Titian, Palazzo Giustiniani, Padua ; canvas, 
H. 3 ft 10 in. x 3 ft 3 in. Painted in 1521; 
in Titian's house till his death ; sold in 1581 
by Pomponio VeceUi to Cristoforo Barber- 
igo, and inherited by Count Giustiniani. 
Another, painted same time, in possession 
of Mr. De Rosenberg, Vienna ; and a third, 
also same date, in Morosini-Gattersburg 
Collection, Vienna.— C. & C, Titian, i 243. 

FORE FAITH. See Fede. 

GRIMER, ABEL, born at Antwerp about 
1575, died there before 1619. Flemish 
school ; history and landscape painter, son 
and pupil of Jacob Grimer ; master of the 
guild in 1592. Works : Christ bearing the 
Cross (1593) ; Skaters under the Bridge of 
Sint Jorispoort — Antwerp (1604), Th. van 
Lerius, Antwerp ; Christ with Martha and 
Mary (1614), Brussels Museum. — Van den 
Brauden, 300. 

GRIMER, JACOB, born at Antwerp about 
1526, died there before May, 1590. Flem- 
ish school ; landscape painter, pupil of Ga- 
briel Bouwens, Matthys Cock, and Christiaan 
van den Queeckborne ; master of the guild 
in 1547. One of the best landscape painters 
of his time. Works : View of the Kiel at 
Antwerp (1575), City Hall, Antwerp; Village 
Kirmess (1586), Th. van Lerius, ib.; Legend 
of St Eustace, Brussels Museum ; Christ 
and the Adulteress, Ghent Museum. — Booses 
(Reber), 116 ; Van den Brandon, 297. 


GRIMM, LCDWIG T^MTT., born at Ha- 
nau, Ma? 14, 1790, died at Camel, April 4, 
1863. History, genre, and portrait painter, 
pupil in Munich of Earl Hess ; took part in 
the campaign of 1814 against France, re- 
turned to Cassel, and in 1815 spent some 
time in Munich. Visited Italy in 1816, and 
then settled in Cassel, where he became 
professor at the Academy in 1833. Works : 
Madonna (1818) ; Holy Family ; Baptism of 
the Moors ; Death of Si Elizabeth ; Hessian 
Peasant Girl in Sunday Attire ; Young Peas- 
ant Girl going to Church ; Peasant Woman 
at a Grave ; Portraits of Artist, of Ludwig 
Hassenpflug, Baron Ton Ddrnberg, Clemens 
Brentano. — AUgem. <L Biogr., is. 689 ; An- 
drogen, v. 117. 

GRIMMER, HANS, German school, 16th 
century. Portrait painter, pupil at Mentz 
of Matthias Granewald. Works: Altar wings, 
Stadel Gallery, Frankfort ; Portraits (1570), 
Vienna Muse- y y^ 
um ; do., Rat- If i 

bbo-Ctailer,; f . UfU/lf] £R. 
Male and Fe- <^*7 

male Portrait, * J *i I 

Germanic Museum, Nuremberg. — Kugler 
(Crowe), i 188 ; W. & W„ ii. 440. 

OBIMOU (Grimoux, or Grimoud), 
A LEXIS (Jean ?), barn at Romont, Switzer- 
land, about 1680, died in Paris about 1740. 
French school. Trained himself by copy- 
ing works of Van Dyck and Rembrandt ; 
painted mostly female half figures, repre- 
sented as singing or playing, or as pilgrims. 
Received into the Academy in 1705, but 
struck off the list in 1709 on account of his 
habitual drunkenness and disorderly life. 
Works : Portrait of Himself (1724), Man 
Drinking (1724), Young Officer (2), Female 
Pilgrim (1729), louvre ; Mme. Lcba'if, Ver- 
sailles Museum; Portrait of Little Girl, 
Nimes Museum ; Young Woman, David 
and Goliath, Besancon Museum ; Female 
Portraits (3), Avignon Museum ; Capuchin, 
Young Pilgrim, Female Musician, Bordeaux 
Museum ; Head of a Young Man, Grenoble 
Museum ; Portrait of an Architect, Nantes 

Museum ; do. of on Actor, Orleans Museum ; 
Artist's portrait, Perpignan Museum ; Girl 
as Page, Basle Museum ; Female Portraits 
(2, 1731), Carlsruhe Gallery; Portrait of 
Young Man, Stadel Gallery, Frankfort ; Boy 
playing a Flute, Dresden Museum ; Por- 
trait of a Woman, Dulwich Gallery ; copy of 
Murillo's Good Shepherd, Lord EUesmere ; 
Woman holding a Mask, M Furtado ■ Head 
of a Young Woman, M Adolphe Fould. — 
Bellier de la Chavignerie, i. 699 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole francaise ; Lejeune, Guide, i. 422 ; 
Mariette, Abecedario, 2. 

GBISWOLD, C. C, born in Ohio in 
1834. Landscape painter, formerly had a 
studio in New York ; has lived several years 
in Rome. Elected an A.N.A. in 1866, and 
N.A. in 1867. Works: Autumnal Scene, 
December, Last of the Ice (1864); Winter 
Morning (18G5) ; August Day — Newport 
(1866) ; Early Spring (1869) ; Purgatory 
Point, Newport, Seaside Landscape (1870); 
Logo de Nemi (1874); Ponte Nolle across 
the Tiber (1878), E B. Haskell ; View on 
the Hudson, J. J. Astor, New York. 

GRITTL ANDREA, Doge, portrait, Ti- 
tian, Palazzo Giustiniani, Padua ; canvas, H. 
3 ft. 11( in. x 3 ft 3 in. Painted in 1524 ; in 
Titian's house until his death ; sold in 1581 
by Pomponio Veoelli to Cristoforo Borbe- 
rigo ; thence passed by inheritance to Count 
Giustiniani. Many replicas by Titian ; cop- 
ies by Pordenone in Czernio Collection, Vi- 
enna, by Tintoretto in Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg, and by Rubens, exhibited in Royal 
Academy, London, 1870.— C. & C, Titian, 
L 299 ; Ridolfi, Maraviglie, i 262 ; Vasari, 
ed. MiL, vii. 438. 

GROB, KONRAD, born at Andelfingen, 
Switzerland, in 1828. Genre painter, pupil 
of Munich Academy under Romberg, after 
he had studied (1842-45) the elements of 
art in Winterthur, and spent many years in 
Italy. Works : Captured Mouse (1870) ; 
Italian Beggar Children ; Painting a Peasant 
Girl ; Painter on Study Trip, Zurich Gallery ; 
Visit on the Ladder ; Sunday Afternoon in 
Switzerland ; Father Pestalozzi (1879), Basle 


Museum. Mtiller, 218 ; Kunst^Chronik, xi; 
Zeitschr., xii. (Mittheilungen, v. 10). 

Ploen, Holstein, Oct 14, 1766, died in Ham- 
burg, Not. 9, 1838. Portrait painter, self- 
taught In 1789 he went with Aldenrath 
to Berlin, frequented the Academy for some 
time, then went to Hamburg, and in 1798 
studied in Dresden. Painted for several 
years in Kiel and Copenhagen, and finally 
settled in Hamburg. Works : Portrait of 
the Artist, Dresden Gallery; Portraits of 
Man and Wife (1829), Portrait of Pastor 
Klefeker, do. of Aldenrath, do. of himself, 
hia adopted daughter, and Aldenrath (con- 
jointly with the latter), Kunsthalle, Ham- 
burg ; others in Lubeck, Kiel, Copenhagen 
Galleries.— Allgem. d. Biogr., ix. 708 ; Weil- 
bacb, 218. 

GRONLAND, THEUDE, bora at Altona, 
Aug. 31, 1817, died in Berlin, April 16, 
1876. Landscape and still-life painter, pu- 
pil of Copenhagen Academy ; lived then for 
three years in Italy, as long in England, and 
twenty-five years in Paris. Settled in 1868 
in Berlin, where he had many pupils. Mem- 
ber of Copenhagen Academy. Medala : 
Paris, 1st class, 1848; 2d class, 1855. 
Work, Fruit-piece, National Gallery, Ber- 
lin. His son, Ren6, bora in Paris, Oct 8, 
1849, painted similar subjects. — Weilbach, 
213 ; Jordan, 108 ; Rosenberg, BerL Mal- 
ersch., 352. 

GRONVOLD, MARCUS, born at Bergen, 
Norway, July 5, 1845. Portrait and genre 
painter, pupil of Copenhagen and of Munich 
Academies, and studied from 1870 to 1878 
under Wilhelm Diez, Otto Seitz, and Piloty ; 
won several medals, visited Italy in 1874, 
Berlin and DQsseldort in 1876, and Paris in 
1878 ; member of jury at DOsseldorf Ex- 
hibition in 1880. Works : The Burgomas- 
ter ; Consolation ; Uninvited Guests ; Poach- 
ers ; Sunday Morning ; Scene from Saga of 
Wieland the Smith, Cologne Museum ; Por- 
trait of Knut Baade.— Elustr. Zeitg. (1881), 
L 41 ; Mailer, 218 ; Leixner, D. mod. K., ii. 

GROS, ANTOTNE JEAN, Baron, born in 
Paris, March 16, 1771, died there, June 27, 
1835. History and 
portrait painter, 
son of Jean Antoine, 
miniature painter, 
and pupil of David ; 
competed unsuc- 
cessfully for the prix 
fde Rome in 1792, 
1 supported himself by 
painting portraits, 
and in 1793 went to 
Italy. In 1796 he was presented to Gen- 
eral Bonaparte at Milan, and obtained his 
favour by painting him on the bridge at 
Areola. The General had the picture en- 
graved by Longhi, gave the plate to Gros, 
appointed him review inspector, and put 
him on the commission charged to select 
works of art to be sent to France. In 1799 
he escaped from Genoa on an English ship, 
arrived half dead at Antibes, and in 1801 
gained at Paris a competition prize for 
a sketch of Battle of Nazareth, an historical 
picture never executed. Up to 1812, he 
painted battles of the Empire and portraits, 
then was commissioned to paint the cupola 
of St Genevieve, which he finished in 1824, 
when he was ennobled. In 1815 directed 
the school of David during that painter's 
exile ; in 1816 named member of the Insti- 
tute, counsellor of Royal Museum, professor 
of Ecole des Beaux Arts ; 1819, Order of 
San Michel ; 1828, L. of Honour. His por- 
trait of Charles X (1827), some ceilings at 
the Louvre, and a Hercules exhibited in 
1835, were so severely criticised that Gros 
fell into a state of melancholy and drowned 
himself. Between 1816 and 1835 he had 
formed more than four hundred pupils. 
Works : Girl Bathing (1791), Female Por- 
trait, Besancon Museum ; Female Portrait 
(1798), Marseilles Museum ; Battle of Naz- 
areth (1801, sketch), Nantes Museum ; 
Plague of Jaffa (1804), Battlefield of Eylau 
(1808), Francis I and Charles V. visiting the 
Tombs in St Denis (1812), Louvre, Paris ; 


.Battle of Aboukir (1806), Capitulation of 
Madrid, Battle of the Pyramids (1810), In- 
terview between Napoleon and Emperor of 
Austria (1812), Louis XVHI quitting the 
Tuileries in 1816 (1817), Charles X at the 
Camp of Reirus (1827), portraits of Massena 
and Due de Bellune, Eugene Beauharnais, 
King Jerome (1808), Marshal Duroc, Count 
Daru, General Count Fournier-Sarlovese 
(1812), of himself, Versailles Museum ; Em- 
barkation of Duchease d'AngoulGme (1819), 
Bordeaux Museum ; Venus and Cupid (1832), 
Hercules and Diomedes (1835), Portraits of 
himself and Madame Gros, Toulouse Muse- 
um ; eleven miniatures, Montpellier Muse- 
um ; Portrait of Marshal Duroc, Nancy 
Museum ; Portraits of Napoleon, King of 
Westphalia, King of Naples, Louis XVlll, 
Charles X., and many contemporary persons 


TO SllO 4 

of note. — Delestre, Gros, Vie et (Euvres ; 
Bellier de la Chavignerie, i. 702 ; Cb, Blanc, 
Ecole francaise ; Villot, Cat Louvre ; Clus- 
man ; Chesnoan, Chefs d'&ole (Paris, 1883); 
Meyer, Gesch, 109 ; Kunstblatt (1835), No. 

Wesserling (Alsace) ; contemporary. Genre 
painter, pupil of Meissonier ; his pictures 
are well-drawn and characteristic. Medals : 
1867 ; 2d class, 1876. Works : The Mis- 
eries of War (1873); The Arquebusier, Fish- 
ing with a Line, Cloister of St Barthelemy 
at Nice (1874); Conspirators against Cardi- 
nal Mazarin, A Smoker, House of a Peasant 
near Nice (1875); Sitting for a Portrait 
(1876); Lying-in-Wait, The Critic (1878); 
The Blow with the Spur (1879); Pergolese 
in Vernet's Studio (1880); Two Philosophers, 
A Gentleman (1881); Maurice of Nassau 

GROSCLAUDE, LOTUS, born at Lock, 
Switzerland, Sept 26, 1788, died in Paris, 

Dec. 11, 1869. Genre painter, pupil of 
Begnault ; widely known through bis agree- 
ably-composed and well-coloured pictures. 
Associate member of the Berlin Academy, 
1827. Medals : 3d class, 1835 ; 2d class, 
1838 ; 1st class, 1845 ; 1st class at Geneva 
and Brussels. Works : The Drinkers (1827); 
Soap Bubbles (1833); Toast to the Vintage 
of 1834 (1835); Military Salute (1837); The 
Little Breakfast (1838) ; Fortune- Teller 
(1839); Three Gossips (1841); Marino Fall- 
ero (1842), Drinker (1846), Neuehatel Mu- 
seum ; Magdalen (1845), Collection of Duke 
of Treviso; Norma (1845); Saint Cecilia 
(1848); Beading the News of the Capture 
of the Mftlakoff, Two Little Friends (1859); 
Interior of a Stable near Geneva (1864); 
Departure of the Enrolled (1869), Musee 
Bath, Geneva. — Bellier de la Chavignerie, i. 

GROSS, RICHARD, born in Munich in 
1848. Portrait and figure painter ; taken 
to America in childhood ; pupil of the Na- 
tional Academy schools, New York, and 
studied in Munich. Bronze medal, Royal 
Academy, Bavaria. Studio in Munich (1882). 
Works : Savant ; Old Nuremberg ; Lady of 
Shalott; Portrait of William Chambers, 
Lady of the 17th century (1879); Initial 
Painter (1882). 

Dresden, April 23, 
1829. History and 
portrait painter, 
pupil of Dresden 
Academy under 
Bendemann, whom 
he assisted in the 
decoration of the 
Royal Palace, and 
then executed 

paintings in the Dresden Museum ; went in 
1858 to Florence, and in 1859 to Rome, 
where he studied Raphael. After his return 
he decorated (1864-71) the Loggia of the 
Leipsic Museum ; became professor at the 
Dresden Academy in 1867. Works : Leda 
with the Swan (1852), Sketch for Curtain to 

: eabyGOOglC 


Royal Theatre, Dante and Virgil (1879), Al- 
legories in Cupola and Venetian Boom 
{fresco, 1864), Dresden Museum ; Scenes 
from History of House of Solms (1856-68), 
Castle Wildenfels ; Abraham and the An- 
gels (1862); Reign of Creative Power (1865- 
71, fresco), Leipsic Museum ; Myth of Bac- 
chus, cycle in fresco (1877), Foyer, New 
Theatre, Dresden ; Science, Plato and Aris- 
totle with their Disciples, Cicero (1886). 
Frescos : Aula, St. Afras School, Meissen ; 
Apollo and Marsyas (1885). — Brockhaus, 
viii 636 ; Dlustr. Zeitg. (1872), i. 387 ; 
(1873), i. 124; Eunst-Chronik, xx. 700; 
ill 81. 

GROTTGER, ARTHUR, born at Ottyno- 
wice, Galicia, Nov. 11, 1837, died at Amelie- 
les-Bains, Pyrenees, Dec 13, 1867. His- 
tory, genre, and portrait painter, pupil in 
Vienna of Earl Blaas ; painted many excel- 
lent portraits, and, taking up political genre, 
attained renown through his able and orig- 
inal treatment of patriotic subjects. Works: 
Meeting of John Sobieski with Leopold I. 
(1859); Warsaw in seven scenes (1861); 
Poland in nine, and Lithuania in six pic- 
tures (1863); In the Valley of Tears— thir- 
teen scenes (1866). — AUgem. d. Biogr., ix. 
784 ; F. M. Aren, Arth. Grottger ; Brock- 
haus, viii. 646; rUustr. Zeitg. (1866)— 
(1867)—; Wurzbach, xL 420. 

GUSTS DE, born at Comities, West Flan- 
ders, in 1825, died March 30, 1870. His- 
tory and genre painter, pupil of Brussels 
Academy under Navez. Medal, 1867 ; Or- 
der of Leopold, 1860. Works : The Idler ; 
Ash Wednesday ; Tavern-Brawl ; Last Fare- 
well ; Sick ChUd ; The Walk (1855); Saying 
Grace, Brussels Museum ; Protestant Ser- 
mon ; Death of Charles V. ; Citizens of Ca- 
lais before Edward HL; Pilgrimage ; Alms ; 
Doctor's Visit ; Decorations in Market Hall 
at Ypres. 

enna, Sept 28, 1801, died there, April 12, 
1862. Flower painter, pupil of Vienna 
Academy, where he obtained four prizes, 

and of which he became professor in 1835. 
In 1839 he was made member of the Milan 
Academy. Works in the Museum, the 
Academy, and Imperial Library, Vienna. 
His brother, Earl Franz (1803-45), and his 
sister, Katharina (1807-59), were also able 
flower painters. — All gem. d. Biogr., ix. 791; 
Wurzbach, t. 379. 

GRUND, JOHANN, born in Vienna in 
1808. History and genre painter, pupil of 
Vienna Academy, where he obtained two 
first prizes ; went then to Munich, Dflssel- 
dorf, and Paris, lived for some time in Rome, 
settled in Carlsruhe, and afterwards in 
Baden-Baden. Works : Child and Guardian 
Angel (1835) ; Hungarian Tinker (1838) ; 
Bathing Girl (1840) ; Flight into Egypt, 
Italian Robber Asleep, Italian Woman and 
Child, Deborah, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Roman 
Peasant Woman playing with her Child 
(1848), Vienna Museum ; Invalid ; Playing 
Sisters ; Girl going to Nunnery ; Country 
Parson's Birthday ; Group of three Young 
Girls (1853), Medea (1855), Last Rose (1865), 
FQrstenberg Gallery, Donaueschingen ; 
Young Smokers ; Margaret in Prison ; Deb- 
orah ; Judith ; Hagar and Ishmael ; Diana ; 
Esther ; Magdalen ; Rebekah at the Well 
(1879) ; Ganymede (1885).— Muller, 220 ; 
Wurzbach, v. 39a 

GRUND, NORBERT, born in Prague in 
1714, died there in 1767. Genre painter, 
pupil in Vienna of Ferg ; travelled in Ger- 
many and Upper Italy, and returned in 1741 
to Prague, where he soon became the favour- 
ite and the most prolific painter of his time. 
His numerous excellent pictures, consisting 
of battle scenes, kirmesses, pastorals, and 
children's play scenes, landscapes, and ma- 
rines, are in private collections in Prague 
and in the castles of the Bohemian nobility. 
A Rural Dance, and A Banquet in a Garden, 
attributed to him, in the Dresden Gallery. — 
Allgem. d. Biogr., x. 34; Wurzbach, v. 

GBUNDMANN, OTTO, bora in Dresden 
in 1848. Portrait and genre painter, stud- 
ied under Professor Hubner and Van Lerius, 



And in Dresden, Antwerp, Dusseldorf, and 
Paris. In 1876 became one of the directors 
of the Boston Art Museum drawing and 
painting schools. Medal at Dresden. Paints 
chiefly interiors with figures, especially fish- 
ermen. Works : The Lorelei ; Scene from 
Schiller's Kabale und Liebe ; Portrait of 
Iter. Dr. Waterston and of Franklin. 

in the Rosenau, near Coburg, March 22, 
1819. Genre painter, pupil of Munich 
Academy under Strahuber, Anschfltz, and 
Diez ; studied especially the Dutch masters 
of genre; visited England in 1875. Works : 
Meeting after Boar-Hunt (1875) ; End of 
Card Game (1876) ; Lansquenets at Dice 
(1877) ; Retainer (1878).— MoUer, 221. 

GRUNENWALD, JAKOB, born at Bunz- 
wangen, Wttrtemberg, Sept 30, 1821. His- 
tory and genre painter, pupil of Stuttgart 
Art School under Dietrich and Neher; con- 
tinued his studies in Munich, and became 
professor at the art-school of Stuttgart in 
1875. Works : Christ healing the Sick ; 
Bridal Couple at Grandmother's; Shepherd's 
Return ; Hail-Storm (1865), Stuttgart Gal- 
lery; Interrupted Wedding Procession 
(1868) ; Return Home ; German Family of 
16th Century (1879) ; Surprised Gypsies ; 
Battle of Sendling (fresco, 1863), National 
Museum, Munich. — Brockhaus, viii. 572; 
Kunst-Chronik, xiv. 78 ; Mailer, 221. 

Aschaffenburg, died there after 1520. Ger- 
man school ; history painter, one of the 
great masters, styled by Sandrart the Ger- 
man Correggio, with whose works his show 
a striking affinity; lived in his native town 
and in Mentz the greater part of his life, 
but called by contemporaries von 
Aschaffenburg. Works : Altar of Isen- 
heim, Colmar Museum ; St. Lawrence, St. 
Cyriac, Frankfort Museum ; Conversion of 
St Maurice, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Resurrection, Basle Museum (lately con- 
tested); St Anthony, Cologne Museum ; 
Crucifixion, Schleissheim Gallery ; Last 
Judgment, Germanic Museum, Nuremberg ; 

several (recently verified), Vienna Museum. 
— Allgem. d. Biogr., x. 52 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
allemande; Dohme, 1L; Forster, Denkmale, 
VEX iii. 11 ; Eunstblatt (1841), 104 ; (1846), 
32, 48 ; KunsUJhronik, xv. 633 ; xvi. 721 ; 
Repertorium f. K, i 411 ; vii 133, 245; 
Woltmann, D. Kunst i. Elsaas, 247 ; W. & 
W„ ii. 436 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K-, i. 257; vi. 
138 ; viii. 821. 

GRUSS, ANTON, born at Schaab, Bohe- 
mia, in 1804, died in Vienna in 1872. His- 
tory painter, pupil of Prague Academy 
under Eadlik ; became director of the Har- 
rach Gallery in Vienna. Works : St Aloy- 
sius(1839) ; St Peter and St Paul ; Madon- 
na ; St Wenceslaua ; Last Judgment ; Faith, 
Hope, and Love. — Allgnm d. Biogr., x. 66. 

GRUSS, JOHANN, bom at Schaab, Bo- 
hemia, Nov. 22, 1790, died in Leitmeritz, 
Aug. 8, 1855. History painter, pupil of 
Prague Academy ; perfected himself by 
copying in the Prague and Dresden Gal- 
leries. Works : Great Altarpiece, Stadt- 
kirche, Reichstadt ; St Philomena ; St Ce- 
cilia, — Allgem. d. Biogr., x. 67. 

GRtJTZNER, EDUARD, bom at Gross 
Carlowitz, Sile- 
sia, May 26. 
1846. Genre 
painter, pupil of 
Munich Acad- 
emy and of Pi- 
loty; devoted 
himself to hu- 
mourous genre, 
and at once at- 
tained great suc- 
cess with his scenes from Shakespeare. After- 
wards the amusing sides of monastic and 
hunting life became his principal themes. 
Professor at the Munich Academy. Gold 
ledal, Berlin, 1872. Honorary Member 
of Munich Academy, 1885. Works : The 
Seven Arte ; In the Convent Cellar; Tasting 
Wine ; Sleepless Night ; Falstaff at the Inn 
(1869) ; Tippling Scene from Ivanhoe ; Fal- 
staff reviewing his Recruits ; Falstaff and 
Companions in Woods (1870) ; Scene from 


As You Like It ; Scene in the 'Wardrobe, 
Scene from Merry Wives, Mephistophelea 
behind the Scene, Unmistakable Defeat 
(1873) ; Capuchin mending his Cowl ; Dif- 
ficult Choice ; Ekkehard aud the Cellarer ; 
Hunter's Cant (1874) ; Convent Brewery ; 
Once and Now (1877) ; Humourous Reading 
in Convent Library (1879); Art Amateur in 
Curiosity Shop, Sunday Hunter (1880) ; 
Siesta in the Monastery, Bright as Gold 
(1881); Peasant Theatre (1882); Tavern 
Scene (1888) ; Monastic Hospitality, Sile- 
sian Tippler and the Devil (1884) ; The 
Convent Pike, In the Liquor Shop, Game 
of Tarock, Faust in Auerbach's Cellar (1885); 
Abbe '» Weakness, Testing Wines, John D. 
Lankenau, Philadelphia. — Brockhaus, viii 
578 ; Elustr. Zeitg. (1874), L 371 ; ii 190 ; 
(1878), i 7, 13; ii. 285; (1881), ii. 368; 
(1882), ii. 9, 608 ; (1884), L 479 ; Deutsche 
Ulufitr. Zeitg. (1885), i 98 ; Die Kunst far 
Alls, i 75 ; Kunst-Chronik, v. 122 ; ix. 240; 
x. 475; xix. 486; xx. 744; Mailer, 222; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K, viii 121; x. 31. 

GRYEFF (Grief, Grijff), ADBIAAN DE, 
born at Antwerp (?) in 1670 (?), died at Brus- 
sels (?) in 1715. Flemish school ; landscape, 
animal, and still-life painter in the manner 
of Jan Fyt There is no evidence of his 
birth at Antwerp, where he appears first in 
1689, when married ; seems to have lived at 
Brussels until 1692, then settled at Ant- 
werp, where he entered the guild in 1699. 
Said to have afterwards returned to Brus- 
sels. Works : Landscape with Dead Game, 
Huntsman and Dogs, Louvre, Paris ; Dead 
Birds, Fruits and Vegetables, Lille Muse- 
um ; Poultry, Dead Game, Cherbourg Mu- 
seum ; Dead Game (2), Rouen Museum ; 
Hares and Partridges, Dijon Museum ; Dogs 
and Dead Game (3), Basle Museum ; Land- 
scapes with Dead 
» ./>/ Game and Dogs (2), 
fV"L Poultry Yards (2), 
Hermitage, St. 
Petersburg; Allegory 
on War and Peace, New York Museum ; 
Dogs and Game, Historical Society, New 


York ; Babbits and Fowl, Mrs. Joseph Har- 
rison, Philadelphia. — Van den Branden, 

GSELLHOFER, KARL, born in Vienna, 
Oct 28, 1779, died there, May 17, 1858. 
History, portrait, landscape, and miniature 
painter, pupil of Vienna Academy under 
FOger; became professor there in 1819. Many 
of his landscapes are in the collections of 
the Imperial family. — Wurzbach, v. 403. 

GUARD! FRANCESCO, bom in Venice 
in 1712, died in 1793. Venetian school ; 
architecture and landscape painter, pupil 
and imitator of Canaletto ; painted many 
views of Venice, which, though leas precise 
in perspective and architectural detail than 
those of his master, are charming in style 
and execution. Works : View of Venice, S. 
M. do la Salute, Fete of Corpus Domini, 
FSte of Jeudi Gras, Procession of Doge to 
S. Zaccaria, Grand Hall in Palazzo Ducale, 
Louvre, Paris ; Isle of S. Giorgio, Museo 
Civico, Venice; Views (2) in Venice, Verona 
Museum ; Views in Venice (3), Bergamo 
Gallery; Grand Canal, Fondaco dei Tedes- 
cbi, Modena Museum; Interior of S. Marco, 
Brussels Museum ; Views (2) in Venice, 
Nantes Museum ; do. (4), Berlin Museum ; 
View in Venice, Church and Piazza of S. 
Marco, National Gallery, London ; View on 
the Grand Canal, Seven Views of Venice, 
Bridgewater Gallery, ib. ; Church on Grand 
Canal, South Kensington Museum, ib.; 
Views in Venice, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cam- 
bridge ; Church of San Giorgio, Piazetta of 
San Marco, Glasgow Gallery ; The Doge's 
j State Barge, Na- 

fl f n , tionalGallery, 

*. C tAsOstj/t Dublin ; The Ri- 
/ alto, Santa Maria 

»— * della Salute- 

Venice, New YorkMuseum. — Seguier; Wurz- 
bach, vi. 7. 

GUARIENTO DA PADUA, 14th century 
(1316-75). Venetian scbooL He painted 
frescos in the Eremitani, Padua, which, 
though much repainted, show that he in- 
herited the Byzantine manner of the preda- 

ted by GOOglC 

■s of Cimabue and Giotto. He was the 
first to adorn the Sala del Gran Consigho, 
Venice, in 1365, with a Paradise, afterward 
replaced by Tintoretto. A Crucifixion by 
him is in the Piuacoteca, Bassano, and fres- 
cos in the choir of the Eremitani, Padua. — 
C. & 0., Italy, il 252 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., 
vl 86 ; il 333, N. 3 ; Ridolfi, Le Maraviglie 

NI DI MEO DEL, died in 1517 (?). Sien- 
ese school. Described in a record of 1455 
aa employed in the baptistery of S. Gio- 
vanni, Siena, but his first extant picture 
(1466) is the Annunciation in S. Girolamo, 
Volterra. Its counterpart is in the sacristy 
of S3. Piero e Paulo at Buonconvento. 
Other of bis pictures are in the Siena Acad- 
emy, and in churches there. His hard and 
precise style somewhat resembles that of II 
Vecchietta.— C. &. C, Italy, iii. 70 ; Vasari, 
ed. Le Mon,, iv, 163 ; xi. 173 ; rii 85 ; Lttb- 
ke, Gesch. ital. Mai., i. 385. 


GTJAY, GABRIEL, born in Paris ; con- 
temporary. Genre painter, pupil of Gerdme 
and of Lequien. Medal, 3d class, 1878. 
Works : Ulysses suspended over Charybdis 
(1873) ; Slumber, After the Ball (1871) ; In 
Carnival, Incorruptible (1876) ; In the ab- 
sence of the Master, Latona and the Peas- 
ants (1877) ; The Leviteof Ephraim (1878); 
The Tallianum during the Persecution 
(1880) ; Mater AmabUis, Souvenir de Veules 
(1881) ; La Source, Cosette (1882) ; Father 
Babu, Mother Race (1884) ; The Wounded 
Dove (1885) ; Birth of Spring, Mrs. D. D. 
Colton, San Francisco. 

GUDE, HANS FREDRD2, born in Chris- 
tiania, March 13, 1825. Landscape and 
ine painter, pupil of Andreas Achenbach, 
and of Dusseldorf Academy under Schir- 
mer; visited Norway in 1843-46, lived 
Christiania in 1848-50, became professor at 
the DOsseldorf Academy in 1854 ; went to 
England in 1862, and to Carlsruhe in 1864 
as professor at the art-school. Since 
professor at Berlin Academy. Member of Am- 

sterdam, Hotter dam, Stockholm, Berlin, and 
Vienna Academies. Great gold medal in 
Berlin (1852 and 
1860) and Weimar 
(1861). Medal, Paris, 
2d class, 1855, 1861, 
1867. Numerous Or- 
ders. Works: High 
Plain with Reindeer 
(1847); Bridal Pro- 
cession on Hardan- 
ger Fjord (1848) ; 

Birch Wood (1848), Christiaiiia Gallery ; 
Four landscapes from Sogne (1849-50), Oa- 
carshall, near Christiania ; Night-Fishing in 
Norway (1851) ; Mountainous Landscape 
with Pine Wood (1852) ; Funeral in Sogne 
Fjord, Lledr Valley in Wales, Stockholm 
Museum; Norwegian Mountains; Mountain 
Shepherdesses with Herd; Fishermen in 
Evening Landscape; Summer Evening on 
Norwegian Lake (1851, figures by Tide- 
mand), Norwegian Coast (1870), National 
Gallery, Berlin ; Christiania Fjord (1857), 
Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Norwegian Harbour 
of Refuge (1873), Bremen Gallery ; da, 
Carlsruhe Gallery ; Calm-Sea, Cologne Mu- 
seum ; do., Stuttgart Gallery ; Chiem Lake, 
Vienna Academy ; Harbour of Christiania ; 
Pilot-House on Norwegian Coast ; View on 
Nether Rhine; Scotch Landscape (1878).— 
Llustr. Zeitg. (1882), L 387 ; KunstrChronik, 
v. 124 ; W. Holler, Dasseldf. E., 311, 343 ; 
Wiegmann, 388; Zeitschr., vi. 176 ; xvi 151; 
xxi 40. 
DORE, born in Paris, 
Aug. 15, 1802, died at 
Boulogne -sur-Seine, 
April 11, 1880. Marine 
painter, pupil of Girodet- 
Trioson, but soon aban- 
doned his style. His 
' early and best pictures, 

$ landscapes, and marines, 
are fine in colour and 
bold in execution, but the 
later ore tame and conventional in style. 


He was marine painter to the court under 
Louia Philippe and Napoleon ILL Medals : 
2d class, 1824 ; let class, 1848, 1855; L. of 
Honour, 1828; Officer, 1841; Commander, 
1855. Works : Return of the Fishermen, 
Burning of the Kent (1827) ; Rescue of the 
Passengers of the Colomb, Frigate Siren in 
a Gale, Explosion of the Emperor'a Fort at 
Algiers, View of Constantinople looking to- 
ward Fera, View of Salenelles at the Mouth 
of the One, Schooner Hazard captured by 
Boarding (1880 to 1840) ; On the Shore of 
the Channel, Evening on the Shore of the 
North Sea (1879), Sunrise on the Be de 
Bourbon, Sun rising over Vesuvius (1880) ; 
Sixty Marines (1838-55), Versailles Muse- 
um ; View of Havre, Avignon Museum ; De- 
votion of Captain Desse, Bordeaux Museum ; 
Others in Nantes, Perpignan, and Rodez 
Museums ; Coast Scene, Brussels Museum ; 
Fishermen on the Beach, Kunsthalle, Ham- 
burg ; View on French Coast (1826), 
Schwerin Gallery; Coast of Brittany (1844), 
Smugglers on Coast of Biscay (1845), Na- 
tional Gallery, Berlin ; Coast Scene (1839), 
Storm at Sea (1843), Ravene Gallery, ib. ; 
Shipwreck on Coast of Genoa (1837), Agi- 
tated Sea (1839), Leipsic Museum ; Naval 
BatUe in Time of Louis XTV. (1862), Dres- 
den Gallery ; Agitated Sea with Vessels, 
Basle Museum.— Art Journal (1880), 300 ; 
Bellier de la Chavignerie, i. 706 ; Kunst- 
Chronik, xv. 450 ; IUustr. Zeitg. (1880), i 37. 

Genre and portrait painter, pupil of Gerflme; 
member of Inst Medal, 3d class, 1885. Works : 
Regatta at Joinville (1881) ; Arrival from 
Cruise (1882) ; Ferry-man at Bry-sur-Marae 
(1883) ; On the Bluff (1884) ; Foundry (1885). 

GUERCINO, IL, bom at Cento, Feb. 8, 
1591, died in Bologna, Dec 22, 1666. Bo- 
lognese school. Real name Giovanni Fran- 
cesco Barbieri, but called Guercino because 
he squinted. Son of a peasant and mostly 
self-taught, but studied the works of the 
Carracci; afterward studied under Bene- 
detto Gennari and later in Venice and Bo- 
logna. Went to Rome in 1621, returned 

to Cento in 1623, and in 1642 established 
himself in Bologna. His house in Cento, 
Casa di Guercino, 
contains many of his 
works; others are 
in the Church del 
Roeario. His statue 
by Galletti is in the -r 
Piazza. Guercino | 
painted at first 
the manner of the 
Carracci, but after- 
ward inclined to imitate Caravaggio, and a 
few of his latest works approach the man- 
ner of Guido ; but he is very unequal, and 
some of his pictures are crude and marked 
by an insipid mannerism. His masterpiece 
is St PetroniUa raised from the Tomb, Cap- 
itoline Gallery, Rome. Works : Investiture 
of St Guglielmo (1620), St John Evangelist, 
Death of St Peter Martyr, Vision of St 
Bruno in the Desert, Bologna Gallery ; St, 
Sebastian (2), Madonna della Rondinella, 
Apollo and Marsyns, St Peter raising Ta- 
bitha, Moses, St Peter, Susanna at the 
Bath, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; Samian Sibyl 
1651), Endymion, Uffizi, ib. ; Dying Cleo- 
patra, Death of Cato, Holy Family, Palazzo 
Brignoli-Sale, Genoa ; Mutius Scasvola, Pa- 
lazzo Palavicini, ib. ; Andromeda, Death 
of Cleopatra, Palazzo Balbi, ib. ; Dismis- 
sal of Hagar, Brera, Milan ; Magdalen, Mar- 
riage of St. Catherine, Deposition, Naples 
Museum ; Mater Dolorosa, Return of the 
Prodigal, Palazzo Borghese, Rome ; Persian 
Sibyl, St. PetroniUa, Cleopatra and Octavius, 
John Baptist, Capitol Gallery, ib. ; Au- 
rora, Fame with Force and Virtue, Palazzo 
Ludovisi, ib. ; Christ at the Well, Ecce 
Homo, St Jerome, Palazzo Corsini, ib. ; 
Death of Dido, Palazzo Spada, ib. ; In- 
credulity of St Thomas, St Margaret of Cor- 
tona, Magdalen, Vatican, ib. ; Martyrdom 
of St Peter, Mare, Venus and Cupid, Mo- 
dena Gallery ; Ecce Homo, St Francis of 
Aaaisi, St Jerome, St Elizabeth Queen of 
Hungary, St James, St Frances, Return of 
Prodigal, and others, Turin Gallery ; Ma- 


donna and Saints, Brussels Museum ; Venus 
and Adonis (2), Birth of Adonis, Cepholi 
and Procris, Diana, Seiniramis, Dorinda 
Wounded, Lot and his Daughters, Holy 
Family, and others, Dresden Museum 
Christ crowned with Thorns, Madonna, Old 
Pinakothek, Munich ; Prodigal Son, Return 
of Prodigal, St John in the Desert, Sol- 
dier counting Money, Museum, Vienna ; 
Saint and Angel, Liechtenstein Gallery, ib.; 
Lot and his Daughters, Madonna, Raising 
of Lazarus, Salome receiving Head of John 
Baptist, Vision of St. Jerome, SS. Benedict 
and Francis of Assisi, Madonna with Patron 
Saints of Modena, Hersffia separating Rom- 
ulus and Tatius, Circe, St Cecilia, John 
Baptist, Portrait of Ouercino, Louvre, Paris ; 
St Peter in Prison, Susanna at the Bath, St 
Augustin, Magdalen, Allegory on Painting, 
Diana, Disinterested Love, Madrid Museum ; 
Angels weeping over Dead Christ, National 
Gallery, London; Beatrice Cenci, Bridge- 
water House, ib.; St Cecilia, Dulwich Gal- 
lery ; Assump- 
tion, Martyrdom 
of St Catherine, 
St Jerome, Her- 
mitage, St Pe- 
tersburg. — Cal- 
vi, Life (Bologna, 1808) ; Malvasia, ii. 255 ; 
Lanzi, iii. 108 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole bolonaise ; 
Dohme, 2iii; Meyer, Kunst. Lex., iii. 1. 

born in Toulon, March 25, 1783, died in 
Paris, Jan. 19, 1855. French school ; his- 
tory and portrait painter, pupil of Vincent. 
Win pictures are heavy in style, though good 
in colour. Medal in 1817 ; L. of Honour, 
1822 ; professor, same year. Works : Cain 
after Murder of Abel (1812); Christ Dead 
( 1817), Catholic Church in Baltimore ; Christ 
on the Virgin's Knees (1819); Anchises and 
Venus (1822); Ulysses resisting the Attacks 
of Poseidon (1821), Rennes Museum ; Adam 
and Eve expelled from Paradise (1827); Holy 
Family (1829), Toulon Cathedral ; Death of 
Christ, Church of Noailles ; Chevalier Rose 
during the Plague at Marseilles (1834) ; St 


Catherine (1838), St. Booh, Paris ; Revery, 
Conversion of St Augustine (1844); Ann of 
Austria, Regent, Portraits of Marshals Roche- 
fort, Boquelaure, and Duke de Chatillon, 
Versailles Museum. — Bellier de la Chavig- 
nerie, i. 714. 

born in Paris, March 23, 1838. History 
and portrait painter, pupil of H. Flandrin, 
Dumas, and Cornu. Medal, 1867. Works : 
Before the Feast of Bacchus (1865); Hagar, 
The Refuge (1867); Pietl(1868); St Cecilia 
dying hears a Celestial Concert (1869); The 
Danaides (1876); The Golden Age (1877); 
St Mary of Egypt (1878); Souvenir of Car- 
nival (1879); Love of Thetis and PeleuB 
(1880); Ugohno and his Children (1882); 
St Agnes (1885). 

born in Paris, May 
13, 1774, died in 
Borne, July 16, 
1833. French 
school; genre 
painter, pupil of 
Regnault ; became 
one of the most 
successful paint- 
ers of his day, 
and had among 

his pupils Gericault, Sigalon, Delacroix, and 
Ary Scheffer. His pictures, though masterly 
in technique, and correct in drawing, are 
treated iu a somewhat cold and stiff style. 
Guerin won the grand prix de Rome in 
1797. L. of Honour, 1803 ; Order of St 
Michael 1819 ; was made Member of Insti- 
tute same year ; appointed director of the 
French Academy in Borne, 1822 ; Baron, 
1829 ; Officer of the L. of Honour, 1832. 
Works: Offering to ^sculapius (1795), 
Louvre, Paris ; Murder of Geta, Coriolanus 
and the Body of Brutus (1796); Death of 
Cato (1797); Beturn of Marcus Sextus (1799), 
Louvre ; Orpheus weeping over the Grave 
of Eurydice (1801); Phadra and Hippo- 
lytus (1802), Louvre ; Replica in Bordeaux 
Museum ; Napoleon pardoning the Rebels 


in Cairo (1806), Versailles Museum ; Andro- 
mache and Pyrrhus (1810), Louvre, Replica 
in Bordeaux Museum ; Cephalus and Au- 
rora (1810) ; Dido listening to Story of 
jEneas (1817), Louvre ; Clytemnestra urged 
by Egisthue to murder Agamemnon (1817), 
Louvre , Murder of Priam, St. Louis ren- 
dering Justice, Angers Museum ; Death of 
Marshal Lannes in Battle of Essling, Valen- 
ciennes Museum ; Portrait of Henri de la 

Bochejacquelin (1817). — Bellier de la Cha- 
vignerie, L 714 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole francaise ; 
Larousse ; Leuonnant, B. Arts et Voyages, 
i 142 ; Meyer, Gesch., 12S. 

Fitzjamea (Oise), April 27, 1843. Genre 
painter, pupil of Lamotho. Medals : 2d 
class, 1872 ; 1st class, 1873. Works : Ma- 
zeppa (1872); Roland at Boncevalles (1873); 
Barbarians in a Boman Villa (1875) ; Hunt- 
ing (1882). 

in Meaux (Seine-et-Marne), Jan. 24, 1801, 
died in Paris, Nov. 29, 1671. Genre painter, 
pupil of Hersent and of Horace Vernet He 
gathered his subjects from many countries, 
and exhibited regularly from 1819 to 1850. 
Medals : 2d class, 1822 and 1831 ; 1st class, 
1839 ; L. of Honour, 1846. Works : Cui- 
rassiers of the Guard (1822); Little Organ- 
Player ; Soldier's Return ; Military Stable ; 
Oyster-Bed at Grandville ; Fishermen of 
Grandville and Cancale ; A Barbarism ; 
Trout-Fishing ; Pluck the Rose in the 
Morning of Life ; The Panniers, Marino 
Faliero and Helena ; Norman and Breton 
Sailors ; Sick Child ; Phcebus and Mme. 
Gondelaurier ; Phcebus and Esmeralda with 
Falourdel ; Return from the Fields ; Return 
from Market ; The Fountain ; Mother's 
Caresses ; Preparing for the Ball ; Mag- 
nolia ; Woman Bathing ; Bevery, Coming 
from the Bath. — Bellier de la Chavignerie, 

Madrid in 1632, died at Malaga in 1698. 
History painter, pupil of Miguel Manrique 
and of Alonso Cano. His works in Malaga, 
Granada, and Cordova have been compared 
to those of Van Dyck. 

GUFFENS, GODFROm, bom at Haseelt, 
Limburg, July 23, 1823. History painter, 
pupil of Antwerp Academy under Nicaise de 
Keyaer, then with his fellow-student Jan 
Swerts visited Paris in 1847, the art centres 
of Germany in 1850, and Italy in 1850-52. 
After their return they worked conjointly un- 
til 1874, when Swerts became director of the 
Prague Academy. In 1858 they were sent 
by the government to Munich, to report on 
the first great German Art exhibition, which 
caused the exhibition in Brussels in 1859 of 
cartoons by Cornelius, Kaulbach, Schwind, 
etc., greatly influencing Belgian art. Hon- 
orary member of Munich, Dresden (1859), 
and Amsterdam (1861) Academies, of Ger- 
man Art Union (1859); corresponding mem- 
ber of Institut de France (1873); member 
of Brussels (1876) and Antwerp (1880) 
Academies. Gold medals, Brussels, 1848, 
1851 ; Order of Leopold, 1855 ; Officer, 
1869 i Baden Order of Zahringer Lion, 
1860 ; Order of Oaken Crown, 1861 ; Wei- 
mar Order of White Falcon, 1865 ; Papal 
Order of Gregory, 1871 ; Order of Francis 
Joseph, 1875. Removed from Antwerp to 
Brussels in 1871. Works : Galileo in Pris- 
on ; Coronation of Virgin ; Count van Looz 
granting Community of Hasselt the Privi- 
lege of City ; Scene from Destruction of 
Pompeii ; Prayer of the Three Sisters ; Im- 
prisoned Blanca von Felsenstein in Prayer ; 
Christ allaying the Storm ; Hymnus Mysti- 
cub ; Lucre tia and her Women ; Pausias 
and Glycera ; Bouget de Lisle singing toe 
Marseillaise for the First, Time, Pennsylvania 
Academy, Philadelphia ; Julia and her Moth- 
er ; Return from Holy Sepulchre, Altarpiece 
with Madonna and Saints ; Portraits. Fres- 
cos : Seven Sorrows of the Virgin (1855-70), 
Notre Dame at St Nicolas, near Antwerp ; 
Scenes from Life of Christ (1859-71), St 


George's, Antwerp ; Episodes in History of I 
Flanders (1861-69), Town Hall, Ypern ; ' 
Christ and Two Angela (1870), Ince Blun- 
dell Hall, near Liverpool ; Scenes from 
Local History (1873-75), Town Hall, Cour- 
tray ; Fall of Man, Redemption, Baptism of 
Christ (1879), St Quentin's, Hasselt ; Sacri- 
fice of Melchisedek, Last Supper, Entry 
with the Ark of the Covenant into Jerusa- 
lem, Procession of Corpus Christi (1861), 
St. Joseph's, Louvain.— Mailer, 223 ; Rie- 
gel, Wandmalerei in Belgien, 19, 39, 42, 46 
-62, 86, 106, 247 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1864), 
xvii. 465 ; (1868), xiv. 74 ; Forster, Denk- 
male, VHL iii. 23 ; UluBtr. Zeitg. (1872), i 

GUGEL, KARL, born at Bergzabern, 
Rhenish Palatinate, April 12, 1820, died in 
Munich, June 26, 1885. Genre and por- 
trait painter ; painted at first in imitation of 
Murillo's style, which he abandoned for the 
representation of ideal female heads and 
figures in the manner of Giorgione. Has 
lived in Munich since 1852. Works : Lute- 
Player ; Gypsy Girl ; After the Bath ; Girl 
Writing ; Girl Reading ; Gardener-Maid ; 
Mother and Child ; Reading Aloud ; Witch- 
es' Ride to the Blocksberg ; Lady of 17th 
Century, New Pinakothek, Munich. — Mai- 
ler, 224 ; Kunst-Chronik, xx. 669. 

GUIAUD, JACQUES, bom at Chambery 
{Savoy), May 15, 1811, died in 1876. Land- 
scape and architecture painter, pupil of 
Watelet and of Cogniet Medals : 3d class, 
1843 ; 2d class, 1846. Works : Landscapes 
and City views in Italy, Tyrol, and Germany 
(1831-42); do. in Italy, Spain, and France 
(1847-76); Castles Gieberg and St Ulricb 
at Ribeauville — Haut-Rhin, View of Procida 
(1843); Castle of Henry IV. at Pau, View of 
Steinach-Tyrol (1846); View of Antwerp 
Cathedral, Amiens Museum ; Chateau de 
Madrid and Bois de Boulogne, Chateau and 
Park at Monceaux (1866), Galerie desCerfs, 
Fontainebleau. — Bellier de la Chavignerie, 

GTJIBAL, NICOLAS, born at Luneville, 
Nov. 29, 1725, died in Stuttgart, Nov. 3, 

1784. French school ; history painter, son 
of the sculptor Barthelemi G., pupil of Claude 
Charles in Nancy, and of Natoire in Paris. 
Called in 1749 to Stuttgart by Duke Charles 
Eugene of Wurtemberg, who sent him in 
1752 to Rome, where he studied under 
Mengs. On his return in 1755 he was ap- 
pointed first painter to the Duke, as well 
as professor and director of the gallery 
of paintings. Works : Ceiling of Bath 
House, Schwetzingen ; Ce ilin gs in Library, 
ib.; also at Hobenheim, Monrepos, and 
chapel at Ludwigsburg ; Paintings in 
churches at Zwiefalten, Gmtlnd, and Solo- 
thurn. — Allgem. deutsche Biogr., x. 102; 
Dussieux, Les artistes francais a 1 'stranger, 
239 ; Haakh, Beitrage, 5 ; Zeitschr. f.b. K, 


See Masacrio. 

GUIDO (Guido Reni), bom in Bologna, 
Nov. 4, 1575, 
died there, Aug. 
18, 1642. Bo- 
lognese school. 
Son of Daniele 
Reni, a musician ; 
pupil of Denis 
Calvart, afterward 
of the CarraccL 
For a time he was 
the favourite pu- 
pil of Lodovico, but he soon aroused so 
much jealousy that he was dismissed from 
the academy. After painting several years 
in Bologna, where his pictures excited much 
admiration, he went to Rome about 1608, 
with his fellow-pupil Francesco Albani, and 
notwithstanding the opposition of Caravag- 
gio and of Annibale Carracci, then at work 
in the Palazzo Farnese, he soon won an 
honourable position. Caravaggio was then 
the fashion in Rome, and when Cardinal 
Borghese gave Guido an order for the Oru- 


cifixion of Si Peter, he coupled it with the 
command that it should be in the manner 
of that painter. Guido obeyed, but he gave 
hie composition a grandeur and dignity be- 
yond the powers of Garavaggio. Paul V. 
employed him to decorate the private chapel 
in the Palace of Monte Cavallo, a work which 
gained him great reputation and made him 
many enemies, even his friend Albani be- 
coming inimical when he found that Guido 'a 
fame was likely to exceed his own. After 
an absence in Borne of twenty years, Guido 
returned to Bologna, where he painted the 
Massacre of the Innocents for S. Domenico, 
now in the Bologna Gallery, and St. Paul 
reproving St. Peter, for the Palazzo Zam- 
pieri, now in the Brora, Milan. Paul V. 
soon induced him to return to Rome, where 
he executed works in S. M. Maggiore and 
other public buildings, his most famous one 
being the fresco Aurora, in the pavilion of 
the Palazzo Rospigliosi. Guido's produc- 
tions vary much in manner according to the 
time of their execution, and may be assigned 
to three different periods : The first, marked 
by strong contrasts of light and shade; the 
second or transition period, stronger and 
more natural ; the third, pale-gray tones 
and insipid sentiment Works : Massacre 
of Innocents, Madonna della Pieta, Christ on 
the Cross, Samson Victorious, St. Sebastian, 
Madonna of the Rosary, Coronation of Vir- 
gin, Ecce Homo, Bologna Gallery ; Bacchus 
and Ariadne, Fortune, Cupid, Accademia di 
S. Luca,Rome ; portrait of Beatrice Cenci (f), 
Palazzo Barberini, ib. ; Concert of Angels, 
Cappella di S. Silvia, near S. Gregorio, ib. ; 
St. Andrew adoring Cross, S. Andrea, ib. ; 
Head of Joseph, Palazzo Borghese, ib.; St 
Sebastian, Capitol Gallery, ib. ; Salome, 
study for Crucifixion of St Peter, Ecce 
Homo, Mater Dolorosa, St John, Contem- 
plation, Palazzo Corsini, ib.; Madonna, Pa- 
lazzo Doria, ib. ; Aurora, Palazzo Rospigliosi, 
ib. ; Rape of Helen, portrait of Cardinal 
Spada, Palazzo Spada, ib. ; Madonna in 
Glory and Saints, Crucifixion of St Peter, 
Vatican, ib. ; Bacchus, St Peter, Rebecca at 

the Well Death of Cleopatra, Charity, St 
Elizabeth, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; Cumean 
Sibyl, Bradamante and Fiordaspina, portrait 
of Guido, Madonna with St. John, Virgin, 
Uffizi, ib. ; Christ on the Cross and Saints, 
Lucca Gallery ; SS. Peter and Paul, Apostle 
Reading, Brera, Milan ; Christ on the Cross, 
Modena Gallery ; Atalanta's Race, Four 
Seasons, Infant Christ, Naugioafi, Vanity 
and Modesty, Museum, Naples ; Nativity, S. 
Martino, ib. ; John Baptist, Madonna, Fame, 
St Francis of Assisi, St Catherine, Apollo 
and Marayas, Group of Cherubs, Lucretia, 
Turin Gallery; David and Goliath, Annun- 
ciation, Purification of Virgin, Madonna, 
Madonna and St John, Christ and Samari- 
tan Woman, Christ giving Keys to Peter, 
Christ in the Garden, Ecce Homo, Magda- 
len (?), St Sebastian, Union of Design and 
Colour, Hercules and the Hydra, Hercules 
and Achelous, Rape of DeJ antra, Death of 
Hercules, Rape of Helen, Sleep of Jesus (at- 
tributed), Louvre, Paris ; Lucretia, Cleo- 
patra, Madonna de la Silla, St Sebastian, St 
James, Assumption, St Jerome in the 
Desert, Martyrdom of St Apollonia, Mag- 
dalen, and others, Madrid Museum ; St 
Jerome, Magdalen, Youthful Christ and St 
John, Lot and his Daughters, Susannah and 
the Elders, Coronation of the Virgin, Ecce 
Homo, National Gallery, London ; St John 
in the Wilderness, St. Sebastian, Dulwich 
Gallery ; Venus and Graces, Ecce Homo, 
National Gallery, Edinburgh ; Venus and 
Cupid, Ninus and Semiramia, Ecce Homo 
(2), Christ crowned with Thorns (2), Christ 
appearing to Virgin, Madonna in Adoration, 
Madonna with Saints, Bacchus, Dresden 
Gallery ; Madonna and Saints, Berlin Mu- 
seum ; Cleopatra, Cassel Gallery ; St Je- 
rome, Apollo and Marsyas, Assumption, Mu- 
nich Gallery ; Magdalen, Presentation in 
Temple, Baptism of Christ, Vienna Museum ; 
Adoration of Shepherds, Jupiter and Anti- 
ope, Descent from Cross, Liechtenstein Gal- 
lery, Vienna ; David and Goliath, Adoration 
of Magi, St Joseph and Infant Christ, Ma- 
donna and St Francis, St Peter, Dispute of 


the Fathers, Youthful Virgin with Maidens, 
Hermitage, St Petersburg. — Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole bolo- 

ise ; Des- — J *S 


Ilk?)" i UaJO KjLH^U 

579;Burck- J ' cUaJlL afr 

hardt, 764, * 

770, 773 ; Lund (Roscoc), iii. 93 ; Malvasia, 

ii. 5 ; Rosini, vi. 55. 

OUTDO, portrait, by himself, Uffizi, Flor- 
ence. Upper part of head broad and fine, 
chin wants character. Eyes lively and in- 
telligent Engraved by L. F. Manage. — 
Wicar, ii. Part 22 ; Lavioe, 46. 

GUIDO DI PIBTBO. See Angelico, Fra. 

cni, Massimo. 

GUIDO DA SIENA, Sienese school, lat- 
ter half of 13th century. The Madonna in 
S. Domenico, Siena, falsely dated 1221, was 
painted probably in 1281 ; and Guido is 
probably identical with Guido Graziaiii, who 
appears in documents of 1278. The inscrip- 
tion has been often retouched, and the 
heads of the Virgin and Child have evi- 
dently been entirely repainted. This is im- 
portant, as upon it rests the question 
whether Florence or Siena was the cradle of 
the revival of painting in the 13th century. 
By the rectification of the date, the priority 
of the Florentine Cimabue to the Sienese 
Guido is established, and the honour remains 
to Florence. The Madonna in the Academy 
at Siena, also ascribed to Guido, is much in- 
ferior to the one at S. Domenico. A Ma- 
donna with Saints, attributed to him, is iu 
the Gallery of the Historical Society of New 
York. — C. A C, Italy, i. 180 ; Vasari, ed. Le 
Moo., L 233 and N. 1 ; Milanesi, Delia vera 
eta di Guido Pittore Sienese (Florence, 


GUIGNABD, GASTON, born at Bor- 
deaux ; contemporary. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Ferry. Medal, 3d class, 1884 

Works : Foraging, After the Storm (1874) ; 
Scouts in Flight (1875) ; Behind the Tav- 
ern (1876); Halt of NomadB (1877) ; Farm 
Yard (1878) ; "Winter (1879) ; Marsh of 
Montf errand (1880) ; Morning Dawn in Au- 
tumn (1881) ; Requisitions in Beauce in 
1870-71, Return to the Park (1882) ; La- 
gunes of Guyan-Mestraa — Gironde, Convoy 
in Marshes of Quiberou (1883) ; In the Or- 
chard (1884) ; Open Pasture (1885). 

GUIGNET, ADEIEN, bom at Anneey, 
Savoy, Jan. 21, 1816, died in Paris, May 19, 
1854. History painter, brother and pupil 
of Jean Baptiste G., and pupil of Blondel ; 
took Salvator Rosa and Decamps for his 
models. Medals : 3d class, 1844 ; 2d class, 
1848. Works : Moses exposed on Nile, 
Lost Travellers attacked by Bear, Joseph re- 
lating his Dream, Hagar in the Desert 
(1840) ; Salvator Rosa among the Bobbers 
(1844) ; Defeat of Attila by iEtius ; Feast 
of Belshazzar ; Gardens of Armida. — Nbu- 
velle Biogr. generate. 

Paris, March 26, 1840. 
Genre and landscape 
painter, pupil of Pi- 
cot, Barrias, and of 
the Boole des Beaux 
Arts. Won the 2d 
prix de Rome in 1863, 
and then made the 
first of many visits to 
Algeria. In 1865 he 
painted the portrait 

of the late Sultan Abdul Aziz. Medals : 
1865 and 1867 ; 2d class, 1872 ; 3d class, 
1878 ; L. of Honour, 1878. Works : Even- 
ing Prayer in the Sahara (1863), Luxem- 
bourg Museum ; Arab Market in Plain of 
Tocria (1865), Lille Museum ; Flute-Players 
at the Bivouac (1866) ; Am Eerma or Source 
of the Figuier, The Douar (1867) ; Douar 
Women at the River (1872), Dijon Museum; 
Algerian Interior (1874) ; Bivouac of Camel- 
Drivers (1875) ; Arab Market (1877); Peace 
in the Evening (1878) ; Laghouat or Sou- 
venir of the Sahara (1879), Luxembourg 


Museum ; The Palanquins {1880) ; Dwell- 
ing on the Sahara (1882) ; La Seguice — 
Algiers, Wool Spinners at Bou-Saada (1685). 
— BelKer de la Chavignerie, i. 72fi. 
TOINE, born at 
Chantilly (Oise); 
contemporary. Stu- 
dio in Paris. Land- 
scape painter, pu- 
pil of Corot and of 
Oudinot. Medals : 
v 2d class, 1874 and 
1876 ; L. of Hon- 
our, 1880. Works: 
ville (1872), Grenoble Museum ; Bercy in 
December (1874), Luxembourg Museum ; 
Beach at Villiers (1878) ; Chaos at Yilliers 
(1879) ; Old Quay at Bercy (1880) ; Old 
Villerville, Beach at St Taast-la-Hougue 
(1881); Morsalines (1882); Saint-Suliac 
(1883) ; Villervffle, Meudon (1884) ; View 
of Paris (1886). 

born in Paris, Oct. 15, 1817, died at Bois le 
Boi (Seine-et-Marne), Oct., 1880. Genre 
painter, pupil of Gros, painted scenes from 
daily life of the middle classes, then sub- 
jects from Brittany and the Pyrenees ; also 
hunting pieces. Medals : 3d class, 1841 ; 
2d class, 1845, 1859 ; L. of Honour, 1861. 
Works; First Artistic Attempt (1840); Vic- 
tim of Interesting News, Happy Family, 
Souvenir of Glory (1841) ; Holy Family, 
After Emigration, Picture Seller, Love in 
the City (1845); Collector of Treasures 
(1855) ; The Gallant Bearnese, The Blue 
Boys passing Brittany in 1793 (1859) ; 
Women winnowing in the Pyrenees, Distri- 
bution of Consecrated Bread in Church of 
Fontainebleau (1861) ; Joy at the Hearth, 
Orden'del Senor Alcalde (1865) ; La Trills, 
Sculptor's Studio (1869) ; Los Pordioseros, 
La Mariposa (1877) ; Notre Dame d'Aragon 
(1879) ; Pictures in Toulon Museum.— Bel- 
lier de la Chavignerie, L 728 ; Meyer, Gesch., 

in Paris, March 29, 1829. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Noel and Gleyre. Trav- 
elled much in Southern France, and then 
settled at Vezelay (Yomie). Medal in 1867; 
2d class, 1880. Works: Winter Morning 
at Cannes, Moonlight at Cannes (1867) 
River Cure in Burgundy, Beggar, Summer's 
Day (1874) ; Vezelay (1880) ; August (1882) ; 
Walnut Trees of Cordelle (1883) ; Vezelay 

GUILLOU, ALFRED, bom at Concar- 
neau (Finistere) ; contemporary. Land- 
scape painter, pupil of Cabanel and Bou- 
guereau. Medals : 3d class, 1877 ; 2d class, 
1881. Works : Low Tide at Concamean 
(1874) ; Shrimp Fishing (1875) ; The Pilot 
of Concsxneau (1879) ; Lobster Fishing at 
Benodet (1880); The Last Seaman of the 
Vengeur, Fishing with a Line (1881) ; De- 
parture of the Fishermen, Return of Shrimp- 
Catcbers (1882) ; The Fishing Lesson, Re- 
turn of the Tide (1883) ; Chasse en Mer 
(1884) ; Grandfather's Canoe, Marianne 

OF, Paul Delaroche, Due d'Aumale, Chateau 
de Chantilly ; canvas. The body of Henri 
de Guise lies near the foot of a bed, at right, 
in a richly-furnished apartment ; at left, 
the murderers, eight in number, with naked 
swords ; one of them speaks to the king, 
Henri HI., who enters at a door and casts a 
timid and curious glance at his enemy! 
M Geffroy, of the Comedie-francaise, is 
said to have posed for the king. Salon, 
1835 ; painted for Due d'Orleans, 10,000 
francs ; engraved by T. V. Deschvux (1852). 
— Larousse, i 768 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole fran- 
caise, iii. 

TIANS, Georges Jean Vibert,Vf- T.Walters, 
Baltimore ; canvas, H. 2 ft x 4 ft ; dated 
1870. Gulliver fastened to the ground and 
surrounded by the Lilliputians. 

GTjNKEL, FRIEDRICH, born in Cased 
in 1820, died by suicide in Borne, Feb. 24, 
1876. History painter, pupil of Cassel and 



Berlin Academies and of Cornelius ; went to 
Borne in 1817. Works : Resurrection; Bat- 
tle of Anninius, Muximilianeum, Munich ; 
Drusus induced to Return ; Battle on the 

GTJNTHER, OTTO, born at Halle, Sept. 
30, 1838, died at Weimar, April 20, 1884 
Genre painter, pupil in 1858-61 of Dllasel- 
dorf Academy, and in 1863-66 of Weimar 
Art School under Preller and Romberg. 
Professor at Konigsberg Academy in 1877- 
80, then returned to Weimar. Gold medal, 
Berlin, 1876. Works: Wedding Procession 
in Thuringia ; The Widower (1871), In 
Prison (1878), National Gallery, Berlin; 
Last Farewell of Emigrant Woman ; Dis- 
puting Theologians (1876), Cologne Muse- 
um ; Friendly Neighbours, Home Again ; 
The Criminal (1877) ; Virgin, Lucifer, and 
Death (1676) ; Last Visit (1879) ; Village 
Bevolt (1880) ; Allegorical Figures in Cen- 
tral Hall, Leipsic— Dlostr. Zeitg. (1875), i. 
293 ; KunstnCbronik, xix. 484 ; is. 184 ; 
Leaner, D. mod. K, i. 93 ; ii. 102 ; D. 
Bundschau, xvii. 801. 

GURK, EDUABD, born in Vienna in 
1802, died in Jerusalem, March 81, 1841. 
Architecture painter, pupil of the Vienna 
Academy. Early favoured with orders by 
the Emperor, and made court-painter, he 
went with the Archduke Frederic on the 
expedition to Syria, to paint the most in- 
teresting monuments of Palestine for the 
court. Works : St Thomas's Church in 
Brunn ; Interior of Mariazell ; Cathedral of 
KOniggratz ; Imperial Burg in Prague ; Cor- 
onation of Emperor Ferdinand in Prague. — 
Allgem. d. Biogr., x. 182 ; Wurzbach, vi. 

GUBLITT, LCD WIG, born at Altona, Hoi- 
stein, March 8, 1812. Landscape painter, pu- 
pil in Hamburg of Bendixen ; then studied 
in Munich in 1832-35, and at Copenhagen 
Academy in 1835-38 ; visited Norway, Swe- 
den, and in 1839 Upper Italy, Tyrol, and 
Munich ; after his return became member 
of the Copenhagen Academy. In 1843 he 
went to DQsseldorf, and soon after to Borne, 

Naples, and Sicily ; lived in 1846-48 in Ber. 
lin, then at Castle Niachwitz in Saxony, and 
in 1851-69 in Vienna, whence he visited 
Dalmatia (1855), Italy (1856), and Greece 
(1858). From 1859 he lived partly at 
Gotha, partly at Castle Siebleben, which 
Duke Ernest had placed at his disposal, 
visited Spain and Portugal in 1867-68, set- 
tled in Dresden in 1873, and lives now in a 
villa at Plauen. Member of Copenhagen 
and Madrid Academies ; professor. Works : 
North Shore of Lake Garda (1839), Castell 
Gandolfo (1846), View in Sicily, Leipsic 
Museum ; Crissean Plain in Greece ; Plain 
near Thebes ; Roman Campagna (1646) ; 
Landscape in Albanian Mountains (1860), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Valley near Sor- 
rento (1854), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Lake 
of Nemi ; Landscape from Sabine Moun- 
tains ; Keller Lake in Holstein (1865); Gib- 
raltar (1877); Evening in Busaco Monastery 
(1878), Dresden Gallery ; Beech Wood on 
P15n Lake ; View in Jutland ; The Acropo- 
lis at Athens, Gotha. Museum ; View near 
Berchtesgaden, New Pinakothek, Munich. — 
Brockhaus, vii. 633 ; lllustr. Zeitg. (1878), 
ii, 143 ; Muller, 226 ; Zeitschr. UK,j. 
(Mittheilungen, ill 26) ; Weilbach, 216 ; 
Wurzbach, vi 88. 

GUSSOW, KARL, born at Havelberg, 
Brandenburg, in 
1843. Genre and 
portrait painter, pupil 
of Weimar Art School 
under Bamberg and 
Pauwels; went in 
1867 to Munich, and 
after a visit to Italy . 
returned to Weimar. 
In 1871 he became 
professor at the Art 
School, in 1874 at the Carlsruhe Art School, 
and in 1875 at the Berlin Academy. Gold 
medal, 1875. Member of Berlin Academy 
in 1883. Works: Diana Hunting (1870); 
Faun and Nymph ; Woman going to Church ; 
Blind Man's Buff; Sweetheart's Portrait 
(1872); Sewing Giri Morning Hour (1873); 



Little Cat, Lover of Flowers, Lost Happi- 
ness, Feasant's Family (1876); 'Washing 
Statue of Venus ; Welcome (1878); Still 
Life, Studio, Fruit-Seller, Portrait of Old 
Lady (1878); Two Old People (1880); Ar- 
tilleryman's Story of the Battle, Ghent 
Museum.— Ulustr. Zeitg. (1873), ii. 473; 
Mailer, 227 ; Rosenberg, Berliner Maler- 
schule, 308 ; Leixner, D. mod. K, L 42 ; D. 
Rundschau, is- 319 ; xiii. 328 ; Zeitschr., xv. 
45 ; xvi. 145. 

lin, died March 21, 1881. Genre painter, 
chiefly of historical and Oriental scenes, 
which he executed with humour and fine 
colouring. Works : Scene from Gutz yon 
Berlichingen ; Severe Lecture ; Drug-Store 
in 11th Century ; Old Toper ; Recruiting 
in Thirty "Sears' War ; Columbus at La Ra- 
bida ; At City Hall of a German Town at 
the End of Thirty Tears' War ; Forbidden 
Reading, Stettin Museum. — Mailer, 227. 

GUTHERS, KARL, born in Switzerland 
in 1844. Portrait and genre pointer, went 
to America with his parents in 1851, and 
painted portraits at Memphis, Term. ; went 
in 1868 to Paris, where he studied under 
Cabasson, Pils, and at the Ecole des Beaux 
Arts ; studied in Brussels and Antwerp in 
1870, and in 1871 went to Rome ; returned 
to Memphis in 1873, and moved to St Louis 
in 1874. Works: Awakening of Spring 
(1871); Ecce Homo ; Evening on the Nile ; 
Sappho; American Women. Many excel- 
lent portraits. — Mailer, 227. 

Greenwich, England, Jan. 16, 1824. Genre 
painter, pupil of Buttersworth and of Am- 
brose Jerome, English painters. Settled in 
New York in 1854; elected an A.N. A. in 
1861, and N.A. in 1865. Studio in New 
York. Works : The Spring (1865); Sorrows 
of Little Red Riding Hood ; Orange Girl j 
Fair Venice ; Supplication ; Knot in the 
Skein ; The Gamut ; Children catching the 
Bird ; Little Sweeper, C. P. Huntington, 
New York ; Bedtime Story, T. B. Clarke, 
ib.; Cash in Hand, First Up, T. M. Scott, 

San Francisco ; Making a Train, G. Whit 
ney, Philadelphia ; Spirit of 76 (1880) ; 
Waiting (1882); See-Saw Margery Daw 
(1884).— Sheldon, 65. 

GYARFAS, EUGEN, bora in Hungary ; 
contemporary. Genre painter. Works : 
The First Tooth ; Judgment at the Bier 
(1883); Joys of Winter (1884).— La Dus- 
tracion (1884), L 395 ; Eunst-Chronik, xix 
351 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., xix. 230. 

GYNECEUM (Le Gynecee), Gustave Bou- 
langer, Paris. The female apartments in a 
Pompeiian house. In a Corinthian, atrium 
the mistress of the house, seated under an 
awning, watches her children at play, while 
her husband comes in at the background 
and is greeted by the dog, which runs to 
meet him ; around their mistress, maid- 
servants drive away flies and water flowers. 
Salon, 1875. 

GYSELS (Geysels, Gijzena, Gysen), PEE- 
TER, born in Antwerp, baptized Dec. 3, 
1621, died there in 1690 or 169L Flemish 
school ; pupil of Jan Boots, perhaps also of 
Jan Brueghel the younger, but formed him- 
self after Jan the elder ; painted flowers, 
fruit, and still life, also small landscapes. 
Master of the guild at Antwerp in 1660. 
His works are distinguished for good com- 
position and graceful treatment Works : 
Dead and Living Animals, Mr. Hope, Lon- 
don ; Dead Game, Marquis of Bute, ib. ; 
do., Brussels Museum ; Still Life (last work), 
Antwerp Museum ; Game with Hunting Im- 
plements, Hague Museum ; do., Darmstadt 
Museum ; A Town, Amsterdam Museum ; 
ten pictures (landscapes and still life), Dres- 
den Gallery ; Dutch Village, Landscape, Ber- 
lin Museum ; Windmill in level Country, 
Old Pinakothek, Munich ; do., Schleissheim 
Gallery ; Breakfast Table, Schwerin Gallery ; 
Fruit-piece, Hermitage, St Petersburg. — 
Immerzeel, i. 300 ; Kramm, ii. 615 ; Mich- 
iels, v. 378 ; Booses (Reber), 416 ; Van den 
Branden, 416. 

GYSIS, NIKOLAUS, born in Isle of Tinos, 
Greek Archipelago, March 1, 1842. History 
and genre painter, pupil of Munich Acad- 


emy and of Piloty. In 1872 he went to 
Athens and travelled through Asia Minor. 
Since 1874 has resided 
in Munich, where he 
has painted several 
Oriental subjects and 
recently some large al- 
legorical pictures. 
Medal, Paris, 3d class, 
1878. Works : Joseph 
interpreting theDream; >■ 

Dog-Visitation (1870);' 
The Orphans ; News 
of Sedan (1871); The 
Chicken Thief (1873) ; Betrothal of Children 
in Greece ; Pilgrimage of Painters in the 
East ; Child's Confession (1878), Darmstadt 
Museum ; Art and its Genii (1879) ; Charity, 
New York Museum. — Brockhaus, viii. 670 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, vi 6 ; Mailer, 228. 

HAACH, LUDWIG, bom in Dresden 
in 1813, died in Borne, March 24, 
1842. History painter, pupil of the 
Drawing School at Meissen, and in 1880 of 
Dresden Academy, then, in 1837, under 
Hildebrandt, of DOsseldorf Academy ; in 
1841 went to Borne, where he undermined 
his health by overwork. In 1836 he deco- 
rated a hall in the house of the bookseller 
Earth at Leipsic with convivial scenes. 
Works: Christ in the Storm (1838); Isaac 
and Bebekah (1840); The Three Kings be- 
fore Herod (1842, unfinished). — Andresen, 
i 44 ; W. Mdller, DQsseldf. K., 42. 

HAAG, KARL, born at Erlangen, Wur- 
temberg, April 20, 1820. Genre painter, 
pupil of Nuremberg Art School, continued 
his studies in Munich and Borne ; went in 
1847 to England, where he took up paint- 
ing in water-colours exclusively ; visited It- 
aly, and, in 1868, the Libyan Desert, dwelt 
for months among the Bedouins, and has 
since made repeated visits to Egypt and 
other parts of the East Since 1867 has 
lived at Hampstead, London. His pictures 
are distinguished by ethnographic interest 

as well as characteristic conception and 
masterly chiaroscuro. Court - painter to 
Duke of Coburg-Gotha ; member of Royal 
Society of Painters in Water Colours since 
1850 ; honorary member of Societe Beige 
des Aquarellistes ; L. of Honour, 1878. 
Works : Ancient Vestibule beneath Temple 
Area in Jerusalem ; Golden Gateway ; Holy 
Rock in Mosque of Omar ; Aghile Agha re- 
ceiving Prince of Wales; Tribe of Anazeh 
Bedouins leaving Palmyra ; Bivouac in the 
Desert ; Arrival at Well in Desert ; Prepar- 
ing Evening Meal ; Desert Hospitality ; On 
the Alert; Ready for Defence; Terror of 
the Desert ; Danger In the Desert ; Sabine 
Woman ; Bedouin's Devotion ; Ruins of 
Baalbek ; Panorama of Palmyra ; Sphinx of 
Ghizeh ; Pyramid of Cheops (1880) ; View 
in Bavarian Alps ; High-Priest at Nablus ; 
A Dragoman ; Acropolis at Athens ; Young 
Nubian Woman ; Nargileh ; Evening at Bal- 
moral ; Royal Family ascending Loch-na- 
Garaidh ; Stags brought Home ; Queen and 
Prince Consort fording Pool TarfC — Art 
Journal (1883), 71 ; Brockhaus, viii 672 ; 
Muller, 228 j Men of the Time (1884), 608 ; 
Portfolio (1878), 81. 

at Utrecht, Aug. 23, 1807. Genre and land- 
scape painter, son and pupil of Caaparis van 
Haanen (1778-1849); studied from nature on 
his travels (about 1842) through Germany 
to Vienna, whence he made study-trips to 
Hungary, visited Antwerp, and since 1864 
seems to have settled at Cologne. His pict- 
ures are distinguished for exquisite light 
effects and fine execution. Member of Am- 
sterdam Academy in 1836. Works : Even- 
ing School ; Peasant Inn ; Quiet Evening, 
Vienna Museum ; Dutch Vestibule (1841), 
Leipsic Museum ; Oak Wood in Hungary, 
Meadow in the Woods after Bain, Lady| 
with Artist's Sketch-book (1847) ; Dutch,' 
School by Candlelight (1851); Market at 
Night, View in Bakony Forest — Hungary 
(1852); Paternal Instruction, Halt before 
Dutch Inn, Old Dutch Church in Evening 
Light (1863); Dutch Interior in Sunlight 


(1857). His sister and pupil, Elisabeth 
Alicia (bom in 1809, died in 1845), mar- 
ried to the genre painter, Petrus Kiers, 
was an artist whose able work was cut short 
by an untimely death ; honorary member 
of Amsterdam Academy in 1838. — Immer- 
zeel, ii. 2 ; Kramia, ii. 619 ; Wurzbach, vi. 

HAANEN, KEMY (Remigius Adrianus), 
VAN, bora at Oosterhoudt, North Brabant, 
Jan. 6, 1812. Landscape painter, brother 
of Georges Gillis, pupil in Hilversum of 
Ravenszwaay ; since 1834 has visited the 
greater part of Europe, with long sojourns 
in Frankfort, London, and St Petersburg, 
and in 1842 settled in Vienna Member of 
Amsterdam, Milan, Venice, and St Peters- 
burg Academies. Has etched many of bis 
own works. Works : Landscape on Theiss 
Birer ; Winter Landscape (1835), National 
Gallery, Berlin ; da (1846), Ravene Gal- 
lery, ib. ; Oak Wood in Winter (1864); 
View in Gelderland; Wood-Interior ; Storm 
after Sunset ; Wood Landscape in manner of 
Hobbema (1877); Wood Landscape (1884) ; 
da (3, 1885). His son Cecil ib also an able 
landscape painter. — Brockhaus, viii. 673 ; 
Immerzeel, ii. 3 ; Eramm, ii. 619 ; Dio- 
skuren, 1865-67 ; Muller, 229 ; Wurzbach, 




gen van Sint-Jans. 

LEONARDUS DE, bom at Hedel, North 
Brabant, March 25, 1832, died in Brussels, 
Aug. 16, 1880. Animal painter, pupil in 
Haarlem of Van Oos, went in 1857 to Brus- 
sels, and within a few years achieved a bril- 
liant success. Gold medal, Munich, 1869. 
Works: After the Flood (1861); Horses in 
Rainy Weather ; Young Bull at the Ferry ; 
Landscape with Cattle ; Bull with Cow ; 
Donkey in the Downs (1869); Trio of Don- 
keys, Lisbon Gallery ; Cattle on the Rhine ; 
Three Comrades ; Cows at Pasture, National 
Gallery, Berlin ; Pasture on Banks of the 

YsseL Brussels Museum; Cattle-piece, Kunst- 
halle, Hamburg ; Milking Woman ; Common 
Pasture ; Labourer's Cow ; Approach of 
Storm ; Noonday Rest on North Sea ; Cat- 
tle on River-bank in Holland. — Meyer, Con v. 
Lex., xviL 427. 

DRICK DE, bom in 
Rotterdam, Dec. 12, 
, 1832. Marine paint- 
I er, pupil of Spoel and 
Bosboom, and later of 
Louis Meyer at The 
Hague. Sketched 
along the coasts of 
- Holland and Eng- 
land; in 1851 studied 
water-colour in Lon- 
don ; BetUed in 1858 in New York, where 
he still resides. Elected an A.N.A. in 1863, 
and N.A. in 1867. Works : Admiral Farra- 
gut's Fleet passing New Orleans (1867) 
Coast of France (1868) ; Sunset at Sea 
(1871) ; Beach at West Hampton (1875) 
Beach at Granville— Coast of France, Fish- 
ing Smacks in the English Channel (1878); 
Sunset at Pigeon Cove, H. P. Kidder, Bos- 
ton ; Moonlight at Sea, H. B. Hurlbut Col- 
lection, Cleveland ; Gros-Nez Castle— Isle 
of Jersey, Leland Stanford, San Francisco ; 
Sunrise in a Fog near Newport, E. L\ Mor- 
gan Collection, New York ; Wreck on the 
Isle of Jersey, Tropical Sunset at Sea, R, L 
Stuart, ib. ; Shipwreck, August Belmont, ib.; 
Sunset on Connecticut Coast, C. S. Smith, 
ib.; Sunset at Sea, Mrs. Joseph Harrison, 
Philadelphia; Sea View, C. H. Clarke, ib.; 
After the Collision— Moonrise (1879); Men- 
haden Boats off Long Island Beach (1880); 
Herring Boats off Scheveningen (1881) ; 
Breezy Day— Mouth of the Tyne (1882) ; 
At Sea, Moonlight — New England Coast 
(1883); Off Marblehead— Mass., Waiting for 
the Mackerel, Fresh Breeze (1884). 

bom in Rotterdam, June 15, 1830, died in 
FayaL July 16, 1880. Marine painter, 
brother of preceding ; pupil of the Rotter - 



dam Royal Academy and of Jan Bosboom 
at The Hague. In 1654 went to New 
York, where he paaaed hie professional life. 
Works : Sunrise on the Susquehanna (1867); 
Fishing-Boats off Mt Desert, Boon Island — 
Coast of Maine (1874); Midsummer Noon, 
Biddeford Beach— Maine (1875) ; Lower 
Harbour of Halifax, Evening at FTnlifftT 
(1876); N&rragansett Pier (1877); Near St. 
John's— Newfoundland (1878); Near South 
"West Harbour — Mt Desert, Morning on the 
Coast, Near Grace Harbour — Newfoundland 
(1879).— Am. Art Rev. (1880), 551. 

in Munich, March 29, 1813, died there, 
Mar 7, 1868. Landscape and animal painter, 
pupil of Adler, and in 1829 of the Munich 
Academy ; studied nature in the environs 
of Munich and in the Bavarian and Tyrolese 
Alps ; visited Italy in 1840. Modelled ani- 
mals in clay and wax with much skill, and 
was an engraver of merit. Works : Cows 
at Pasture (1838); Alp with Herds-women 
before a Cottage (1844); Alpine Cow-keeper 
crossing Foot-bridge (1847); Hay Harvest 
(1850); Peasants in the Field, Morning in 
the Country, Herd of Cattle (1851); Forester 
and Shepherd, Morning in the Mountains 
(1864); Starting for the Alp (1854); Snipe 
Hunting, Ravine at Sunset, Railroad through 
the Woods (1864).— Allgem. d. Biogr., x. 
266 j Andresen, ill 193. 

HABERLIN, EARL, born at Oberess- 
liogen, Wurtemberg, Dec 16, 1832. His- 
tory painter, pupil of Stuttgart Art School, 
from 1852 of DOsseldorf Academy under 
Schadow, and from 1858 in Munich, of Pi- 
loty ; visited France and England, and in 
1864 Italy, and settled in 1866 in Stuttgart, 
where he became professor at the Art School 
in 1868. Resigned the latter position in 
1883. Works : Death of Sickingen (1854); 
Storming of Convent (1856) ; Jew Silas ; 
Dissolution of Alpirsbacb Monastery (1862), 
Stuttgart Museum; Battle of Belgrade, 
Royal Gallery, ib. ; Women of Schorndorf 
in 1688 , Tetzel's Journey through Saxony ; 
Scene in Court Boom ; Capture of Bobber- 

Gang ; Savonarola ; Siege of Stralsund ; Ja- 
cobea of Bavaria (fresco, 1864), National 
Museum, Munich. — Brockhaus, viii. 683 ; 
MQller, 229. 

HABRON, painter, country and date un- 
known. Pliny mentions (xxxv. 40 [141]) 
among his works a Friendship and Peace 
and several images of the gods. 

HACKAERT (Hakkert), JAN, born in 
Amsterdam about 1636, died there in 1699 
or 1708. Dutch school ; landscape painter, 
pupil of Jan Wynanta In 1660-75 studied 
from nature on a journey through Germany 
and Switzerland ; to judge from his pictures 
must have visited Italy. Lingelbach, Adria- 
an van de Velde, Wouwerman, and Berchem 
frequently supplied the figures in bis pict- 
urea. Works : Stag-Hunt, National Gallery, 
London; Landscape, Stafford House, ib.; 
Avenue of Ash Trees, Landscape, Amster- 
dam Museum; Mountainous Landscape, Rot- 
terdam Museum ; do., and Landscape with 
Cattle, Copenhagen Gallery ; Hunting Scene, 
Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Italian Landscape 
wi th Herds, Berlin Museum; High-Boadwith 
Figures, Dresden Gallery ; Grove with Stag- 
Hunt, Hermitage, St Petersburg ; Italian 
Landscape, Historical Society, New York ; 
others in — 


fort, and Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna. — 
Immerzeel, ii. 5 ; Eugler (Crowe), ii. 483 ; 

HACKER, HORST, born in Leipsic in 
1842. Landscape painter, pupil in Munich of 
Richard Zinunermann, visited Italy, Switzer- 
land, and the Austrian Alps. Works : The 
Wetterhorn ; Obersee near Berchteagaden ; 
New Axen Road near Fluelen ; Smithy in 
Winter ; Moonlight Night ; Lake of Vier- 
waldstadt; View in Bosenlaui Valley. — 
MQller, 230. 

Prenzlau, Brandenburg, Sept 15, 1737, 
died at Careggi, near Florence, April 28, 
1807. German school ; landscape painter, 
pupil of his father, Philipp, and in Berlin 



Academy of Le Sueur. After visiting Stral- 
sund (1762), the Isle of Rtlgen, and Stock- 
holm, he went to Paris in 1765, painted in 
Normandy, and rapidly acquired a name and 
wealth i with his brother, Johann Gottlieb, 
he went to Borne in 1768, and there estab- 
lished his fame by six pictures representing 
the Naval Battle at Tschesme and the Burn- 
ing of the Turkish Fleet, painted by order 
of Catharine II. In 1772 he visited London, 
returned to Italy, and in 1786 became court- 
painter to the King of Naples, and enjoyed 
much distinction, until the revolution caused 
him to leave for Florence in 1799. He bought 
a villa at Careggi in 1803. Although one of 
the most noteworthy landscape painters of 
the 18th century, he was a clever mannerist, 
who by his many pictures attained to greater 
reputation than he deserved. Works : Ital- 
ian Landscape, Cassel Gallery ; He-Goat at 
' a Brook (1776), Weimar Museum ; Ideal 
Landscapes (2, 1782), Gotha Museum ; Coast 
View with Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Italian 
Landscape (1794), Oldenburg Gallery. He 
had four brothers, all painters : Karl Lud- 
wig (1740-1800), Johann Gottlieb (1744-73), 
Wilhelm (1748-80), and Georg Abraham 
(1755-1805). They followed their brother 
to Italy, where they often worked conjointly, 
and for many Englishmen, the Pope, the 
Emperor Joseph IL, Catherine H, and the 
court of Naples. — Allgem. d. Biogr., x. 295 ; 
Brockhaus, viiL 688 ; Goethe, PhiL Hockert 

Dec. 1, 1823, died in 188a Genre painter, 
pupil of Delaroche. Works: Jewish Pass- 
over Feast (1847); Interior of Studio ; Bak- 
ing-Boom ; Forbidden Fruit (1869); Temp- 
tation ; Reprimand (1870); Between Cat 
and Dog, The Absent (1872); Franc-Tireur 
Watching ; The Women and the Secret 
(1874); Fee-aux-Mouettes, Fantasia (1883); 
Good Little Corner, A Bad Character (1884) ; 
Boad to Switzerland, Evening Song (1885). 
He illustrated Ch. Blanc's "Hiatoire des 
peintres de toutes les ecoles." 

HADES, DESCENT INTO, Tintoretto, S. 
Cassiano, Venice. " A somewhat haggard 

Adam, a graceful Eve, two or three Vene- 
tians in court dress, and a Satan represented 
as a handsome youth, recognizable only by 
the claws on his feet Much injured and 
little to be regretted." Painted in 1568. 
Probably mostly scholars' work. — Buskin, 
Stones of Venice, iii. 290 ; Zanotto, 383. 

HADRIAN, Roman Emperor (117-138 
a.d.), amateur painter and sculptor. The 
fulsome panegyrics of his admirers are no 
evidence of his artistic ability. — AureL Vict., 
Epit, de Cos., 14, 2 ; Dion Cos., lxix. 4. 


called Walraven, born at Gorcum (?), flour- 
ished in 1677-1709. Dutch school ; genre 
and portrait painter, chiefly of scenes in low 
life. Works : Scissors-Grinders at Cards, 
Company in Tavern amused by Smoking 
Monkey, Basle Museum ; Fishseller (1704), 
Suermondt Museum, Aix-Ia-Chapelle. 

NES VAN, born in Utrecht in 1642, died at 
The Hague in 1705. Dutch school ; land- 
scape and portrait painter, pupil of Poelen- 
burg.whom he imitated successfully. Works: 
Diana and Callisto, Stuttgart Gallery ; The 
Man with the Skull Augsburg Gallery ; Por- 
trait, Berlin Museum ; Annunciation to the 
Shepherds, Adoration of the Shepherds, 
Adoration of Magi, Assumption, Landscape, 
Dresden Museum ; Italian Landscapes (6), 
Si- John Preaching, Portrait of a Lady 
(1686), Schwerin Gallery. — ImmerzeeL ii. 
4 ; Eramm, ii. 620. 

at Louvain about 1796, died in Ghent, Oct 
5, 1846. History and genre painter, pupil 
of Ghent Academy, then of Jacquin and 
David ; in 1841 became professor and direc- 
tor of Ghent Academy, which he thorough- 
ly reorganized. Works : Three Children 
mourning their Mother's Death ; Expulsion 
of Hagar, Ghent Museum. — Immerzeol, ii. 
7 ; Eramm, ii 628. 

HAFFTEN, EARL VON, born at Wis- 
mar, Mecklenburg, Jan. 29, 1834. Land- 
scape painter, pupil of Munich Academy 


after having visited, from 1849 to 1656, 
England and Scotland, North America, Bra- 
zil, and Australia. After three years in Mu- 
nich he spent one year in Italy, attracted 
especially by the ruins at Pola, Istria ; took 
part in the campaigns of 1666 and 1870, 
exhibited his works in Dresden for the ben- 
efit of the Albert Union in 1873, and settled 
in Berlin in 1874. Works: Moonlight on 
the Coast (1858), Schwerin Gallery ; several 
in Collection of Emperor of Germany. — 

Brent, Milan ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 8 in. x 5 ft 
Abraham Handing away Hagar. This picture 
was much admired by Lord Byron. Hagar, 

her face red with weeping, holds her son by 
the hand and turns her eyes to the patriarch. 
Sarah, in purple, is Been further back. Half- 
figures. Acquired in 1811 from Galleria 
Sampieri, Bologna Engraved by R. Strange. 

HAGBORG, AUGUST, born at Gothen- 
burg, Sweden ; contemporary. Genre and 
landscape painter, pupil of Stockholm Acad- 
emy and in Paris of Palmaroli. Medal, 
Paris, 3d class, 1879. Works : Spring Tide 
in La Manche (1879), Luxembourg Museum ; 
In the Cemetery of Tourville (1883); An 
Alarm (1884) ; Preparation for Fishing, 
Fisherman's Daughter (1865) ; Fisherwoman, 
Charles Crocker, San Francisco ; First Quar- 
rel, J. A. Scudder, St. Louis. 

HAGEMANS, MAURICE ; contemporary. 

Landscape painter in Brussels. Works: 
March Sun near Chimay ; Pond of Forge- 
Gerard ; Meadow with Birch Trees. 

HAGEN, BLANOA VON, born in Brea- 
lau, Nov. 4, 1842. Portrait and genre 
painter, studied in Berlin and Dresden, 
then pupil in Munich of Benczur, and in 
Berlin of Gussow ; visited Italy and Paris, 
and settled in Berlin. Works : Wallachian 
Girl ; After Mass ; On an Art Tour ; Hagar 
and Ishmael ; At the Sick-bed. — Muller, 

died at The Hague, buried May 23, 1669. 
Dutch school ; landscape painter, strongly 
influenced by RuysdaeL Settled at The 
Hague in 1642, and was one of the found- 
ers there, of the new painters' guild, Pic- 
ture, in 1656. His pictures are truthful 
in details, but the colouring is dark and 
heavy. Works : Two Landscapes, Louvre ; 
View near Arnheim (1649), View in Gtuel- 
dres, Hague Museum ; View over Canals, 
Museum, Amsterdam ; Hilly Landscape with 
Felled Tree, Town HalL ib.; Dutch Land- 
scape with Cattle, Berlin Museum ; Evening 
Landscape, River Shore, Carlsruhe Gallery ; 
Landscape with Stag-hunt 
(figures by Lingelbach), 
KnnathaHe, Hamburg ; land- 
scapes (2) with Figures (by ( 
J. le Due), two others, Copen- 
hagen Gallery.— Allgem. d. Biogr., x. 339 ; 
Burger, i. 151, 267 ; De Stuers, 40. 
HAGEN, THEODOB, born at DOssel- 
dorf, May 24, 1842. 
Landscape painter, 
pupil of Dusseldorf 
Academy under An- 
dreas and Karl Mai- 
ler, then of Oswald 
Acbenbach ; trav- 
elled in Switzerland 
, and the Tyrol, be- 
f came, in 1871, pro- 
fessor at, and in 1877 
director of, the Weimar Art School ; re- 
signed his professorship in 1881. Works : 

unt . — _ 


Westphalian Landscape ; Approaching 
Storm ; Guffern Alp ; St Gothard Road ; 
Eanderthal in Switzerland ; View at Sche- 
veningen ; Rhenish City in Evening Light 
(1879), Dresden Gallery ; Storm Landscape, 
Breslau Museum.— Milller, 230. 

HAGHE, LOUIS, born at Tournay, 
March 17, 1806, died 
at Stockwell, Eng- 
land, March 9, 1885. 
History and genre 
painter, pupil of 
Chevalier de la Bar- 
riers, a French emi- 
grant, whom he 
afterwards assisted 
in the publication 
of views in Belgium; 
went to London in 1823, where he partici- 
pated in the publication of several litho- 
graphic works, and afterwards took up 
painting in water-colours ; iu 1835 became 
member of the Institute of Painters in Water 
Colours, and afterwards its president Mem- 
ber of Antwerp Academy ; Order of Leo- 
pold ; Medals : 1834, 1855. Fainted with 
his left hand. Works : War Council at 
Courtray (1839), National Gallery, London ; 
Scene at Convent Gate of S. Geronimo 
(1840) ; Oath of Vargas (1841) ; Cromwell 
with the Letter of Charles I, The Town 
Hall of Courtray (1813) ; Last Moments of 
Zurbaran (1844) ; Ferdinand with Rubens 
(1845) ; Rubens painting the Ckapeau de 
Paille, Interior of Brewers' Corporation 
Room at Antwerp, Staircase in the House 
of that Corporation (1846) ; Meeting Boom 
(1847) ; Capuchin Monks at Matins, Chaf- 
foir in Town Hall of Mons, Michelangelo 
attending his Sick Servant TJrbino (1848) ; 
Vespers in Church of St. Anne, Bruges 
(1849); Miseries of War, Guard-Room 
(1850) ; Interior of St. Gomer, Sierre (1851); 
Audience Chamber of Magistrates of Bruges 
— Tisit of Marguerite of Parma (1862) ; 
Happy Trio, Salle d'Annes in Castle of Salz- 
burg (1853) ; Corps de Garde (1854) ; Holy 
Water Vase in St Peter's, Rome, Fost-Office 

at Albano, Convivial Meeting of Brewers' 
Corporation at Antwerp, Fair Reckoner, 
Comfortable Quarters, The Report, Work 
first and Play afterwards (1855) ; Choir of 
Santa Maria Novella, Florence (1856, first 
picture in oil) ; Antechamber in Tribunal of 
Inquisition, Venice, View of Ducal Palace, 
ib., Town Hall of Ondenarde (1856) ; Sunny 
Hours (1857, in oil) ; Incident in Life of 
Cornelia Vroom, Public Letter-Writer in 
Rome, Remains of Portico of Octavia, Rome 
(1857) ; The Spy, Peter Boel arranging his 
Model, Drinking Song, Transept of St 
Mark's, Venice (1858).— Art Journal (1854), 
256 ; (1859), 13 ; Athen. (1885), i. 362 ; 
Eramm, ii. 630 ; Mailer, 231. 
VON, born in Munich, 
Nov. 23, 1820. Genre 
painter, pupil in Ber- 
lin of Erause, then of 
Munich and Antwerp 
Academies, at the lat- 
ter under Wappers, 
and in 1847-50 at 
. s Brussels of Eugene de 

j Block ; lived then suc- 

cessively in Brussels, 
Berlin (1850-53), where by the pictures of 
Menzel and those in the palaces at Potsdam 
and Sans Souci he was led to the cultivation 
of rococo subjects, and Paris (1853-55), and 
settled in Munich, whence he visited Rome 
and Florence (1863-65). Member of Munich 
Academy since 1867. Works : Unwelcome 
Wooing (1851), Schwerin Gallery ; The 
Sweet Tooth, Musical Entertainment (1861); 
Alchemist (1862) ; Promissory Note ; Walk 
in Versailles ; Conversation in the Park 
(1860), New Pinakothek, Munich; Italian 
Garden Scenes (2), Scback Gallery, ib.; Sun- 
day Walk (1863) ; Fish Market in Rome 
(1865) ; Goldoni (1866) ; Bowling Alley 
(1867); Roman Library (1868); Munich 
Beer Cellar (1869) ; Duel in 17th Century ; 
Hal] in Versailles ; Faring Minstrels ; Garden 
Scene in 18th Century ; Walk in the Woods; 
Contrasts; Audience with Pope Leo XHL 


(1860) ; Tintoretto in the Scuola di San 
Roceo (1881) ; Procession of Corpus Christi 
in Munich in last Century (1884), City Hall, 
Munich.— Brockhaus, viii. 706 ; Muller, 231; 
Graph. K, v. 43 ; Kunst-Chronik, xix. 352 ; 
Leixner, D. mod. K., ii 93. 

HAILER, MAX, bora in Munich in 1818. 
History painter, pupil of Munich Academy 
under Schlotthauer, painted for four years 
under Cornelius in the Ludwigskirche. 
Works : Baptism of Duke Theodore and his 
Son, Batiabon Cathedral ; Emperor Charles 
VDL, Kaisersaal, Frankfort 

HAL, JACOB TAN, bom at Antwerp, 
Aug. 27, 1672, died there, April 20, 1760. 
Flemish school ; history painter, pupil of 
one Marcus Lommelin ; dean of the guild 
in 1705. Works: Fall of Manna, Adoration 
of the Holy Sacrament, St James's, Ant- 
werp; Nativity, Jesuit College, ib. — Van den 
Branden, 116a 

HALAUSKA, LUDWIG, born at Waid- 
hofen. Nether Austria, in 1827, died in Vi- 
enna, April 29, 1882. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Steinfeld, but studied mostly from 
nature, travelling through the mountainous 
districts of Tyrol, Styria, and Bavaria, and 
on the Rhine. Member of Vienna Academy 
since 1870. Works: Calm Lake (1864); 
Morning in the Mountains (1865) ; Church 
Burn in Evening Light (1866) ; Old Earth- 
work near Landeck (1867), Austrian Art 
Union ; Mountain-Brook in Storm (1868), 
Vienna Academy ; Summer Landscape from 
Main Country ; Burgau on Atter Lake ; 
Village on the Main, Vienna Museum ; 
View near St Andra ; View near Salzburg ; 
Ferry on toe Main.— Muller, 232 ; Wurz- 
bach, vii 230 ; Zeitsch., x. (Mittheilungen, 

aing, July 11, 1812, died in Munich, Nov. 
26, 1877. History painter, pupil of the 
Munich Academy under Schlotthauer, whom 
he accompanied to Upper Italy (1834). 
After he had assisted Heinrich Hess in the 
Basilica, and Cornelius in the fresco of the 
St Louis Church in Munich, he spent three 

years in Athens, painting historical scenes 
in the Boyal Palace, and at the end of 1843 
went to Constantinople, Egypt, and through 
the desert via Jaffa to Jerusalem, of which 
city he painted a panorama (18 ft x 100 ft, 
Lateran, Rome). Works : Battle at Kar- 
bonissi, Devastation of the Morea under 
Ibrahim Pasha ; Defence of Missolonghi, 
Royal Palace, Athens ; Adoration of the 
Shepherds (1846) ; Assumption (1851).— 
Allgem. d. Biogr., x. 403 ; AUgem. Zeitg., 
Dec. 19, 1877, Beilage, 353. 

HALE, E MATTHEW, born in England; 
contemporary. Genre painter. Exhibits 
chiefly in Grosvenor Gallery. Works : 
Psyche's Toil in Venus' Garden (1879) ; 
Three Princesses (1881) ; Psyche before 
Venus, Irish Flower Garden (1883) ; Going 
to the Play, Criticism (1884) ; In the Days 
of Phidias (1885). 

England ; contemporary. Landscape and 
marine painter ; associate of Society of 
Painters in Water Colours since 1871. 
Works : Glen Logan, Loch Maree (1873) ; 
On the Coast of Somerset, Great Rock of 
Coigach (1878) ; Twilight in a Coombe 

HALEN, ABNOUD (Arend) VAN, died 
in Amsterdam in 1732. Dutch school ; 
portrait painter, signed his name often 
Aquila ; started, under the title Pan Poeti- 
con Batavum, a collection of portraits of 
Dutch poets, of which he painted two hun- 
dred. Other works: Portraits of Jan van 
Huyaum, Isaak Moucheron, Gerard de Lai- 
resse ; Woman with Book. — ImmerzeeL ii. 9 ; 
Kramm, L 26 ; ii. 631. 

HALEN, PEETEB VAN, bora at Ant- 
werp, baptised Jan. 12, 1612, died there, 
buried May 22, 1687. Flemish school ; 
landscape painter ; master of the guild in 
1641, dean in 1650. Supplied his land- 
scapes with many highly- finished small fig- 
urea Work, The Deluge, Caasel Gallery. 
Van den Branden, 915. 

HAT J,, GEORGE HENRY, born in Bos- 
ton in 1825. Subject and figure painter ; 


studied in DtlBseldorf in 1849, and painted 
in Paris in 1860-62 ; sketched in Spain in 
1860 and 1866 ; elected N.A. in 1868. Vis- 
ited Italy in 1872, Egypt and Cairo in 1876. 
Professional life passed chiefly in New York 
Studio in Borne (1884). Works : Group of 
Spanish Children (1868) ; Young Lady of 
Seville and her Duenna (1870) ; Seasons, 4 
pictures (1871), Richard Butler, New York ; 
Pomegranates (1874); April Showers (1876), 
Graziella, Governor Fairbanks; Spice Ba- 
zaar — Cairo (1679) ; Studies of Grapes, 
J. J. Aster, New York ; Turner's Shop — 
Catskill (1880) ; Bric-a-Brao of Damascus, 
Borne, and Seville (1881) ; Catskill Mountain 
Laurels, Peaches (1882) ; "Window in Ven- 
ice, Strawberries (1883). — Tuckerman, 

HALL, SYDNEY P., born at Newmar- 
ket in 1842. Genre and portrait painter, 
pupil of Royal Academy and of Arthur 
Hughes ; special artist of London Graph- 
ic. Accompanied Prince of Wales to India 
in 1876 as staff artiat Works: Beview 
in Windsor Park — July 10, 1877, Queen 
visiting Camp at Ascot Heath— 1877 (1878); 
Chapter of Order of Star of India— Cal- 
cutta, January 1, 1876 (1880), painted for 
Lord Northbrook ; Their First Voyage 
(1882) ; Duke and Duchess of Teck receiv- 
ing Officers of Indian Contingent (1863); 
Descent on Italy, portraits of Princesses 
Louise, Victoria, and Maud of Wales (1884); 
A Lord Chamberlain, Portrait of Major- 
General Earle (1885). 

HALLATZ, EMIL, born in Frankfort- 
on-the-Oder in 1S37. Animal painter, 
pupil of Berlin Academy and of Steffeck ; 
went in 1862 to Paris to study the works 
of Troyon and Rosa Bonheur, and visited 
Italy in 1863. Works : Percheron Horses ; 
Crossing Jutland Frontier ; Importation 
of Grain into Normandy (1868) ; Herd in 
Approaching Storm ; Stag Hunt (1872) ; 
Village Scene ; Coast Scene near Dieppe ; 
Journey of the three Magi ; Life-boat ; Fes- 
tive Biding at Harvest (1676) ; Snow-storm 
in the Puszta ; The Old Hypochondriacs 

in the Stable (1876) ; Horses on Towing- 
Path (1877). 

HALLE, C E. ; contemporary. Figure 
and portrait painter. Son of the eminent 
musician Charles Halle. Exhibits chiefly in 
the Grosvenor Gallery. Works: Little Blue- 
Stocking, Friends, the Gareloch, Arrochar, 
Nuremberg (1877) ; Bain Cloud (1878); To 
God and My Love's Bight Arm (1879) ; Cup 
of Tea, St George and Dragon, Premi I 
(1880) ; Dance of Shepherdesses, Wild Boar 
Hunt (1881) ; Nora Creena, Judith, Prep- 
arations (1882) ; Youth and Age, Hebe, 
Phyllis (1883) ; Feeding the Pigeons, An 
Unfrequented Path, portrait of Mary Ander- 
son (1884) ; The Mirror, Pets, Fortune-Tel- 
ler, two portraits (1885). 

HALLfi, CLAUDE GUY, born in Paris, 
Jan. 17, 1662, died there, Nov. 5, 1736. 
French school ; history painter, son and pu- 
pil of Daniel H (history painter, 1631-75) ; 
won first prize of the Academy in 1675. 
Painted many well-composed, but not always 
well-drawn, pictures for French churches 
and palaces. Member of Academy, 1682 ; 
professor, 1702 ; rector, 1736. Works : St 
Paul preventing his Jailer from killing Him- 
self, Louvre ; Christ driving out Money- 
changers (1686); Annunciation,NotreDame; 
Submission of the Doge of Genoa to Louis 
XIV., Versailles Museum ; SL Nicholas giv- 
ing Alms, Grenoble Museum ; Io changed 
into a Cow; 

HAbLE C G iZ ; "H„* 

Family ; Sacrifice to Cupid. — Bellier de la 
Chavignerie, i 737 ; Jal, 670 ; Lejeune, 
Guide, III 121. 

HALLE, NOEL, born in Paris, Sept 2, 
1711, died there, June 6, 1781. French 
school ; history painter, son and pupil of 
Claude Guy Halle; won 2d grand prix in 
1734, and grand prix de Borne in 1736. 
Though a good draughtsman, he was weak 
in composition and colour. He became 
Member of Academy, 1748 ; professor in 
1755, assistant rector and treasurer in 1777, 
and rector in 1781 ; superintendent of Go- 


behnsin 1771 ; director of the School of Art 
in Borne in 1776-77 ; Member of Order of 
St Michael, 1777. Works : Delilah cutting 
Samson's Hair (1734) ; Passage of the Bed 
Sea (1736) j Dispute between Minerva and 
Neptune (1746), Fontainebleau ; Flight into 
Egypt (1769), Archbishop Flavian interced- 
ing for Inhabitants of Antioch (1762), Or- 
leans Museum ; SL Vincent de Paul Preach- 
ing (1761), Church of SL Louis, Versailles ; 
Ceiling of Baptistery, St Sulpice, Paris ; 
Autumn, Geniuses of Poetry, History, Phys- 
ics, and Astronomy (1761), Simon the Athe- 
nian (1777); f 

Cornelia, Jj L^ff* /~«* 
Moifcerof ^W OOAAk J 
Gracchi (1779). — Bellier de la Cbavignerie, 
L 737 ; JaL 670 ; Laronsse ; Lejeune, Guide, 
L 238. 

HALLEZ, G- J., bom at Frameries, near 
Mons, July 18, 1769, died in Brussels, May 
18, 1840. Genre and portrait painter, pu- 
pil of Mons Academy, where he won all the 
prizes ; in 1787 travelled through France, 
and after bis return was called to Brussels 
to paint portraits of the Emperor of Austria 
and other high personages ; in 1796 was 
made professor at the central school of the 
Department Jemappea, and afterwards di- 
rector of Mons Academy ; settled in Brus- 
sels in 1839. Member of Antwerp Academy 
in 1817. Works: Marshal Beaulieu and 
Count van Zoon (1811) ; Young Mother and 
Child in Grotto ; Jupiter's Awakening ; Re- 
turn (1813) ; Inundation Scene (1833) ; 
many portraits. — ImmerzeeL ii. 10. 

KALLMANN, ANTON, born at Hanover 
in 1812, died at Leghorn, Aug. 29, 1846. 
Architecture painter, and renowned archi- 
tect, pupil in Hanover of Hellner, then of 
Munich Academy ; in 1833 walked to Borne, 
and in 1834 to Naples ; returned to Munich 
in 1639, then went to SL Petersburg, and 
thence to London and Paris ; in 1841 re- 
turned to Borne, and in 1842 visited Dres- 
den. Works : Convent Garden near Fossa 
Nova (1841) ; Five pictures illustrating Song 
of Mignon (1842) ; Day in eyprus (1843) ; 

Decayed Villa in Evening light (1845).— 
Brockhaus, viii. 738 ; Cotta's Kunstbl., 1846 ; 
Faber, vi. 366. 

HALS, DIRE, bom in Haarlem before 
1600, died there, buried May 17, 1666. 
Dutch school ; genre painter, brother and 
pupil of Frans the elder. His works, usu- 
ally representing soldiers, cavaliers, and 
women, eating, drinking, dancing, or listen- 
ing to music, were painted between 1620 
and 1653. His style has some analogy with 
that of Peter de Hooch ; the predominant 
tone is a cool gray, lending great harmony 
to the light colours ; only in his later works 
a warmer brownish tone is apparent He 
painted figures in Dirk van Deelen'a pictures. 
Works : Merry Party, National Gallery, Lon- 
don ; Assembly in a Park (about 1616), 
Louvre, Paris ; Lady at the Piano, Mu- 
seum, Amsterdam ; Five Senses (1624), D. 
Franken, ib. ; Ball-Scene (1628, interior by 
Van Deelen), N. J. W. Smallenburg, The 
Hague; The Topers (1627), Berlin Museum; 
Conversation-pieces (two 1636, one 1653), 
Figure of Bommelpotspeeler, Amalienatift, 
Dessau ; Merry Party, Stuttgart Museum ; 
Two Cavaliers and a Lady, Kunsthalle, Ham- 
burg ; Assembly (1622), Gallery, Copenha- 
gen ; Game at Draughts (1635), Count 
Moltke, ib.; Assembly of Ladies and Gentle- 
men, Musical Party (attributed to A. Pala- 
medesz), Gotha Museum ; Loving Couple, 
Flute Lesson (1646), Hausmann Collection, 
Hanover ; Conversation-piece (1626), Peter 
von Semenoff, SL Petersburg; do. (1628), 
Violoncello Player (attributed to J. le Ducq), 
Academy, Vienna; Loving Couple on a Walk 
(1624), Game of Tric-trac, Assembly, Liech- 
tenstein Gallery, ib.; Assembly in a Park 
(about 1620), Josef von Lippmann, ib. ; Lute 
Player (1626), formerly Gsell Collection, ib.; 
Beading a Letter, Ber- 
gamo Gallery ; Festival, 
Metropolitan Museum, _ — 
New Tort— Bode, Stu- l(j*Q 
dien, 121, 613 ; Burger, 
Musees, ii. 121 ; Gaz. des. B. Arts (1868), 
xxv. 390 ; Zahn, Jahrbucher, 1871. 


HALS, FRANS, the elder, born in Ant- 
werp in 1584, died in Haarlem, Aug. 26, 
1666. Dutch school; 
portrait and genre 
painter of great re- 
nown; pupil of 
Karel Tan Mander. 
A most influential 
teacher and founder 
of a national style, 
auda portrait paint- 
er to be ranked with 
the greatest mas- 
tera Addicted to drunkenness, according 
to Houbraken, he was never prosperous, 
despite his long and active life and his un- 
usual talent, which excited Van Dyck's ad- 
miration. In 1664, reduced to sheer want, 
he was supported by the municipality and 
pensioned. Flesh-colouring unequalled ; 
handling broad, masterly, and vigourous. 
Pictures unequal in merit ; his immense 
facility sometimes led him to be careless 
andsketchy. Works: Joh. Bogardus (1614); 
Banquet of Officers (1616), do. (1627), da 
(1627), Assembly of Officers (1633), Officers 
of St George's Guild (1639), Regents of St 
Elizabeth's Hospital (1641), Regents of Old 
Men's Hospital (1664), da (1664), Haarlem 
Museum ; portrait of himself and his sec- 
ond wife (1624), The Fool (1625), Jolly 
Toper (1630), Old Lady (1639), Museum, 
Amsterdam ; Archery-piece (1637), City 
Hall, ib. ; Portrait of John Barclay (before 
1610), Atheiweum, ib.; Male Portrait (1655), 
Six Collection, ib. ; do., Rotterdam Muse- 
um ; Portraits of Dutch Nobleman and 
Wife (1625), Hague Museum ; Male Por- 
trait, da (1645), Museum, Brussels ; Sing- 
ing Boys, Merry Tippler, Arenberg Gallery, 
ib.; De Strandlooper van Haarlem (1640), 
Male Portrait (1635), do. (1640), Antwerp 
Museum ; Laughing Girl (1630), Portrait of 
a Lady, Portraits (3) of Beresteyn Family 
(1629, 1630), Louvre, Paris ; Topers, Male 
and Female Portrait, Rothan Gallery, ib. ; 
Male Portrait (1626), Old Lady, Young Lady 
(1634), Buffoon, Laughing Girl (1635), Rom- 

melpotspeeler, Man and Wife (1638), da 
(1643), Count Mniszech, ib.; Laughing Girl 
(1645), Lille Museum ; Male Portrait (1632), 
Bordeaux Museum ;. Singing Boy (1625), 
Male Portraits (1625, 1627, 1656, 1660), Man 
and Wife (1627), Child with Nurse, Toper 
(1630), BOle Bobbe van Haarlem (about 
1650), Berlin Museum ; Nobleman and 
Wife (1620), Two Boys making Music 
(1625), Toper (1640), Male Portraits (3, 
1655, 1660), Laughing Girl, Cassel Gallery; 
Male Portraits (2, 1630), Dresden Gallery ; 
do. (1635, 1655), Gotha Museum ; Young 
Man (1624), Man and Wife (1638), Stadel 
Gallery, Frankfort ; Boy playing the Fluta 
(1625), KOnigsberg Museum ; do., and Boy 
Drinking, Male Portrait (1630), Schwerin 
Gallery ; Man and Wife (1643), Stettin Mu- 
seum ; Male Portrait (1650), Museum, Vi- 
enna ; do. (2, 1630, 1644), Liechtenstein 
Gallery, ib.; da (1655), Old Lady (1638), 
Baron Rothschild, ib.; Male Portrait (1650), 
National Gallery, Pesth ; da (4, 1635, 1650, 
1660), Hermitage, St Petersburg; Old 
Woman's Head (1646), National Gallery, 
London ; do. (1640), Bridgewater Gallery, 
ib. ; Male Portrait (1630), Buckingham Pal- 
ace, ib. ; do. (1624), Manchester House, ib.; 
do. (1635), Marquis of Bute, ib.; Artists 
Portrait (1622), Devonshire House, ib ; 
Herring Seller (1616), Lord Northbrook, ib. ; 
Male Portrait (1628), Hampton Court Pal- 
ace ; Hille Bobbe (?, probably by Frans, the 
younger), Meeting of Trained Bands to cele- 
brate Peace of Monster (with Dirk Hals), 
Metropolitan Museum, New York ; Por- 
trait^, Historical Society, ib.; other pict- 
urea attributed to him in the galleries of 
Munich, Stuttgart, Brunswick, Weimar, Old- 
enburg, etc., are not by him. Of his seven 
sons five were painters : Herman (1611-69), 

H painted conversation pieces; 
Johannes (died in 1650), fig- 
ures and genre scenes ; Frans 
(see following article) ; Reg- 
nier (1627-89), genre scenes ; 
Nicolaas (born in 1628), genre and land- 
scape. — Allgem. d. Biogr., x. 451 ; Ch. 

d by Google 

Blanc, ficole flamande ; Bode, Fr. Hals und 
Heine Schule (Leipaic, 1871) ; do., Studien, 
35, 612 [ Gaz. des B. Arts (1664), xvi. 299 ; 
(1865), xviii. 103 ; (1868), xxiv. 219, 431 ; 
(1869), i 162 ; (1685), xxxi. 349 j Van der 
Willigen, 139, 348 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, viii. 
193 ; xviii. 347. 

HALS, FRANS, the younger, born in 
Haarlem between 1617 and 1623, died there 
after 1669. Dutch school ; genre and still- 
life painter, eon and pupil of Frans, the 
elder, many of whose pictures he copied. 
Works : Two Children Singing, Arenberg 
Gallery, Brussels ; Heads of Laughing Boys 
(2), Royal Palace, ib.; Piper and Violin- 
Player, Schwerin Gallery ; Still Life (1638), 
Kdnigsberg Museum ; do. (1640), Berlin 
Museum ; Hille Bobbe as Fish-wife, Dres- 
den Gallery ; Interior of Peasant Cottage 

1638), Carls^ fr-AfC / u4 O 

ruhe Gal- ^ /^ ^ 

lery.— Bode, Studien, 103, 219, 616 ; Gaz. 
des B. Arts (1868), xxv. 398) ; (1869, L 165; 
Van der "Willigen, 150 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, v. 
79; ix.299. 

HAT.H W TiTTT.Til, KEELEY, bom at Rich- 
mond, Surrey, in 1832. Landscape, marine, 
and figure painter ; studied drawing and 
engraving, and drew much on wood for 
Illustrated London News ; went about 1855 
to Edinburgh, and studied in schools of 
Boyal Scottish Academy, exhibiting bis first 
picture, In Vino Veritas, in 1857, and his 
Bridge of Sighs in 1858. In 1866 he be- 
came an A.R.S.A. In 1868 he went to 
Borne, and painted there his Roba di Roma 
(1869). Other works : Street Scene in 
Rome (1870) ; Contadini in St. Peter's 
(1871, sold in 1883, £1,732) ; Elevation of 
the Host (1872) ; H Madonajo (1873) ; Bo- 
man Fruit Girl (1874) ; Marriage Proces- 
sion (1875) ; Borne from the Sistine, Non 
Angli sed Angeli (1877) ; Play Scene in 
Hamlet (1878) ; Tug and Timber Barge 
(1880) ; Wittenham Clumps (1881) ; Shoot- 
er's Hill— Pangbourne (1882), Royal Wind- 
sor — Morning, Evening Mists (1883); Gleam 

of the Setting Sun, Rokeby, Bed of Water- 
Lilics (1884); Kilchurn Castle, Flying 
Scuds (1885).— Art Journal (1879), 49. 

>jdo, Sistine Chapel, Rome ; fresco on ceil- 

HAMFJj, JTJUTJS, born at Dillenburg, 
Nassau, in 1834 History and portrait 
painter, pupil of Stadel Institute, Frankfort, 
under Jacob Becker, Steinle, and Passavant ; 
visited Dresden (1860), Munich (1861), Bel- 
gium and Holland (1866), and Italy (1869- 
70), and settled in Frankfort Works : 
Christ washing Peter's Feet (1857) ; En- 
tombment (1858), Frankfort Art Union ; 
Loreley (1859) ; Tetzel's Indulgence Traffic 
(1864) ; Eginhard and Emma (1867) ; Will- 
iam of Orange taking Farewell of Egmont 
(1871) ; Seasons and Harvest-Joya (1874) ; 
Taking of Egmont (1876) ; Countess Help- 
enstein begging for her Husband's Life 
(1879) ; Portraits of Professor Becker, Jus- 
tinus Eerner, Arthur Schopenhauer. — Mai- 
ler, 234. 

born at Brussels in 1666 or 1670, died at 
Augsburg in 1754. Animal and still-life 
painter, son and pupil of James Hamilton 
(1640-1720, an able still-life painter, who 
under Cromwell left Scotland and settled at 
Brussels) ; also pupil of his brothers, John 
George and Philip Ferdinand ; entered the 
service of Bishop Alexander Sigismund of 
Augsburg, for whom he painted a great 
number of pictures, several of which are now 
in the royal galleries of Bavaria. Works : 
Plants and Fruits, etc, Lyons Museum ; 
Weeds and Reptiles in the Woods, Carlsruhe 
Gallery; Still life with Plants and Insects 
(2), Darmstadt Museum ; do. (3), Stuttgart 
Museum ; do. (1), Schleissheim Gallery ; 
Reed-Birds, Quail, Saint Gall Museum ; 
Dead Fox and Game-Birds (1739), Schwerin 
Gallery ; two do. and two others, Mannheim 
Gallery.— Wurzbach, viL 264 

HAMILTON (Hamrailton), FRANS DE, 
flourished second half of 17th century. 
Animal and still-life painter, either brother 


or eldest son of James ; entered the service 
of the Elector of Brandenburg at Cleves in 
1661, but seems to have immediately re- 
moved to Potsdam, whence, having resigned 
his position, he went to Vienna in 1670, 
then entered the Bavarian service in 1683. 
Works: Dead Game, Animul Life in the 
Woods (2), Schwerin Gallery ; similar sub- 
jects (4), Aschaffenburg Gallery ; do. (4), 
Schleissheim Gallery.— Schlie, 235. 

HAMILTON, GAVIN, born at Lanark, 
Scotland, in 1730, died in Borne in 1797. 
History painter, master unknown; went early 
to Italy, and resided in Borne most of his days. 
More noted for promotion of the fine arts 
than as a painter, but left some good pict- 
ures, especially illustrations of the Iliad. 
Works : Achilles with the Dead Body of Pat. 
roclus ; Achilles parting with Briseis ; Achil- 
les dragging the body of Hector behind his 
Chariot ; Andromache weeping over Hector ; 
Apollo. About 1794 he decorated an apart- 
ment in the Villa BorgheBe, Borne, with the 
Story of Paris. — Redgrave. 

dlesex Co., England, April 1, 1847. Genre 
painter, self-taught. His family removed to 
America when he was an infant, and settled at 
Cowlesville, Wyoming County, N. Y. In 1872 
he opened a studio in Buffalo and painted 
portraits ; in 1875 visited the Rocky Moun- 
tains and painted the Laramie Peaks (Cen- 
tennial Exhibition, 1876), now in the Buf- 
falo Fine Arte Academy ; spent 1878-79 in 
Europe, chiefly at Pont Aven, Brittany ; re- 
turned thence to Buffalo, and removed to 
New York in 1881. Member of American 
Water-Colour Society, and New York Etch- 
ing Club ; elected A.N.A. in 1886. Works : 
The Peddler's Visit, The Sisters (1882); The 
Silver Line, Jump— Sir! Little Sunbeam, 
The Dreamer (1884) ; Interior atNew Wind- 
sor— N. T., Fareweli Veiled Head (1885) ; 
Solitude, The Messenger (1886).— -Hitch- 
cock, American Etchings (New York, 1885). 

HAMILTON, JAMES, born in Ireland in 
1819, died in 1878. Marine painter, taken 
to America as a child, studied first in Phila- 

delphia; spent 1854-55 in London, and 

after his return to Philadelphia furnished 
illustrations for Dr. Kane's Arctic Explora- 
tions and other works. Professional life 
passed in Philadelphia. Works : Egyptian 
Sunset ; Morning off Atlantic City, Mrs. C. 
S. Longstreet, New York ; Moonlight Scene 
near Venice ; Wrecked Hopes ; Old Iron- 
sides ; Escape of Smugglers, Capture of the 
Serapis, Mrs. D. D. Colton, San Francisco ; 
Death of Steerfortb, W. H Fosdick, Louis- 
ville ; Wreck off the Coast, C. H Wolff, 
Philadelphia; Off Delaware Capes, J. W. 
DrexeL New York;' Vision of Columbus, 
Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Philadelphia. 

at Brussels in 1666 or 1672, died in Vienna, 
iu 1740 (?). Animal and still-life painter, 
son and pupil of James (Scotch painter of 
fruit and still life) ; painted many years 
in Brussels, then joined his brother Philip 
in Vienna ; later lived at the court of Ber- 
lin, but returned to Vienna after the death 
of Friedrich L of Prussia, and became court- 
painter. He painted flowers, fruits, and in- 
sects, but especially horses with great skill. 
Works : Horsesand Foals iu Pasture (2), Im- 
perial Stud at Lipicza (1727, with 72 horsea 
painted from nature), Stag and two Boes 
in a Landscape, Boar-Head and Hunting 
Implements (1718), Vienna Museum; several 
in Summer Palace at Schdnbrunn, and in 
Gallery of Stift KremsmOnster ; Dead Hare 
and Birds, Old Pinakothek, Munich; Dead 
Birds Suspended (2), Schleissheim Gallery ; 
White Horse Jumping (1703), Thoroughbred 
(1704), White Horse led by Negro, Sorrel 
led by Groom (1709), Dresden Gallery; 
Dogs by Dead Game (3), Dead Bird and 
Insects (2), Bear-Hunt, Stuttgart Museum ; 
White Grouse in the Mountains, Zurich Gal- 
lery. His son and pupil, Anton Ignatz (born 
in Vienna in 1696, died at Hubertsbuxg, 
Saxony, in 1770), who painted the same sub- 
jects, entered the service of the Duke of 
Sax e- Weimar, and then became court- 
painter to Augustus III, King of Poland 
and Elector of Saxony. — Kramm, ii. 635. 


Philadelphia in 1663. Genre painter ; 
studied at the Royal Academy, Antwerp, 
under Van Leriua, and at the Ecole des 
Beaux Arts, Paris, under Gerflme. Exhib- 
ited at National Academy in 1877, La Rire, 
and at Pennsylvania Academy in 1885, The 
Old Pioneer and Swiftwater. Studio in 

DE, born at Brussels in 1664, died in Vi- 
enna in 1760. Animal and still-life painter, 
son and pupil of James ; was called to the 
court of Vienna by Charles VI, who em- 
ployed hi™ extensively. His pictures are 
frequently to be met with at the country- 
seats and in the castles of the Austrian 
nobility, and in the public galleries of Vi- 
enna, Prague, Pesth, Munich, Weimar, Des- 
sau, Carlaruhe, Frankfort, and Oldenburg. 
— Kramm, ii. 636 ; Wurzbach, vii. 263. 

Madine, National Gallery, London ; canvas, 
H. 5 ft. x 9 ft The play scene in centre, 
background ; in foreground, right, the king 
and queen and Polonius, with attendants and 
soldiers ; left, Ophelia with Horatio leaning 
on her chair, and behind, attendants and 
soldiers ; centre, Hamlet lying at feet of 
Ophelia, gazing on the king's face. Royal 
Academy, 1842. Engraved by C. Rolls.— 
Art Journal (1864), 214. 

Sir Thomas Lawrence, National Portrait 
Gallery, London ; canvas, H. 10 ft x 6 ft 6 
in. Portrait of John Philip Kemble, as 
Hamlet, apostrophizing the skull of Yorick, 
tbe king's jester, which he holds in his hand. 
Painted in 1801 ; presented in 1836 by King 
William P7. Transferred from National Gal- 
lery in 1884. Engraved by S. W. Reynolds 
and others. Sketch sold at Sir T. Baring 
sale, 1848, for 50 guineas. — Gower, 48 ; Waa- 
gen. Treasures, i. 380. 

RAD, born at Ostend, Sept 24, 1819. His- 
torical genre painter, pupil of Antwerp 
Academy and of De Keyser ; settled in 1846 

in Paris. Gold medal in Brussels, 1848 ; 
medals in Paris : 3d class, 1853 ; 2d class, 
1869, 1863, 1864 ; Order of Leopold, 1854 ; 
L. of Honour, 1864. Works : Preparations 
for Serenade, Rabelais at the Court of France, 
Hamlet, Charles IX. and his Surgeon Am- 
broise Pare, Louis XJH. and Maria de' Med- 
ici surprised by Richelieu, Doge Mocenigo 
and Titian visiting Paul Veronese, Daughter 
of the Criminal (1847-53); Christopher Co- 
lumbus ; Adrian Willaert playing Organ in 
Monastery at Bruges, Brussels Museum ; 
Workshop of Stradivarius (1869); The An- 
atomist Vesalius in Padua ; Dante at Ra- 
venna (1859); Entry of Duke Albrecht VH. 
and Isabella into Ostend ; The Heptameron 
of Margaret of Angoul&ne ; Childhood of 
Francis 1; Charles V. instructed by Eras- 
mus (1863), Luxembourg Museum ; Women 
of Siena during the Siege (1864); Festival 
of Bucentaur in Venice (1867); Masaniello 
and the Viceroy of Naples ; Murillo in his 
Studio ; Huguenot Family in Flight (1870); 
The Secrets of Madame and of the Sou- 
brette (1873) ; Father's Memories (1878) ; 
Grassy Corner in Normandy (1881); Mead- 
ows of Surdif (1882); Farm Yard in Nor- 
mandy (1883); The Breakers (1884).— Jour, 
des B. Arts (I860), 138 ; Kramm, ii. 636 ; 
Mailer, 167. 

Dresden, Feb. 4, 1821. 
Animal painter and il- 
lustrator, pupil of Dres- 
den Academy and of 
Julius Htlbner. In 1847 
visited Trieste and 
North Italy on foot, and 
returned home by Mu- 
nich and Nuremberg; 
has made frequent ex- 
cursions into the forests 
of Saxony, Bohemia, and Silesia, and the 
Tyrol ; went to Constantinople in 1866. 
Works : Mort, Saxon Art Union ; Two Stags 
Fighting; Greyhound (1852), Sow with 
Grice stopped by Dog (1860), Dresden Gal- 
lery.— Mailer, 235. 


Copenhagen, Dec. 29, 1815. Genre and 
landscape painter, pupil of Copenhagen 
Academy under Eclteraberg ; entered the 
army in 1848, took part in the campaign of 
that year, and took his leave as captain in 
I860*; visited Italy in 1856-58. Order of 
Dannebrog, 1861 ; Member of Copenhagen 
Academy in 1874. Works : Last Load of 
Hay (1845) ; Feasants' Amusement on Sun- 
day (1847) ; View of Rome (1863) ; Market- 
place at Ariccia (1863) ; Market-Day at 
Fredericia (1871) ; Long-Expected Letter 
(1877), Copenhagen Gallery. 

HAMMER, JOHN J., born in Westhofen, 
Germany, Jan. 1, 1842. Genre and portrait 
painter, pupil in Munich from 1876 of Pro- 
fessors Loefftz and Alexander Wagner. Re- 
moved to New York in 1884. Works : In 
the Shade (1881), In the Sun (1882), Kunst. 
veroin, Munich; Gleaners (1883), William 
Baumgarten, New York ; Scenes from Pom- 
peii — water-colours (1883) ; Qoose Girl 
(1883), Munich Exhibition ; Little Barefoot 
(1884) ;Dreams of Childhood — water-colours 
(1885) ; Portrait of Mrs. Margaret Carnegie 
(1886), Andrew Carnegie, New York 
HAMON, JEAN LOUIS, born at St Loup, 
near Plouha 
May8, 1821, died 
at St Raphael 
(Var), May 29, 
1874. Genre 
painter, pupil of 
Delaroche aud of 
>Gleyre ; exhib- 
ited in 1848 with 
little Buccesa 
Gleyre then obtained him employment at 
Sevres, where he designed and painted a 
number of vases, among them one for Queen 
Victoria (1851), and another for the Empress. 
Lived in Capri after 1865. Many of bis 
highly poetical and delicately painted pict- 
ures have been engraved. Despite great 
professional success, his life was embittered 
and shortened by sickness and pecuniary 

embarrassment Medals : 3d class, 1853 
2d class, 1856 ; L. of Honour, 1856. Works 
Tomb of Christ, Frieze of a Door (1848) 
Equality in the Seraglio, Parrot playing with 
two Girls, a Roman Notice (1849) ; Human 
Comedy (1852), Luxembourg Museum ; My 
Sister isn't There (1853) ; Cupid and his Fol- 
lowers, The Orphans, Nurse with Children, It 
is not I (1865) i Tomb of Christ (1865), Mar- 
seilles Museum; Chained Butterfly, Enslaved 
Fly, The Cheap Shop, The Tamer, Love, Wom- 
en Winding (1857); Cupid Visiting (1859); 
Aviary, Smuggler, Guardianship, Virgins of 
Lesbos (1861); Elder Sister, Mountebank 
(1861), NantesMuseum ; Imitator, Day of Be- 
trothal, Aurora (1864); Muses at Pompeii 
(1866) ; Promenade (1867) ; Ophelia on the 
Bank of the Dark River (1873) ; Among the 
Flowers, Museum, New York ; Spring Flow- 
ers, W. H. Van- 
JX. HAMON <*erbUt, ib.— Om. 
des B Arts (1875), 
xi. 119 ; Atbenasum (1874), i. 835 ; Homer- 
ton, French Pointers ; Larousse ; Meyer, 
Gesch., 628 ; Diustr. Zeitg. (1879), L 315, 
321 ; Claretie, Peintres (1882), i. 49. 

Berlin, July 13, 1772, died there, Dec. 29, 
1848. Genre and architecture painter, pu- 
pil of Berlin Academy under Niedlich and 
Frisch. Member of the Berlin Academy in 
1816, professor in 1823, and inspector and 
librarian from 1829. Works : Castle in 
Moonlight (1817), Fountain in Gothic Hall 
(1819), Luther's Room in Wittenberg (1821), 
National Gallery, Berlin. 

HANDLER, PAUL, born at Altenwed- 
diugen, near Magdeburg, March 16, 1833. 
History painter, pupil of Berlin and Dossel- 
dorf Academies, then in Dresden of Julius 
Schnorr ; visited Italy in 1869, and after- 
wards Paris ; lived in Dresden in 1861-47, 
and then settled in Berlin, where he is pro- 
fessor at the Royal Art School. Works : Cru- 
cifixion (1861); Disciples at Emmaus (1862); 
Battle at M5ckern (1864); Christ bearing the 
Cross (1865) ; Wall Paintings for Church 
in Hillersleben (1867) ; Doubting Thomas 


(1868) ; Crucifixion (1871) ; Ecce Homo 
(1872); Resurrection (1872); do. (1873); 
ChristCrucified(1873); Disciples at Eminaua 
(1675) ; Christ and Peter on the Sea (1876). 
In fresco: St Paul at Athene, Burning of Pa- 
pal Bull at Wittenberg (1881-83), Gymnasi- 
um, Magdeburg ; Cartoons for Stained Glass 
Windows in Prince Albert Mausoleum at 
Windsor Castle (1866).— Brockhaus, viii. 808; 
Mailer, 235 ; Rosenberg, BerL Malersh , 248. 

Joseph M. W. Turner, National Gallery, 
London ; canvas, H. 4 ft 9 in. x 7 ft. 9 in. 
A lurid sun seen through a storm of snow, 
which threatens to overwhelm the Cartha- 
ginians, toiling through the passes, who are 
also attacked by the savage mountaineers. 
Royal Academy, 1812. Engraved by J. 
Cousen in Turner Gallery. — Cat Nat Gal 

Hague in 1601, died there in 1668 or 1669. 
Portrait painter, pupil of Ravesteyn ; went 
to England early in Charles L'b reign, 
painted for 16 years under Daniel My tens, 
the elder, and adopted much of Van Dyck's 
manner. He returned afterwards to The 
Hague (probably before 1640), became mas- 
ter of the guild in 1640, court-painter to 
Princess Mary of Orange, and in 1656 was 
one of the founders of the new painters' 
guild, Picture, and its first dean. His por- 
traits are well drawn, full of expression, and 
of fine colouring. Works : Portrait of Con- 
stantyn Huygens and Children (1640) Hague 
Museum ; Portrait of Jan de Wit (1652), 
Rotterdam Museum ; Family Group engaged 
in Music, Female Portrait, do. (1661), Bruns- 
wick Museum ; Portrait of Prince William 
Frederick of Orange (1661), Weimar Mu- 
seum ; do. of Great Elector (1659), Wiirlitz 
Gallery ; do. of Charles L, and of Van Dyck, 
Vienna Museum. — Allgem, d. Biogr., x. 522; 
Burger, MusOes, ii. 227 ; Immerzeel, ii. 13 ; 
Kramm. ii. 637 ; Riegel, Beitrage, ii. 219. 

HANNL, MAX, bom in Prague in 1696, 
died in Vienna in 1758. German school ; 
portrait painter, said to have been a pupil 
of Kupeczky. His portraits show broad 

treatment, powerful colouring, and fine im- 
pasto. Works in Vienna Museum. 

HANOTEAU, HECTOR, born in Decize 
(Nievre), May 25, 
1823. Landscape 
painter, pupil of 
Gigoux. A pains- 
taking and skilful 
realist Medals: 
1864, 1868, and 
1869 ; L. of Hon- 
our, 1870. Works: 
Arab Encampment 
(1855); Meadows 

of Charency, Pond in Nivernais (1857); 
Morning on the Cauna (1859); Morning's 
Fishing (1860); Springs at Charency (1861); 
Horses at Liberty (1863); Paradise of Geese, 
Marseilles Museum ; Abandoned Hut (1864); 
Corner of a Park (1865); Evening on the 
Farm, After Fishing (1866); Larder of the 
Fox-Cubs (1868); Reeds (1869); Passage of 
Great Game (1869); The Summons (1870); 
Village Pond (1870), Luxembourg Museum ; 
Cottage (1872); Honeysuckle (1873); The 
Aumance, View on the Allier, Benevolent 
Public (1874); Frogs (1875), Luxembourg 
Museum ; Laughing Water, Kids (1876); 
Mill, Chief Place by the Fire (1877); Mil- 
ler's Excursion (1878); Victim of the Sup- 
per (1879); Sleeping Water (1880); Wooded 
Pond, My Garden (1881); Autumn, Hoeing 
(1882); The Middle Row (1883); Septem- 
ber, April (1884); Peaks of the Grove, Use- 
ful Man (1885).— Gaz. des B. Arts, xvii. 16, 
162, 368 ; Larousse. 


HANSCH, ANTON, bom in Vienna, 
March 24, 1813, died in Salzburg, Dec 8, 
1876. Landscape painter, pupil of Vienna 
Academy under Moessmer. Studied the 
old masters, and made frequent journeys to 
the Austrian Alps, to Switzerland, "Upper 
Italy, and Belgium. Gold medal, 1839. 
Prizes, 1839, 1859, 1860. In 1848 he was 
made member, and in 1871 senator, of the 
Vienna Academy. Settled at Salzburg in 
1873. He was one of the leading landscape 



painters of the Vienna school Works : 
View near Hiefflau, Styria (1836); Neuwald 
near the Schneeberg (1636); Lake of Con- 
stance, Fir Wood in the Salzkammergut ; 
View at Oollinger Falls ; After the Storm ; 
From the Wilderness of Styria ; At Bernina 
Pass ; View on the KOnigsee (1849), Glacier 
of the Jungfrau (1853), Under the Lindens 
(1858), Museum, Vienna ; View in the Salz- 
kammergut, Academy, ib.; Alpine Forest 
(1866); OossauLake(1869),OetzthalGlacier, 
View on Cbieni Lake, The Wetterhorn. — 
AUgem. d. Biogr., x, 525 ; Kunst-Chronik, 
ziL 239 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex., xviL 435 ; 
Wurzbach, vii. 325. 

Ghent, July 13, 1786, died there, March 10, 
1862. History and portrait painter, pupil 
of Qhent Academy under Van HuffeL ob- 
tained the first prize, and in 1809 went to 
Fatis, where he studied under David, won 
the grand prize at Ghent in 1814, and went 
to Italy in 1816 ; became court-painter to 
King of Naples and member of Borne and 
Naples Academies, and, after his return in 
1829, professor at Ghent Academy. Works : 
Sacrifice of Abel (1814); Martyrdom of St 
Stephen, Ghent Museum ; Philip van Arte- 
velde inciting Rebellion in Ghent ; Susanna 
at the Bath, Artist's Portrait, National Mu- 
seum, Amsterdam ; Roman Woman Pray- 
ing, Weimar Museum.— Immerzeel, ii. 14 ; 
Kramm, ii. 619. 

Copenhagen, May 5, 1853. Genre painter, 
pupil of Copenhagen Academy, where he 
took several prizes. Works : Outside the 
Gate (1868) ; From a Churchyard (1880) ; 
After Breakfast, Children on the Heath, 
(1881); Troubadours (1882).— Sigurd Mai- 
ler, isa 

HANSEN, HETNRICH, born at Haders- 
leben, Nov. 23, 1821. Architecture painter, 
pupil of Copenhagen Academy. In 1847 
travelled through Germany, and in 1850-52 
visited Western Europe and Spain. Mem- 
ber of, and professor at, Copenhagen Acad- 
emy. Works: Interior of St Sablon's in 

53), Chamber of Christian IV. 
at Rosenborg Castle (1855), Room in Town 
Hall of Bruges (1858), Copenhagen Gallery ; 
San Marco ; Oratory of Christian IV. ; Coun- 
cil Chamber in Palazzo Ducale, Venice ; In- 
terior of 16th Century in Lubeck (1878).— 
Sigurd Mttller, 143 ; Weilbach, 242. 
HANSEN, KONSTANTIN, born in Borne, 
Nov. 3, 1804, died 
March 2 7, 1880. 
Genre and history 
painter, son of the 
portrait painter Hans 
H. (1769-1828), pu- 
pil of Christopher V. 
^Eckersberg; was in 
4 Italy in 1835-41, 

and painted many 
scenes from popular 
life ; after his return executed mythological 
scenes in fresco in the University of Copen- 
hagen. Member of Copenhagen Academy 
in 1864, professor, and since 1873 vice- 
director. Works : iEgir's Banquet, Copen- 
hagen Gallery ; Beading from Ariosto (1839); 
The Housewife (1859) ; Interior of Mill near 
Hellebek ; Assembly of the States at Chris- 
tiansborg.— Sigurd Mailer, 127 ; Weilbach, 

born in Christiania, April 23, 1823. Genre 
and portrait painter, pupil of Berlin and 
Copenhagen Academies, entered the army 
in 1848, went to America in 1856, took part 
in the Civil War as commander of a regi- 
ment of volunteers, and afterwards returned 
to Christiania, where he portrayed especially 
officers of the Norwegian navy. Works: 
Cavalry Skirmish nearBendsburg ; Portraits 
of General Grant and several other Ameri- 
can generals. — Weilbach, 246. 

born at Altona in 1791, died there, May 1, 
History and portrait painter, first 
instructed in Hamburg ; tried portrait 
painting successfully, went to Stralsund, 
and afterwards to Vienna, whence, with the 
Danish painter Bravo, went to Rome, where 


be improved through intercourse with Rein 
hardt, Koch, and Cornelius ; after a short 
visit home, he passed six years in Italy, and 
then resided in Munich in 1830-45. In 
1645 he painted four large altarpieces in 
Austria, before going again to Italy, whence 
he returned to his native town in 1850. 
Works : Youth at Nam ; Magdalen ; The 
Fisherman— after Goethe (1833) ; Madonna ; 
Christ on Mount of Olives ; Bathing Girls ; 
Portraits of Baron von Aretin, of the painter 
Morgenateru, and many others ; Scenes from 
Mediaeval Life in German Castles ; four 
great Altarpieces (1845) ; St Genevieve in 
Prison ; Genius with a Child ; Mother and 
Child ; Group of Italian Women. — Allgem. 
d. Biogr., x. 543 j Cotta's KunstbL (1835), 
58; Hamb. K. Lei.; SoltL 

born at Neudorf, near Dresden, March 19, 
1794, died in Dresden, April 3, 1848. Genre 
painter, pupil of Dresden Academy and of 
Bossier. He satirized the philistinism of 
small towns and set forth the humourous 
aspects of the school-room in his pictures. 
Works: Saxon Peasant's Boom; Village 
School ; Youth hath no Virtue ; Sunday 
Morning (1830), Leipaic Museum ; At the 
Dentist's (1839), National Gallery, Berlin.— 
Jordan (1885), li 84. 

HAPPEL, FBIEDRICB; born at Arns- 
berg, Westphalia, May 23, 1825, died in 
DQsseldorf, July 5, 1854. Animal painter, 
brother of Peter Friedrich, pupil of the 
DQsseldorf Academy in 1838-41. Works : 
Foxes fighting about Dying Buck (1844); 
Hounds, Foxes hunting Hares, Fighting 
Stags (1851-52) ; Fox Family, Young Foxes 
Playing, Young Foxes waiting for their 
Parents (1853); Stag Calling (1854); Foxes 
attacking Wounded Buck (1855).— Allgem. 
d. Biogr., x. 552 ; Andresen, v. 197. 

at Arnsberg, Westphalia, March 26, 1813, 
died in Dusseldorf, May 23, 1854. Land- 
scape painter, pupil from 1829 of the DQs- 
seldorf Academy under Schirmer. Opened 
a studio in 1842 at Dusseldorf, which he left 

only at intervals for study at Munich and in 
the country. He has been called the painter 
of German summer. Was secretary of the 
DOsseldorf Artists' Association. Works : 
View in Sauerland (1837) ; Mountain Land- 
scape in Rain (1839) ; View in Isar Valley 
(1840) [ Maleiche (1842) ; Way to Village 
(1847) ; Moorland (1848) ; Harvest Scene, 
Mill (1850) ; View in the EifeL Harvest, 
with Procession, View in the Odenwald. — 
Allgem. d. Biogr., s. 552. 

HAPPY AS A KING, William CoUins, J. 
dough, Liverpool ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 3 in. X 2 
ft 11 in. Children swinging on a gate in 
a wood. Painted in 1836 ; sold to Messrs. 
Finden, 275 guineas. Repetition (1836) in 
National Gallery, from Vernon Collection, 
1S47. Engraved by E. Finden, C. Couseu. 
— Wilkie Collins, Memoirs, ii 66, 349. 

HAQUETTE, GEORGES, born in Paris; 
contemporary. Genre and portrait painter, 
pupil of Adolphe Millet and of Cabanel 
Medal, 3d class, 1880. Works : Wandering 
Musicians (1876); At the Guardian's (1877); 
Scene at Poll e t near Dieppe (1878) ; Francine'a 
Mu$ Interior at Pallet (1879) ; Wandering 
Musicians in Norman Tavern ; Fish-seller at 
Dieppe (1880) ; Interior at Mother Panotte's, 
Father Mazure (1861) ; Departure for New- 
foundland, At the Pier (1882); Right of Pas- 
sage, Expectation (1883) ; Salute at Calvary, 
A Baptism (1884) ; The Signal (1884), Mrs. 
M. J. Morgan, New York ; Landing of Fish- 
ermen, Blastof Wind (1885).— Bellier, i 741. 

HARBURGER, EDMUND, born at Eich- 
stadt, Bavaria, April 4, 1846. Genre painter, 
pupil of Munich Academy under Linden- 
schniitt; subjects mostly humourous. Works: 
Beer-Drinker, Village Barber (1872) ; Con- 
trasts (1873) ; Senator (1874), Art Union, 
Munich; Old and Young (1875) ; Education 
of Bacchus (1876) ; Young Venetian Woman; 
At the Silent Hearth (1883) ; Seamstress 
(1884) ; Head Study, Saint Gall Museum.— 
Elustr. Zeitg. (1873), ii 246 ; Kunst-Chro- 
nik, xx. 743. 

HARDING, CHESTER, born at Conway, 
Mass., Sept 1, 1792, died in Boston, April 


1, 186G. Portrait painter, self -taught. Orig- 
inally a turner, then a soldier in the war 
of 1812, and a house-painter in Pittsburgh, 
he developed a talent for portrait painting, 
and going to London in 1832 met with 
much success. After his return he exer- 
cised his profession in St. Louis, Philadel- 
phia, and Boston. "Works : Portraits of 
Dukes of Norfolk, Hamilton, and Sussex ; 
Sir Archibald Alison ; Samuel Bogera ; 
Lord Aberdeen ; Daniel Webster, Bar Asso- 
ciation, New York ; Washington Allston, S. 
Batehelder ; John Randolph, Corcoran Gal- 
lery, Washington ; Daniel Boone ; General 
Sherman ; Henry Clay ; John C. Calhoun ; 
Chief Justice Marshall ; Charles Carroll ; 
William Wirt ; Presidents Madison, Mon- 
roe, and J. Q. Adams. 

at Deptford, England, in 1798, died at 
Barnes, Dec i, 1863. Landscape painter, 
awarded in 1818 a medal by the Society of 
Arts, elected in 1821 an associate, and in 
1822 a member of the Water Colour Society, 
which he left in 1847 to become a candidate 
for the R A., but failing returned to it in 
1857. Visited Italy in 1830; promoted 
lithography, and wrote several works on art 
For his lithographic drawings, exhibited at 
the Louvre, he received two gold medals 
from the Academic des Beaux Arts. Works : 
The Alps from Secco to Como ; The Jung- 
frau ; Angers on tbe Loire ; View of Frei- 
burg ; Falls of Schaffhausen ; On the Mo- 
selle, Sir Richard Wallace, London ; Pollards 
in Windsor Meadows, Tintern Abbey, Land- 
scape with Hovels, South Kensington Mu- 
seum—Art Journal (1850), 181 ; (1856), 
270 ; (1864), 39, 89. 

HARDOBFF, GERDT, bom in Hamburg 
Territory (Altenland), May 11, 1769, died in 
Hamburg in 1864. History painter, pupil 
in Hamburg of Anton Tischbein, and from 
1788 in Dresden of Casanova ; returned in 
1796 to Hamburg, where he became pro- 
fessor at the Johanneum. "Works : Cain 
after the Fratricide (1794) ; Last Supper, 
Crucifixion (1796), Magdalen ; Director 

Gurlitt at the Desk, Ennsthalle, Hamburg. 
— Allgem. d. Biogr., x. 595 ; Nagler, Moil, 
ii 1064. 

HARDORFF, RUDOLF, born in Ham- 
burg, March 8, 1816. Marine painter, son 
and pupil of Gerdt ; has visited Holland, 
England, and Scotland, and paints marines 
effectively with interesting accessories. 
Works : Sunrise on Coast (1848), Explosion 
of Danish Man-of-War Christian V1LL near 
Eckernforde (1860), Mouth of the Thames 
near Bamsgate (1853), Moonlight on Coast, 
Shipwreck, Kunsthalle, Hamburg; Naval 
Victory of Germans over the Danes (1858) ; 
Boadstead at Isle of Wight ; Tbe Log-House 
in Hamburg Harbour ; Cladda Bock by 
Moonlight ; Scotch Coast ; Men-of-War in 
North Sea.— Muller, 237. 

at Windsor, February, 1826. Genre painter, 
relinquished music for painting ; began to 
exhibit in Royal Academy in 1851 views of 
domestic interiors, which have made him 
popular. Exhibits chiefly at Royal Acad- 
emy. Works : The Sweep (1862) ; Playing 
at Doctor (1863); The Pedlar (1864); Leaky 
Roof (1865) ; Threatened Deluge (1866) ; 
Broken Window (1869) ; Reading the Will 
(1870) ; Housekeepers Alarmed (1871) ; 
Looking for Father (1873) ; Stirring News 
(1875) ; A Misdeal (1877) ; Prayer for 
Those at Sea, Music Party (1879) ; Evening 
with Mozart (1881) ; Reading the Spectator 
in 1711 (1882) ; In Memoriam (1883); Ves- 
pers (1884). 

HARDY, HEY WOOD, born in England; 
contemporary. Genre painter. Exhibits at 
Royal Academy and Grosvenor Gallery. 
Works: Christmas Eve (1877) ; Meg Mer- 
riliea and tbe Laird of Ellangowan (1879) ; 
Sidi Ahmed ben Avuda and the Holy Lion, 
Life's Chequered Ways, Lovers' Meeting. 
Sleeping Beauty, Little Sisters (1881); 
King's Daughter, Slain Enemy (1882); Lion 
in Love, New Arrival, General Assembly 
(1883) ; Bear Guard, Sale of Cavalry Horses, 
Wanderers (1884) ; Boused, Trespassers 


Paris, Feb. 18, 184-7. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Charles Busson, Bin, Trottin, Pe- 
lonse, and Levasseur. Medals : 3d class, 
1880 ; 2d class, 1885. Works : End of Sep- 
tember Pay (1868); Before tbe Rain (1870); 
Banks of tbe Seine (1875); Day after Fete 
(1878) ; Return from Market, Summer in 
Normandy (1879) ; Vegetable Garden, 
Trench of Digue-Blanche (1880) ; Moon- 
rise after Rain (1881) ; Banks of the Creuze 
(1882) ; Storm, Moonrise in November 
(1883) ; Twilight in July, November Morn- 
ing (1884) ; Bonks of the Creuze, Autumn 
Night (1885).— Bellier, L 742. 

HARLAMOFF, ALEXIS, bom at Sara- 
toft; Russia, in 1849. Genre and portrait 
painter, pupil of St Petersburg Academy 
under Markoff ; won in 1870 first priz de 
Borne, continued his studies in Paris under 
Bonnat, and spent two years in Holland and 
Germany, and one year in Belgium. Mem- 
ber of St. Petersburg Academy. Medal, 2d 
class, Paris, 1878. Works : Music Lesson ; 
Children and Flowers ; Maiden of Mordva ; 
Portraits of Turgeneff, M. and Madame Vi- 
ardot, Emperor Alexander n., Prince Kots- 
chubei, Madame Tretiakoff, 

London, June 10,1787, 
died there, Feb. 4, 
1819. Portrait paint- 
er, pupil of De Cort, 
Drnmmond, and Sir 
Thomas Lawrence; 
first exhibited at Royal 
Academy in 1805. In 
1818 lie visited Rome; ' 
was introduced to the . 

Pope by Canova, and ' 

through him made a member of the Acad- 
emy of Si Luke. Best known work, Trial 
of Queen Catherine, with Eemble portraits. 
— Redgrave ; F de Conches, 411. 

Hamburg in 1642, died at Brunswick in 
1708. German school ; landscape and archi- 
tecture painter, pupil of EUerbrock in Ham- 

burg ; studied in Rome under Salvator Rosa, 
whom he imitated successfully. After his 
return he lived long in Dresden, where he 
painted decorations for the theatre. Works : 
Winter Landscape (1675), Schwerin Gallery; 
others in Brunswick Museum. His son, 
August Friedrich (died at Cassel in 1745), 
also painted landscape and architecture, 
but with especial skill dead game, of which 
excellent specimens are in the galleries of 
Brunswick (2) and Copenhagen. In the 
cathedral at Brunswick is an Ascension by 
him, dated 1728. He also wrote on art. — 
Allgem. d. Biogr., x. 611. 

HARNETT, WILLIAM M, bora in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., in 1851. Still-life painter, 
pupil of the National Academy, New York. 
Studied in Frankfort and Munich, 1880-84. 
Studio in Munich. Works : Social Club 
(1879) ; Still Life (1882), T. B. Clarke, New 
York ; Fruit, Still Life (1883). 

Berlin, Oct 17, 1725, died there, June 23, 
1806. Landscape painter, son and pupil of 
Johann H. (born in Stockholm in 1688, died, 
court-painter in Berlin, in 174G), travelled 
then for eight years in France and Italy, and 
studied especially in Rome under Richard 
Wilson. In 1756 he entered the Duke of 
Wdrtemberg's service, became court-painter 
in 1759, professor at the newlyfounded 
Academy in 1761, and afterwards at the 
Karlschule. He was rector of the former 
in 1771-72, and of the latter in 1785-94, 
and from 1784 director of the galleries. 
Work: The Garden Theatre at the Villa 
Madams, Rome (1760) ; many others in the 
Castles of Wflrtemberg. — Allgem. d. Biogr., 
x. 617 ; Goethe, Schweizer Reise, L J. 1797 ; 
Haakh, Beit rage, 4. 

HARFIGNnS, HENRI bom at Valen- 
ciennes, July 28, 1819. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Achard. Both in oil and water-col- 
our this artist stands in the first rank of 
living French painters. His water-colours 
have the strength and breadth of the Eng- 
lish schooL Has exhibited regularly since 
1852. Medals : 1866, 1868, and 1869 ; 2d 


class, 1878 ; L. of Honour, 1875 ; Officer, 
1883. Worka : A Deep Road (1852); View 
of Capri (1865); The 
Hedge School, A 
Panic, Hunting 
Craw-Fish (1857); 
The Return, A Storm 
(1859) ; Edge of the 
Woods, Evening on 
' the Loire, The Loire 
(1861); The Rooks 
(1863); The Prom- 
enade (1864) ; Rome 
from the Palatine Hill (1865) ; View at 
Sorrento (1865), Douai Museum; Vesu- 
vius (1866) ; Evening on the Campagna 
(1866), Luxembourg Museum ; Solitude 
(1867); Souvenir of the River Meurthe 
(1666), Lille Museum ; Rocky Road (1869) ; 
View of Montreal (1870) ; Valley of Egeria 
(1870), Opera House ; Ruins of the Castle 
of Herisson (1872) ; The Wolfs Jump 
(1873), Orleans Museum; do., Luxembourg; 
River Aumance, A Benevolent Public (1874); 
Oaks of Chateau-Renard, Valley of Au- 
mance (1875), Luxembourg ; Meadow in 
Bourbonnais (1876) ; Village of Chasteloy 
(1877) ; Old Walnut Tree (1878) ; Pavilion 
of Flora from the Pont Neuf, Turkeys (1879) ; 
Return from Hunting in the Evening (1660) ; 
Victim of Winter, the Loing at St. Prive 
(1881) ; The Loing, The Loire (1882) ; 
Woods of Tremellerie, An Afternoon at Si 
Prive (1883) ; Loing at Tremellerie, Moon- 


Ytii'/nitJ, if%t- 


rise (1884) ; The Loire at Briare, Farm of 
Cour-Chaillot (1885).— L'Art (1879), xvi. 
269, 281 ; Larousse ; Meyer, Conv. Lex., 
xxl 406. 

born at Rosnochau, Silesia, in 1832. Land- 
scape and historical genre painter, pupil 
of Weimar Art School under Ealckreutb, 
Bamberg, and Pauwels ; took part in the 

campaigns of 1866 and 1870, and spent one 
year in Italy. Lives in Berlin ; member of 
Berlin Academy since 
1873. Works: Cha- 
mois Hunters; Henry 
the Fowler ; Emperor 
Max on the Martin Wall ; 
Scotch Fisherman's 
, i Family; Chamois Hunt; 

Seizure of Luther on 
his Return from Worms 
(1870), Breslau Muse- 
um ; Arran Island ; Spring's Beginning ; 
Nocturnal Attack ; Opened Garden Door ; 
In the Vineyards of Worth, Outpost on 
Mont Valerien, Napoleon's Letter to King 
William (1872) ; Skating in Thiergarten, 
Moltke before Paris (1876) ; Death of the 
Sea-King ; Abraham's Sacrifice (1877) ; An- 
nunciation to the Shepherds (1878) ; Peter's 
Denial, Breslau Museum ; Alpine Landscape, 
Female Portraits (2, 1884).— Mttller, 238 ; 
Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 231. 

HARRER, HUGO, born at Hirschberg, 
Silesia, in 1836, died in Rome, Dec. 8, 1876. 
Genre and architecture painter, self-taught 
Painted his first pictures in Nuremberg, 
then went to Munich, where he was much 
influenced by Piloty, and in 1862 to Rome, 
where he allied himself closely with Passini. 
Returned there after a two years' sojourn in 
DOsseldorf. In sunlight effects took Oswald 
Achenbach for his model ; was strong in 
perspective. View in Olevano (1876), Berne 
Museum. — Allgem. d. Biogr., x. 640; Kunst- 
Chronik, xii. 287, 478. 

Paris (?), died in Rome in 1805. History 
painter, pupil of David ; won the grand prix 
de Rome in 1793, and first prize in 1800 
and 1802. In 1803 be went ^ Rome, and 
died there, leaving his Horatius Codes un- 
finished. Works : Battle of the Horatii and 
Curiatii (1800) ; Androclus and the Lion 
(1802) ; Brutus dying on the Battle-Field 
(1803) ; Horatius Codes on the Sublician 
Bridge (1805).— Seubert, ii 175. 



Philadelphia, Not. 28, 1854. Genre painter, 
pupil in Paris of Carol us Duran, and of the 
£cole dea Beaux Arts under Cabanel. Ex- 
hibited first in Salon of 1881. Returned to 
America in 1882, painted in New Mexico in 
1883. Studio in Paris. Works : Waif from 
the Sea (1881) ; Return from First Com- 
munion (1882) ; November (purchased by 
French Government) ; Little Goose-Herd, 
Motherless, Summer Idyl, Calling Home the 
Cows, Milkmaid, Modern Pompeiian, Friends 
or Foes (1884). 

born in Philadelphia, Jan. 17, 1853. Genre 
and landscape painter, brother of Lowell 
Birge ; pupil of £cole des Beaux Arts under 
Gerome. Exhibited first in Salon of 1881 ; 
Honourable Mention, 1885. Gold medal, 
S. Francisco, 1878. Studio in Paris. Works: 
An Bonis de la Mer, Shipwrecked, Coast of 
Brittany (1881) ; Chateaux en Espagne 
(1882) ; The Amateurs, Little Slave (1883) ; 
Harbour of Concarneau, Pebbly Beach, 
Breton Garden, Twilight, The Shipwrecked 
of Glenans (1884) ; Sea-shore, The Wave 
(1885). Butler Harrison, a younger brother, 
has studied in Paris since 1881, with Bou- 
langer and Lafebvre. Work, Little Grand- 
mother (1884), Philadelphia Academy Ex- 

Kilmarnock, Scotland, 
May 10, 1828. Land- 
scape painter; taken to 
America in 1831 ; pupil 
of his brother, William 
Hart, and in 1851 of 
Schirmer in Dusseldorf. f 
Elected an A.N.A. in / ^ 

1857, and N.A. in 1859. \ 

Studio in New York. \ 

Works : On the Croton, 
Launt Thompson ; Landscape and Cattle, 
J. BL Sherwood, New York ; Morning in the 
Adirondacks, M. O. Roberts Collection, ib. ; 
Summer on the Boque t River, Stewart Gal- 
lery, ib. ; Summer Memory of Berkshire, E. 
D. Morgan Collection, ib. ; Autumn Woods, 

Rush C. Hawkins, ib. ; Glimpse of Cayuga 
Lake, J. W. Pincliot, ib. ; Adirondacks 
(1859), W. T. Walters, Baltimore ; Drooe at 
the Ford (1874), Corcoran Gallery, Wash- 
ington ; Threatening Weather, In the Pas- 
ture (1877) ; Midsummers Day (1878) ; 
Through Dust Clouds (1879); Farmington 
River, At the Brookside (1880) ; Loitering 
at Noonday, In our Village (1881) ; Princess 
Lily (1882) ; In the Old Orchard, Oaks in 
Autumn (1883) ; So Near and Yet so Far, 
Boughs for Christmas (1884) ; At the Water- 
ing Trough (1885).— Art Journal (1877), 

in Plymouth, April, 1806, died in London, 
June 11, 1881. History and portrait paint- 
er, apprenticed in London to Samuel War- 
ren, engraver ; became student in Royal 
Academy in 1823, A.R.A. in 1836, and R A. 
in 1840 ; was professor of painting there in 
1854-63, and librarian in 1865-81. First 
won notice by his Isaac of York in the Castle 
of Front de BoBuf. Other works : Interior 
of a Jewish Synagogue, National Gallery ; 
Henry L receiving News of the Shipwreck 
and Death of his Son (1840); Execution of 
Lady Jane Grey, Plymouth Gallery ; Co- 
lumbus and the Child ; Wolsey and Buck- 
ingham ; Dante ; The Hoarder (1881).— 
Cat. Nat. Gal. ; Art Journal (1881), 223 ; 
Sandby, ii. 166 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex., xix. 

HART, W ILLIAM, born in Paisley, Scot- 
land, March 31, 1823. Landscape and ani- 
mal painter, self-taught ; brother of James 
McDougal ; taken to America in early youth. 
In 1849 visited Scotland, where he studied 
and painted three years. Elected an AN. A. 
in 1857, and N.A. in 185a Studio in New 
York. Works : Near Keene, Ml Desert, S. 
V. Wright ; After the Shower, a J. Harriot ; 
Peace and Plenty (1855) ; Close of Day— 
Mt. Desert (1856); Lake in the Hills (1858); 
White Mountain, E. B. Warren, Philadel- 
phia; Joy of Autumn (1865); Golden Hour 
(1872); Morning in the Mountains (1874); 
Keeae Valley (1876); Jersey Cattle (1879); 



Hillside Pasture (1880); Last Gleam, Cattle 
in the Lane, Family Group (1881); Land- 
scape and Cattle (1882); Path by the River 
(1883) ; Passing Shower, Napanock Meadows, 
Group of Cattle (1881). 

NAND, born in Stuttgart, July 14, 1774, 
died in Dresden, Jan. 6, 1842. History 
painter, pupil at the Karlschule under 
Hetsch ; went in 1794 to Borne, which he 
visited again in 1820-23 and 1828 ; worked 
in Stuttgart and Dessau, and lived from 
1803 in Dresden, where he became profes- 
sor of the Academy in 1810, and director in 
1823. Works: Hector's Farewell (1812); 
Theseus and (Edipus (1816); The Erl King, 
Death snatching from a Mother her Chil- 
dren, Stuttgart Gallery ; Rape of Hylas, 
Leipsio Museum ; Hector and the Trojan 
Women ; Portraits of Matthison, Quandt 
(1820), and of himself, the last in the Dres- 
den Gallery.— Allgem. d. Riogr., z. 682 ; 
Haakli, Beitrage, 15 ; Kogelgen, Jugend- 
Erinnerungen, 114, etc; Riegel, 98. 

at Kuttenberg, Bohemia, in 1680, died in 
Prague about 1730 (?). Landscape paint- 
er, a very clever imitator of Jan Brueghel, 
Ant Myron, a follower of Brueghel, being 
bis immediate model ; seems to have set- 
tled in Prague in 1702. Work, The Four 
Elements, Vienna Museum. His son 
and pupil, Franz (died in 1730), painted 
in the same style, and found ready purchas- 
ers for his pictures abroad. — Dlabacz, L 

HARTMANN, LtTDWIG, bom in Mu- 
nich, Oct. 15, 1835. Landscape and ani- 
mal painter, pupil of Munich Academy 
(1857), and of Wagner-Deines. Works : 
Shipping Expedition on the Inn, Horse- 
Dealer coming from Market (1863); Peas- 
ants working in Field (1866); Potato Har- 
vest (1867); Span (1870); Rest in the Field 
(1872) ; Camp of Cartmen ; Relay-Horses by 
a Hill (1873); Halt before Tavern (1874); 
In the Shade.— Mailer, 240. 


in Frankfort in 1832. Genre and landscape 
painter, pupil of Stadel Institute under 
Steinle and Jakob Becker, and from 1854 
in Carlaruhe of Schirmer ; went regularly 
to the Black Forest for ten years to make 
studies, and afterwards visited Tyrol, Switz- 
erland, and Southern France. In 1862-66 
spent Ms winters in Dusseldorf ; lives now 
in Frankfort Works : Heather in Black 
Forest ; School Children in Approaching 
Storm ; St Peter near Meran, Tyrol ; Pict- 
ures in Art Unions of Hamburg, Carlaruhe, 
Berlin, and Dresden.— Mailer, 240. 

HARVEST WAGON, Thomas Gainsbor- 
ough, Lord Tweedmonth; canvas, H, 4 ft 
x 4 ft 9 in. Scene in neighbourhood of 
Bath ; a harvest wagon passing along a 
sequestered spot at evening, the driver stop- 
ping his team for a girl to mount ; another 
girl seated in wagon ; portraits of two of 
Gainsborough's daughters. Painted about 
1768 for Mr. Wiltshire ; sold at sale of col- 
lection of bis grandson, J. Wiltshire (1867), 
to Mr. Davis of Bond Street for £3,097 
10s. Sketch, Sir George Beaumont, Bart — 
Fulcher, 70, 198. 
HARVEY, Sir GEORGE, born at St 
Ninians, near Stir- 
ling, Feb., 1806, 
died in Edinburgh, 
Jan. 22, 1876. Sub- 
ject and landscape 
painter; entered 
Trustees' Academy, 
,, Edinburgh, in 1823, 

was one of origi- 
nal associates of 
*' the Royal Scottish 

Academy in 1826, a member in 1829, and its 
president in 1867, when he was knighted. 
His subjects were largely drawn from the 
wild scenery and stirring history of Scot- 
land, where he was very popular. In his 
later years he devoted much time to land- 
scape painting. Many of his works have 
been engraved. Works : Covenanters 
Preaching (1830) ; Covenanter's Baptism 
(1831); Battle of Drumclog (1836); Hhake- 


speare before Sir T.Lucy (1837); Covenant 
er's Communion (1840); Highland Funeral 
(1844); Incident in Life of Napoleon (1843); 
Banyan in Bedford Gaol (1838); Mountain 
Pool (1867); Glen Falloch (1869); Dismiss- 
ing School (1871); Morning on Loch Awe, 
The Curlers (1873).— Bedgrave ; Wilmot- 
Buxton, 158; Art Journal (1860), 341; 
(1858), 73. 

born in Philadelphia ; contemporary. Land- 
scape painter, pupil of Weber in Philadel- 
phia ; also studied in Dusseldorf . Lived 
and painted for many years in Venice and 
Borne. Elected NX in New York in 1861, 
but rarely exhibits. Works: Castle Bock 
— Nahant, Calm Sea, Indian Bock — Nahant, 
John Taylor Johnston Collection, New York ; 
Ostia, J. P. Morgan, ib. ; Coast of Capri, M 
K. Jesup, ib. ; Sicily, Natural Arch at Capri, 
Ruins of Roman Theatre (1876); Coast near 
Amain, Fairman Rogers, Philadelphia. 

born at Rem- 
scheid, near So- 
lingen. May 18, 
1810, died in 
Dusseldorf, Dec 
16, 1863. Genre 
and portrait 
painter, pupil of 
the Dusseldorf 
Academy under 
Schadow; went 
in 1838 to Mu- 
nich, and thence, with Prayer, in 1840, to 
Italy ; returned to Dusseldorf in 1842, and 
became famous through his humourous 
genre scenes from German burgher life. He 
was a member of the Berlin (1843), Dussel- 
dorf, and Amsterdam Academies, and re- 
ceived a gold medal at Brussels. Works : 
Hieronymus Jobs returning as Student 
(1837) ; do. at the Examination (1842), 
A Family Quarrel, New Pinakothek, Mu- 
nich ; Tasting Wine, Reading Room (1843), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Jobs as School- 
master, Portrait of Painter Preyer (1846), 

Tasting Wine (1847), Portrait of Painter 
Hilgers (1850), do. of himself, Jobs at the 
Examination (1851), do. as Night Watchman 
(1852), Ravene Gallery, ib.; Gaming Table 
(1844) ; Labourer and Alderman (1849) ; 
Division of the Prize (1850) ; First Visit to 
School (1852); Tasting Wine (1863), Dus- 
seldorf Gallery.— AUgem. d. Biogr., x. 732 ; 
Eunstblatt (1864), 2; Faber, vi. 483; Illust. 
Zeitg. (1883), L 330; W. Mailer, Dusseldorf 
K, 276. 

ADOLF, born in Berlin, Sept 28, 1802, 
died at Halberstadt, April 13, 1858. Archi- 
tecture painter, pupil of Karl Gropius and 
of Berlin Academy. His first large paint- 
ing, exhibited in Berlin and Dresden in 
1823, excited much admiration. He re- 
turned to Halberstadt in 1826, and after 
1837 painted chiefly views of ruined con- 
vents and castles half buried in snow. 
Works : Cathedral in 15th Century (1823); 
St. Severin's Church in Erfurt; Convent 
Church in 12th Century, Gothic Cathedral, 
Mediaeval Castle (1826-30); Interior of Co- 
logne Cathedral (1832); Exterior of Same 
(1633); Erfurt Cathedral (1827), Halber- 
stadt Cathedral, Views in do. (1828, 1836), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Kloater Halle at 
Sunset (1840), FOrstenberg Gallery, Donau- 
eschingen ; Cloister in Winter (1840), Kunst 
halle, Hamburg; Old Castle Yard (1852), 
Schwerin Gallery ; Ruined Chapel, Stet- 
tin Museum ; Convents of Wallenried and 
Heisterbach. — AUgem. d. Biogr., x. 740 ; 
Kunetblatt (1856), 20 ; Raczynski, iii. 221. 

Frankfort, April 4, 1826. Genre and por- 
trait painter, pupil of St&del Institute ; in 
1851 and in 1852-57 visited Italy, where he 
painted many copies after old masters, and 
scenes from Roman life. In 1860 he be- 
came professor at the Stadel Institute, and 
later joined an expedition to the North Pole, 
which gave him subjects for many original 
paintings from Arctic life. Works : The 
First Child, Portia after Scene in Court 
(1851); Roman Barber in Theatre of Mar- 



cellus, Roman Wine-Cellar. — Kaulen, 112 ; 
Mailer, 241. 

enna, Aug. 7, 1812, died at Scheibbs, Nether 
Austria, Aug. 3, 1878. History painter, 
pupil of the Vienna Academy and onB of 
the most eminent of modern Austrian ar- 
tiste. Works: Genealogical Picture of 
House of Austria ; Maria Theresa and the 
Hungarians in the .Reichstag in 1711 ; The 
2d of September, 1686 ; Allegorical Ship 
with Francis Joseph I. at the Helm sur- 
rounded by all the Nationalities of the- Em- 
pire ; The Lord's Prayer in seven water-col- 
ours. — Allgem. d. Biogr., xi. 22 ; Kunst- 
Chronik, xvi. 686 ; Nagler, Mon., iiL 166. 

HAUBER, JOSEF, born at Geratsried, 
Bavaria, in 1766, died in Munich in 1834. 
History and portrait painter, pupil of Vi- 
enna Academy, then studied in Munich 
where he had great success with copies after 
Don, Mieris, Rubens and Van Dyck, and 
became professor at the Academy in 1800. 
There are by him more than fifty altar-pieces 
in Munich and Upper Bavaria, Works : Jo- 
seph's Bream, Christ as Gardener, Church of 
the Holy Ghost, Munich ; Christ on the Cross, 
Vision of Ezechiel; Portrait of Abbot Vagler 
(1808), Darmstadt Museum.— Nagler, vL 3. 

TENSE VICTOntE, born in Paris, Dec. 
14, 1784, died there, Jan. 2, 1845. Genre 
painter and lithographer, pupil of Lethiere. 
Her pictures for the most part represent 
popular life and manners in Italy. Works : 
Preaching in Church of St Laurent in Rome 
(1810); Game of Warm Hand, Beggar at a 
Convent (1812); Kissing the Foot of the 
Statue of St Peter (1812); do. (1814), Mont- 
pellier Museum ; Incident of the Fair at 
Grotta Ferrate, Pifferari before a Madonna, 
Confirmation in Church of St Agnes (1814); 
Fortune Teller (1817), Montpellier Museum; 
A Smuggler, Vow to the Madonna during a 
Storm, A Scribe in Rome (1817); Shipwreck 
of Virginia, Nuns at Prayer (ordered by 
State), Interior of the Cloisters of St Etienne 
du Mont, Dealer in Herbs (1819), Miller 

with Donkey (1819), Neapolitan Woman 
kneeling before Cross, Italian Family Scene, 
Montpellier Museum ; Temple of Vesta at 
Tivoli, Francis L and Diana of Poitiers 
(1819); Old Man and his Children (1819), 
Dijon Museum ; Puppet-Shows in Rome, 
Dealer in Relics, Sick Mother, Woman sell- 
ing Cloth, Prayer at the Stations, The Ac- 
count with the Host, The Scolded Maid-Ser- 
vant (1822); Scene from Gil Bias, Jew reading 
the Bible, Old Clothes Dealer, Village Con- 
cert, Artiste sketching Cascades, Blessing 
the Halls, II Salterello, The Egg Market 
(1824); Portrait of Herself (1825), Louvre ; 
Inundation, Little Grape -Stealer, Country 
Doctor, Little Smoker (1826); Inundation 
Scene, Two Scenes from Gil Bias (1827); 
Rural Fete near Rome (1831); Poet and his 
Librarian (1835); Duchess of Angouleme 
and Marguerite of Valois receiving News of 
Battle of Pavia, Death of Marie de Cleves, 
wife of Henri I of Conde (1839) ; Pope 
Eugene HL receiving Ambassadors of King 
of Jerusalem in 1145 (1840); Pictures in 
Museums at Versailles, Besancon, Cher- 

I n.HouJeiouyi t . Je^aA, 

bourg, and Aix. — Ch. Blanc, Eeole fran- 
9aise ; Lejenne, Guide, i 438 ; iiL 151 ; 
Meyer, Gesck, 160 ; Bellier, L 743. 

HAUSCHTLD, MAX, born in Dresden, 
Aug. 23, 1809. Architecture painter, has 
lived for many years in Rome. Works: 
Reception of Expelled Monks at a Monas- 
tery (1848), Dresden Gallery; Interior of 
St Mark's, Venice, St. Gall Museum ; Noc- 
turnal Hours ; Interior of Orvieto Cathe- 
dral, Erfurt Cathedral, Grandduke of Olden- 
burg ; Interior of Siena Cathedral ; Church 
Interior, Assisi. — M tiller, 242. 

HAUSCHILD, WILHELM, born at Schle- 
gel, Silesia, Nov. 16, 1827. History painter, 
pupil of Munich Academy under PhiL 
Foltz ; visited Dresden, Berlin, and Paris, 
and settled in Munich. Works : Crucifixion, 
Maximilian eum, Munich ; Pictures in Greek 



Chapel at Baden-Baden. In fresco : Charles 
XII. of Sweden, Elector Max Emanuel of 
Bavaria before Belgrade ; Battle of Pultusk, 
National Museum, Munich. — Hflller, 242. 

HAUSHOFER, MAX, born at Nymphen- 
burg, near Munich, Sept 20, 1811, died at 
Sternberg, Aug. 24, 1866. Landscape 
painter, studied from nature ; in 1835 lived 
for some time in Rome and Naples, and vis- 
ited Sicily ; in 1844 became professor at the 
Prague Academy. He was the first artist to 
introduce Bohemian forest-views, though he 
preferred to paint the Bavarian and Tyro- 
leee Alps, and especially the Chietn Lake. 
Works : Lake of Agnano (1835), Cassel 
Gallery ; The Konigsee near Berchtesgaden, 
Frovinzial Museum, Hanover ; Sunday Morn- 
ing on Chiem Lake (1839) ; Nun at the 
Lake, Sunday Stillness (1842) ; Blockenstein 
Lake (1845) ; Outlook from the Arbor, View 
of Walnalla (1850) ; Eibsee (1855) ; Walch- 
ensee (1856), New Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Klonthal Lake (1858) ; Lake Luzerne (1859), 
Vienna Museum. — Allgem. d. Biogr., xi. 92; 
niustr. Zeitg., July 18, 1863 ; Kunst-Chron- 
ik, L 125 ; Raczynski, ii. 336 ; Regnet, L 
174 ; Wurzbach, viii. 87. 

born in Hanau in 1825, died at Hanau, 
March 10, 1886. Genre painter, pupil of 
Hanau Academy under Pelissier ; studied 
in 1848-51 in Antwerp, and copied old mas- 
ters there and in the museums of Holland ; 
went in 1851 to Paris to study under Dela- 
roche, and afterwards visited Rome. Since 
1864 director of Hanau Academy. Works : 
Gypsy Girl Resting ; Gypsy Boys ; Priest 
absconding with Gretchen's Jewels (1849), 
Paris Gamins (1852), Galileo before the 
Inquisition (1861), Eunsthalle, Hamburg ; 
Praying Canons ; Pilgrimage in the Cam- 
pagna ; Cinderella's Sufferings. 

Paris, Oct. 17, 1830. Animal painter of re- 
markable merit, pupil of Lazerges. Works : 
Lost Sheep (1864); Black Cows (1866) ; 
Normandy Steer (1867) j Dog Watching 
(1868); Pasture near Trouville, Bull-Terrier 

(1869) ; White-Frost in Valley of Tourcques, 
Breton Cows (1870). 

Prague, Jan. 4, 1821. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Prague Academy under Anton 
Manes, and Christian Ruben ; travelled in. 
Poland, Saxony, Tyrol, Styria, Bavaria, and 
France. Hi a works, mostly on a small 
scale, are remarkable for elaborate detail, 
which bos obtained for him the surname of 
the landscape Denner. Works : Peasant's 
Farm in Moravia ; Forest Path ; Forest 
Spring ; Village Street in Bohemia. 

HAY HARVEST (Les foins), Bastien- 
Lepage, Luxembourg Museum ; canvas, H 
5 ft 11 in. x 6 ft 4 in. Illustration of a. 
poem by Andre Tbeuriet Mid-day in a 
hay-field ; in foreground, a woman seated 
on the hay, her hands in her lap, looking 
with dreamy eyes into the future ; behind 
her, a man lying full length on bis back, 
with his bat over bis eyes. Salon, 1878. — 
Gaz. des B. Arts (1878), xviii. 69. 

at Plymouth, Jan. 
26, 1786, died in 
London, June 22, 
1846. History 
painter, pupil of 
Royal Academy 
in 1805 ; exhibit- 
ed in 1809 bis 
Dentatus mur- 
dered by his own 
Soldiers, but dis- 
satisfied with the 

position assigned it refused to contribute- 
any more. After painting portraits in Ply- 
mouth, be won a considerable reputation in 
1814 by his Judgment of Solomon, which 
sold for 700 guineas. In 1820 he produced 
Christ's Entry into Jerusalem, the exhibition 
of which in London brought him 3,000 guin- 
eas; but it procured him no coin missions, and 
was finally sold for £240 and sent to Amer- 
ica. It is now in Philadelphia. Though in 
great pecuniary difficulties and several times 
the inmate of a debtor's prison, he still clung 


to the belief that he was the great historical 
painter of the age, and that his efforts would 
in time be appreciated. His Raising of Laza- 
rus (14 x 20 ft), now in the National Gallery, 
was exhibited with some success is 1823, 
and a few years afterwards his Venus appear- 
ing to Anchises, Alexander taming Buceph- 
alus, and Euclus. By teaching and lecturing 
he maintained his family for a time, but 
falling into new troubles and overwhelmed 
by disappointment at the cold reception 
given in 1816 to his Banishment of Aristides, 
and Nero watching the Burning of Borne, 
he committed suicide. Hay don's Lectures 
on Painting were published in 1841-46, and 
his Life from Ms autobiography and jour- 
nals, edited and compiled by Tom Taylor, 
in 1853. Works: Portrait of Himself, 
Leigh Hunt, Anti-Slavery Convention, Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery ; Punch or May-Day, 
Raising of Lazarus, National Gallery ; Cas- 
sandra, Stafford House. — Correspondence, 
etc., by his son (London, 1876) ; Stoddard, 
Life, Letters, etc. (New York, 1876) ; Bed- 
grave ; F. de Conches, 119 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole anglaise ; Art Journal (1866), 181. 

HAYE, REYNIER DE LA, bom at The 
Hague (?), where mentioned as member of 
the guild in 1662. Genre, portrait, and 
still-life painter, in the manner of Terborch 
and Meteu ; removed from The Hague to 
Utrecht, where he was received into the 
guild in 1669 ; then appears as master of 
the guild at Antwerp in 1672. Works : 
Lady playing the Lute, Gotha Museum; 
Flowers and Fruits, Festoon of Flowers 
with Insects, Schwerin Gallery. 

HATEZ, FRANCESCO, born in Venice, 
Feb. 10, 1791, died in Milan, Feb. 11, 1882. 
History, genre, and portrait painter, pupil 
of Maggiotto and of Venice Academy under 
Cicognara ; studied also in Farsetti Gallery, 
then at Milan Academy, where in 1809 he 
obtained the prize for Borne, there studied 
under Palagi, and then went to Florence 
and Venice ; painted afterwards frescos in 
the Vatican, Borne, and in Venice Academy; 
went to Milan in 1820, and there became 

professor at the Academy and the head of 
the romantic school. One of the most 
prominent among modern Italian painters, 
especially noted as a colourist Works : 
Compassion of Ezekiel ; Laooodn (1812) ; 
Pietro Rossi taking Farewell of his Family 
(1820), Brera, Milan ; Sicilian Vespers ; 
Count Cannagnola hearing his Death Sen- 
tence ; Mary Stuart on her way to the Scaf- 
fold ; Filippo Maria Visconti and the Queens 
of Aragon and Navarro (1829) ; Imolda de' 
Lambertazzi ; Peter the Hermit ; Fugitives 
of Parga ; Maria Theresa at Hungarian Diet ; 
The Two Foscari, Vienna Museum ; Foscar- 
ini refusing the Hand of Valenza Graden- 
niga (1833) ; Last Moments of Marino Fa- 
liero ; Vittore Pisani called from Prison 
to take Command of the Army ; Thirst of 
the Crusaders ; Bath of the Nymphs ; Bape 
of Ida ; Leda ; Greek Pirates ; The Kiss ; 
Battle of Magenta, Portrait of Cavour (1867) ; 
Flight of Bianca Capello, National Gallery, 
Berlin. — LUlustrazione italiana, 1876 ; 
Brockhaus, viii. 932 ; Nagler, vi 18 ; Orloff, 
ii. 262. 

HAYLS, JOHN, died at Bloomsbury in 
1679. Portrait painter, the contemporary 
and in some degree the rival of Lely ; was 
an excellent copyist of Van Dyck. Works : 
Portrait of Samuel Pepys, National Portrait 
Gallery ; Portraits of Bedford Family, Wo- 
burn Collection. — Redgrave ; Pepys* Diary, 
Feb. 15, March 17, 30, April 11, June 14, 
1666 ; see also do., Mynor Bright's edition 
(1876) under April 13, 1666. 

HAYMAN, FBANCIS, born at Exeter in 
1708, died in London, Feb. 2, 1776. His- 
tory painter, pupil of Robert Brown, a por- 
trait and decorative painter (died 1753) ; 
employed as scene painter at Drury Lane 
and as an illustrator of books. Painted a 
series of designs for Vauxhall Gardens, 
which won him fame ; became president of 
the Society of Artists, and one of the foun- 
dation members of the Royal Academy, of 
which he was the first librarian in 1770. 
Works : Finding of Moses, Foundling Hos- 
pital ; Portrait of himself with Sir R Wal- 

ked byGoOglC 

pole. National Portrait Gallery, London. — 
Redgrave ; F. de Conches, 85 ; Sandby, i. 94 

HAYON, LEON ALBERT, bom in Paris, 
Not. 16, 1810. Genre and portrait painter, 
pupil of Leon Benonville, Picot, and Pils. 
Medal, 3d class, 1883. Worts : After the 
Harvest, La Cigale (1876) ; Corner in Fau- 
bourg, Si Honore (1877) ; The Gleaners 
(1879) ; Dindonnette (1880) ; Fowl-Plucker 
(1881) ; The Day is Done (1882) ; Return 
from Market (1883) ; Mother Madeleine, 
Old Age's Staff (1881) ; Birthday (1885).— 
Bellier, i 747. 

York, Aug. 8, 1830, died there in 1875. 
Animal painter, pupil in drawing of J. R. 
Smith, New York ; went in 1860 to the head- 
waters of the Missouri to paint the fauna of 
that region ; afterwards visited Nova Scotia 
and the northern parts of the United States 
to study wild animals in their homes. 
Works : Herd of Bisons (1861); The Stam- 
pede, Prairie-Dog Village (1862); Bison Bull 
at Bay (1865); Bull Moose of Nova Scotia 
(1867); Prairie on Fire (1869); Bouquet of 
Orchids (1871); Herd of Caribou (1871); 
Mule Deer (1872). 

HAYTER, Sir GEORGE, born in Lon- 
don, Dec. 17, 1792, died there, Jan. 18, 
1871. History and portrait painter, son 
and pupil of Charles Hayter, portrait paint- 
er ; also student of Royal Academy ; won at 
British Institution in 1815 a prize of £200 
for his prophet Ezra. Went soon after to 
Rome, where he studied till 1819, when he 
returned to London ; visited Italy again in 
1826, returned in 1831 via Paris, where he 
painted portraits of many prominent per- 
sona In 1816 he was appointed miniature 
painter to Princess Charlotte, in 1837 por- 
trait painter to Queen Victoria, in 1841 his- 
torical painter to Her Majesty, and in 1842 
was knighted. Member of Academies of 
Rome, Florence, Bologna, Parma, and Ven- 
ice. Works : Venus complaining to Mars 
(1820) ; Trial of Lord William Russell 
(1825), Woburn Abbey; Trial of Queen 
Caroline ; Meeting of First Reformed Par- 

liament, National Portrait Gallery ; Coro- 
nation of Queen Victoria ; Christening of 
Prince of Wales, The Queen ; Angels min- 
istering to Christ (1849), South Kensington 
Museum; Joseph interpreting the Chief 
Baker's Dream ; Three Daughters of Ed- 
ward Earl of Derby, Knowsley Hall. 

HEAD E, MARTIN J., born in Bucks 
County, Pa.; contemporary. Landscape 
painter; studied two years in Italy, and 
sketched in South America. During a visit 
to Brazil he received the decoration of Chev- 
alier of the Order of the Rose from the Em- 
peror. His Brazilian sketches, originally 
intended for a book on South American 
Humming-Birds, are now owned by Sir 
Morton Peto, London. Has lived and paint- 
ed in the Western States and in Boston. 
Studio in New York. Works : Point Ju- 
dith; OfiF the California Coast (1876); South 
American Scene, High Tide on the Marshes, 
Apple-Blossoms, Hurlbut Collection, Cleve- 
land ; Nicaragua, Fairman Rogers, Philadel- 
phia ; Sunset — Passamaquoddy Bay (1884). 

DER, bom in Boston, Mass., July 15, 1808. 
Portrait and history painter, studied in Paris 
from 1836; went to Chicago about 1858, 
and painted portraits ; revisited Europe in 
1869 and resided long in Rome. Exhibits 
at Paris Salon and at National Academy, 
New York, of which he is an honorary mem- 
ber. Studio in Paris, France (1885). Med- 
als : Paris, 3d class, 1840 ; 2d class, 1866. 
Ideal works: Franklin urging the Claims 
of the American Colonies before Louis XVI 
(1866); Webster's Reply to Hayne, Faneuil 
Hall, Boston. Portraits: Marshal Soult; 
M. Guizot ; Pius IX. (1871); Lord Lyons, 
Thiers, E. B. Washburne, Princess of Rou- 
mania (1876) ; General Grant (1878) ; Web- 
ster ; Clay ; Calhoun ; Guyot, Smithsonian 
Institute, Washington; Guizot (1841), Presi- 
dents John Tyler (2), John Quincy Adams, 
Jackson, Van Buren, Taylor, Fillmore, Polk, 
Pierce, Buchanan, Lincoln, Corcoran Gal- 
lery, Washington ; William H. Seward, 
State Library, Albany ; Cardinal McCloakey, 


Governor Morgan, Br. C. E. Agnew (18 
Dr. Wyman, Miss Horsford, and others 
(1885).— Tuckerman, 339. 

HEAPHY, THOMAS, bom in London, 
Dec 29, 1775, died Nov. 19, 1835. Was 
originally a dyer, then an engraver, and 
finally devoted himself to water-colour paint- 
ing ; in 1800 he exhibited two portraits at 
the Royal Academy, and became a student 
in the Academy schools. In 1804 his first 
subject picture. The Portland Fish-Girl, was 
well received, and in 1809 his Hastings Fish 
Market brought him reputation. He was 
one of the earliest members of the old Water 
Colour Society, but left it in 1812 ; and was 
one of the founders and the first president 
in 1824 of the Society of British Artists, but 
withdrew from it in 1829. Visited Italy in 
1831, and on his return engaged in the for- 
mation of tbe new Water Colour Society, of 
which he was one of the first members. He 
pain te d miniatu res of many distinguished peo- 
ple, and was portrait painter to the Princess 
of Wales. His eldest daughter, Miss Heaphy, 
exhibited miniatures at the Royal Academy 
from 1822 to 1845 ; and another daughter, 
Elizabeth Heaphy, from 1838 to 1844. 

1813, died Aug. 7, 1873. History and por- 
trait painter, son and pupil of Thomas 
Heaphy ; began as a portrait painter, first 
exhibiting at Royal Academy in 1831, but 
after 1858 painted chiefly historical pieces. 
Member of Society of British Artiste. Works: 
Mary Magdalen going to the Sepulchre (1846) ; 
InfantPaneducatedby Wood Nymphs (1850) ; 
Parting of Catherine and Bianca (1853) ; 
Kepler in' Poverty taken for a Fortune-Tel- 
ler (1863) j Palissy the Potter taken for a 
Coiner (1864) ; Unexpected Inheritance 
(1865); Mary Stuart at Tutbury Castle 

Millam, J. H. Seeker, London ; canvas, H. 
5 ft 4 in. X 7 ft. 6 in. Three English 
ladies (Misses Armstrong) seated at a card 
table, playing whist with a dummy. Royal 
Academy, 1872 ; painted for Walter Arm- 

strong ; at his sale (1876) 1,300 g 
Exposition Universelle, Paris, 1878. 
NEST, born at Gren- 
oble, Nov. 3, 1817. 
Genre painter, pupil 
of David d 'Angers 
and Paul Delaroche. 
Abandoned the law 
for painting on ac- 
' count of the success 

5 of a picture sent to 

the Salon, which was 
bought by the govern- 
ment. Won the grand prix de Rome in 
1839. Made repeated visits to Italy. His 
style is poetical, but often too sentimental 
Medals : 1st class, 1861 and 1855 ; 2d class, 
1867 ; L. of Honour, 1853 ; Officer, 1867 ; 
Commander, 1874 ; Member of Institute, 
1874 ; director of the French School of Art 
in Rome from 1866 to 1873, and again in 
1885. Works : Tasso in Prison, Cup found 
in Benjamin's Sack (1839) ; Two Odalisques, 
Copy of the Sibyl Delphica (1840-41); 
Oriental Revery, The Siesta, Almeh, Italian 
Priest, Morning in the Woods, Peasant of 
Guerande making Butter (1847 and 1848) ; 
La Malaria. (I860), Kiss of Judas (1853), 
Luxembourg ; Crescenza, Fienaroles, Girls 
of Alvito (1855), Rosa Nera at the Fountain; 
Girls of Ceroaro (1859), Female Portrait, 
Luxembourg ; Portrait of Princess Marie 
Clotilde, Street in Cervaro (1861) ; Young 
Girl at the Well (1863), Empress Eugenie ; 
Pasqua Maria (1863), Baroness James de 
Rothschild; Black Pearl Type of Italian 
Woman (1866); Adam and Eve driven from 
Paradise (1867) ; Pastorella, Lavandaia 
(1869); Morning and Evening of Life (1870) ; 
Popular Italian Muse (1872) ; Madonna de 
Dclivrance, Church at Grenoble ; da, Study, 
Mrs. Mary J. Morgan's Collection, New 
York; Madonna 
Addolorata; Wo- 
man Knittii 
(1873) ; Muse of the Woods (1877) ; The 
Sultana (1879) ; Saint Agnes (1881); Little 



Violinist (1883); Muse (1884); Slave break- 
ing his Chains, Artist's Portrait, Grenoble 
Museum ; Going to the Well, At the Well, 
Returning from the Well, W. T. Walters, 
Baltimore. — Bellier, i. 747 ; Larousse ; Port- 
folio (1875), 50 ; Journal des B. Arte (1860), 
167 ; Meyer, Gesch., 541. 

HECK, ROBERT, born in Stuttgart in 
1831. Genre and portrait painter, pupil of 
Stuttgart Art School under Rustige ; won 
first prize in 1855, visited Southern France 
and Italy. Works : Itinerant Preacher, 
Stuttgart Museum ; Reception of the New 
Parson ; Peasants in a City Church ; Return 
of the Jjandwohrman ; Iphigenia on the 
Shore ; Antigone seeking Polynicoe on the 
Battlefield (1879) ; Campo "Vaccino ; Forum 
of Nerva ; Neapolitans Praying ; Italian 
Woman.— Muller, 245. 

HECKE, JAN VAN DEN, born at Quare- 
monde, East Flanders, in 1620, died at 
Antwerp, Aug. 22, 1684. Flemish school ; 
genre, still life, and animal painter, pupil in 
Antwerp of Abraham Hack ; master of the 
guild in 1642, went to Italy, where he 
painted for the Duke of Bracciano, and re- 
turned to Antwerp in 1641. Said to be one 
of the best artists of bis time. Work : Dead 
Game and Hunting Implements watched by 
Dogs (1658), Schleissheim Gallery.— Van 
den Branden, 1015. 

ished about 1631 in Alkmaar. Dutch 
school ; history and landscape painter, pu- 
pil of Jan Nagel. A descendant of Martin 
Heemskerk. His composition is grand, the 
colouring fine, and the chiaroscuro excellent 
Works : Death Sentence against the Bailiff 
of Zuyt — Holland ; Judgment of Cambyses, 
Solomon's Judgment, Town Hall, Alkmaar ; 
Tavern Interior (2), Surprisal of Hostile 
Camp (?), Dresden Gallery. — Immerzeel, ii. 
21 ; Kramm, iii. 651. 

HECKEL, AUGUST VON, born at Lands- 
hut, Bavaria, in 1824. History and genre; 
painter, pupil of Augsburg Art School, then 
of Munich Academy under Schoro and Phil- 
ipp Foltz ; visited Paris, Belgium, and Italy, 

where he remained three years. Works-. 
Chactes and Atala ; Mignon ; Margaret at 
the Spinning-Wheel ; Emigrants ; After the 
Hall-Storm ; Child Found ; Mother at the 
Cradle ; Judith with Head of Holofernes ; 
Entry of Louis the Bavarian into Rome ; 
Entry of Mai Emanuel into Brussels ; 
Founding of Bath Kreuth, National Muse- 
um, Munich ; Lear casting off Cordelia ; 
Daughter of Herodias ; Cawar Octavianus 
and Cleopatra ; Morning on Piazza Navona; 
Evening in the Forum ; Cobbler ; Villa 
Mondragone; Maiden of Albano. — Mailer, 

HEDA, W TLLEM CLAASZ, born at Haar- 
lem in 1594, died after 1678. Dutch school ; 
still-life painter of eminence ; dean of the 
guild at Haarlem in 1631 and 1651 ; painted 
occasionally also historical subjects. Works : 
Dessert (1637), Louvre, Paris ; Breakfast 
(1638), Still life, Kunsthalle, Hamburg; 
Fruits and Vessels, Provinzial Museum, 
Hanover ; Breakfast (1634), do. (1635), Old 
Pinakothek, Munich ; da, Schleissheim Gal- 
lery ; do., Germanic Museum, Nuremberg ; 
do., Darmstadt Museum ; da (2), Carlsruhe 
Gallery ; da (3, two dated 1646, 1649), 
Schwerin Gallery ; da (1678), Gotha Muse- 
um.— Bode, Studien, 223, 230 ; Burger, 
Musees, ii 320 ; Immerzeel, ii. 22 ; Kramm, 
iii. 651 ; Nagler, Mon., ii. 135 ; Van der 
Willige n, 156. 

HEDOTJTN, EDMOND, born at Bou- 
logne-sur-Mer, July 16, 1820. Genre and 
landscape painter, pupil of Paul Delaroche 
and Celeatin Nanteuil. Attracted attention 
by his first picture in the Salon (1844), and 
followed up his success with many ably 
treated scenes of French and Spanish peas- 
ant life. His later years have been more 
especially devoted to engraving. Medals: 
2d class, 1848 ; 3d class, 1855, 1857 ; L. of 
Honour, 1872. Medal for engraving, 1868; 
1st class, 1872. Works : Woodsmen of the 
Pyrenees (1844); The Halt (1846); Souve- 
nirs of Spain (1847); Arab Mill at Consten- 
. tine, The Negro Restaurant (1848); Women 
{of Ossan at a Fountain (1850) ; Evening 


among the Arabs (1852) ; House in Cham- 
baudoin ; The Pit-Sawyer (1855) ; Hunting, 
Fishing, The Gleaners (1857), Luxembourg 
Museum ; A Sower at Chambaudoin, A 
Swineherd (1859); Spanish Porters (1861); 
The Sheep-Market at St.-Jean-de-Luz (1863), 
Valenciennes Museum ; Sardine Women of 
Fontarabia, Allee des Tuileries (1865) ; 
Hunting, Fishing (1866) ; Restaurant in 
Constantino (1868) ; Door of a Mosque in 
Constantino, Street of Fontarabia (1870) ; 
Woman of St-Jean-de-Luz going to a Fu- 
neral (1872) ; Spring-Time, Corner of a 
Park in the Month of May (1873) ; Interior 
of a Courtyard in Con a tad tine (1874); Swine 
Market at St.-Jean-de-Luz (1875); Coun- 
try Woman (1876); Arabs in a Tent (1879). 
Decorative paintings in Galerie des fetes, 
Palais royal (1661), and Theatre fran- 
cais. — Bellier, i. 749 ; Du Camp, B. Arte, 
170 ; Meyer, Gesch., 636 ; Vapereau (1880), 

HEEM, CORNELIS DE, born at Leyden 
(baptized ?), April 8, 1631, died in Antwerp, 
buried May 17, 1695. Dutch school ; still- 
life painter, son and pupil of Jan Davidsz de 
He.em, whom be followed to Antwerp about 
1635, and there became master of the guild 
in 1660 ; worked also at The Hague, where 
he is mentioned in documents in 1676 and 
1678. There is little doubt that many of 
his works pass under the name of his fa- 
mous progenitor. Works: Fruit-piece (1671), 
Brussels Museum ; do., Th. van Lerius, 
Antwerp ; do., Hague Museum ; do., Rot- 
terdam Museum ; Grapes (1659), Bouquet, 
Carlsruhe Gallery; Fruits with Vessels, 
Musical Instruments and Globe, Cassel Gal- 
lery ; Cupboard, Gotha Museum ; Fruit- 
piece, Oldenburg Gallery; do., Cassel Gal- 
lery ; do., Berlin Museum ; do., Scbleissheim 
Gallery ; do., Leipsic Museum ; do., Weimar 
Museum ; do. (2), Old Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Flowers around Bumper, Fruits anil Oyster, 
do. and Glass, Fruits and Lobster, Dresden 
Gallery ; Fruits and Oysters on Silver Tray, 
Museum, Vienna ; others in Liechtenstein 
and Czernin Galleries, ib. ; Fruit-piece, 

Fruits and Flowers (2), Schwerin Gallery ; 
Flower-pieces (2), Stockholm Museum. — 

Kramm, iii. 651 ; Booses (Reber), 432; Van 
den Branden, 870 ; Van Lerius, 249. 

HEEM, DAVLD DE, the elder, born at 
Utrecht in 1570 (?), died at Antwerp (?) in 
1632 (?). Dutch school ; still-life painter of 
distinction, of whose life nothing is known, 
and some of whose works are possibly attrib- 
uted in public galleries to his famous son, 
Jan. As, however, there were besides him 
three other painters called David de Heem, 
namely, his son, David the younger, master 
of the guild at Utrecht in 1668, and to 
whom is ascribed a Fruit-piece in the Am- 
sterdam Museum ; David HI (born in 1628), 
son of Jan Davidsz*; and David IV. (1663- 
1718), son of Cornells, it is difficult to de- 
termine to which of these the following 
works should be assigned : Fruits with 
Oysters and Wineglass (David the elder?), 
Brunswick Museum ; Fruits on Table, small 
picture with cavern, Flower-piece, Uffizi, 
Florence. — Kramm, iii. 652 ; Riegel, Bei- 
tr&ge, ii. 439 ; Van Lerius, i 213, 217. 
Utrecht, prob- 
ably in 1600, 
died in Ant- 
werp, between 
Oct. 14, 1683, 
and April 26, 
1684 Dutch 
school ; fruit 
' and flower 

^-painter, son 
and pupil of 
David the elder. He first developed the 
art of fruit painting ; works distinguished 
for admirable taste of arrangement, excel- 
lent drawing, fine feeling for nature, and a 
depth and richness of colouring sometimes 
approaching Rembrandt. Works : Fruit- 

ed byGoOgk 


pieces (2), Madrid Museum ; do., Louvre ; 
Fruit and Flowers with Insects, Amster- 
dam Museum ; Still life, Rotterdam Muse- 
um ; Table with Fruits, etc, Festoon of 
Fruits and Flowers, Hague Museum; Fruit- 
piece (1653), Haarlem Museum ; Garland 
around Allegory by Lambrechts (1668) 
Bouquet, Yamtas, Brussels Museum; Flow- 
ers and Insects, Antwerp Museum ; Festoon 
of Fruits, Berne Museum ; da of Fruits 
and Flowers, Breakfast, Fruit-pieces (3), 
Carlsmhe Gallery ; Still Life Fruit-pieces 
(2), CasBel Gallery ; Festoon of Flowers with 
Insects, Darmstadt Museum ; Fruit-pieces 
(2), Bumper on Covered Table, Lemons on 
Plate, Watch (1628), Gotba Museum; Fruit- 
piece, Kunsthalle, Hamburg; do., Olden- 
burg Gallery ; do., Copenhagen Gallery; 
do., Wiesbaden Gallery ; Fruit-pieces (6), 
Flower-pieces (6), Dresden Gallery ; Fruit- 
and Flower-pieces (4, two dated 1660, 1651), 
Berlin Museum ; Fruit-piece (1653), do. (2), 
Bouquet by Crucifix, Skull, etc, Old Pina- 
kothek, Munich ; The Host with Symbolical 
Fruits (1648), two others, Museum, Vienna; 
Six in Liechtenstein Gallery, ib. ; Flower- 
piece, Fruit-piece, Innsbruck Museum ; Des- 
sert (?), Breakfast Table (2), Festoon of 
Fruits and Flowers, Schwerin Gallery; Still 
Life, Cologne Museum ; do., Stockholm 
Museum ; Fruits and Vegetables (1665), 
Breakfast (1660), Flower-piece, Hermitage, 
St Petersburg ; Breakfast, Winter Palace, 
ib. ; Fruit-piece, Leuchtenberg Gallery, ib. 

— Allgem. d. Biogr., xL 232; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole bollandaise, i. ; Bode, Studien, 229 ; 
ImmerzeeL ii. 23 ; Kramm, iii. 653 ; Kngler 
(Crowe), ii 515 ; RiegeL, Beitrage, ii. 439 ; 

Booses (Rebel-), 431-; Van den Branden, 
866; Van Lerius, i. 213, 219. 

HEEMSKERCK (Heemskeerck), B., flour- 
ished about 1730. Flemish school ; animal 
and landscape painter, in the manner of 
Simon van Dow and Peeter van Bloemen. 
Works : Herd and Herdsman, da and 
Woman (1730), Landscapes with Cattle (2), 
Schwerin Gallery. — Schlie, 246. 

elder, born in Haarlem in 1610, died in 
1680. Dutch school; genre painter, chiefly 
of tavern interiors, with boors regaling or 
quarrelling, in the manner of Teniers and 
Brouwer. Works : Tavern Interior (2), 
Louvre, Paris ; do. (1), Hermitage, St 
Petersburg ; do., Carlsruhe Gallery ; do. 
(2), Peasant and Broker, Schleissheim Gal- 
lery ; Old Man, Old Woman, Urfizi, Flor- 
ence. — ImmerzeeL ii. 24. 

younger, born in Haarlem in 1645, died in 
London in 1704. Dutch school ; genre 
painter, son of Egbert the elder, pupil of 
Pieter de Grebber, but adopted the style of 
bis father ; settled early in London, where 
bis works were greatly valued; painted noc- 
turnal gatherings of witches, devils, and 
ghosts, also rustic amusements, in which he 
often introduced his own portrait Works; 
Interior, Louvre ; Peasants Dancing, da 
Singing, Basle Museum ; Temptation of St 
Anthony, Cassel Gallery ; Interior of Dutch 
Kitchen, Darmstadt Museum ; Capuchins 
Praying and Singing, Oldenburg Gallery ; 
Riding School Dance in a Tavern, Copen- 
hagen Gallery ; Beggars' Meal, Don Quixote 
and Sancho Panza, Stadel Gallery, Frank- 
fort ; Card-Players, Men Smoking and Play- 
ing Violin, Uffki, Florence ; Interior, do. of 
Dutch Tavern, Historical Society, New 
York. — Immerzeel, ii 24 ; Kramm, iii. 655. 

Heemskerk in 1498, died in Haarlem, Oct 
1, 1574 Dutch school Real name Marten 
van Veen. History painter, pupil at Haar- 
lem of Cornells WUlemsz and at Delft of 
Jan Lucasz, then at Haarlem of Jan Scho- 


reel, in whose manner he painted there until 
1531, when he went to Italy and became an 
imitator of Michelan- 
gelo. His drawing is 
bold and energetic, but 
his compositions are of- 
ten bizarre. Works : 
St. Luke painting the 
\ Virgin (1532), Nativity, 
| Brazen Serpent, Holy 
Family (1551), Ecce 
Homo (1559), Belshaz- 
zar*s Feast (1568), Christ 
crowned with Thorns, Haarlem Museum ; 
Adoration of the Shepherds, Adoration of 
the Magi (1646), Hague Museum ; Entomb- 
ment (1559), Brussels Museum ; Momus 
with Minerva, Vulcan and Neptune (1561), 
Portrait of Young Girl, Berlin Museum; Bap- 
tism of Christ (1563), Brunswick Museum ; 
do., and Rebekah at the Well, Cassel Gallery; 
Besurrection, Copenhagen Gallery; The Vir- 
gin in Grief, Dresden Gallery; Venus, Cupid 
and the Cyclops (1536), Nostitz Gallery, 
Prague ; St. John preaching in the Desert, 
Triumph of Silenus, Bacchanal, Vienna 
Museum ; Triptych with Crucifixion, Her- 
mitage, St Petersburg ; St Paul at Athens, 

Historical Society, New York. — Allgem. d. 
Biogr., ii. 235 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole hollandaise; 
Imnierzeel, ii. 23 ; Jahrb. d. kottgl. preuss. 
Kunstsammlung, v. 327 ; Kramm, iii. 655 ; 
Michiels, v. 185 ; Riegel, ii. 150 ; Van der 
WUligen, 157, 349. 

HEFJIE, LUCAS DE, born in Ghent 
about 1534, died in 1584. Flemish school 
history and portrait painter, son and pupil 
of the sculptor and architect Jan de Heere, 
and the miniature painter Anna Smyters ; 
one of the best scholars of Frans Floris, 

whom he assisted much in his glass-paint- 
ings and drawings for tapestry. Resided for 
some time in France as designer of tapestries ; 
later painted portraits and Scripture pieces. 
Was a poet and an antiquary. Works : Sol- 
omon and the Queen of Sheba, View of St 
Baron's Abbey and City of Ghent, St. Ba- 
von's Church, Ghent; Portrait of Lord Darn- 
ley, Allegorical Portrait of Queen Elizabeth, 
Hampton Court ; Wise and Foolish Virgins 
(1570), Copenhagen Gallery; Landscape, 
Brunswick Gallery ; Portrait of Queen Mary, 
Stoke Park ; Portrait of Eleanor Brandon, 
Wentworth Castle.— Schnaase, viii 107 ; 
Waagen, ii. 361, 421 ; iii 342 ; Immerzeel, 
ii 25 ; Kramm, iii. 659 ; Michiels, vi 51. 

HEEBSCHOP, HENDRDI, born at Haar- 
lem in 1627, died after 1672. Genre painter 
in the manner of Dou, pupil of Willem Claasz 
Heda, then (1643 or 1644) of Rembrandt ; 
master of the guild at Haarlem in 1648. 
Works : Portrait of a Moor (1659), Berlin 
Museum ; Soldier and Woman at Cards, 
Cassel Gallery ; Architecture Painter's Stu- 
dio (1672), Schwerin Gallery. 

HEGER, HEINRICH, born at Haders- 
leben, Schleswig, in 1832. Architecture 
painter, pupil of Copenhagen Academy; trav- 
elled in Germany, and made architectural 
studies especially in Nuremberg and Maul- 
bronn ; lived in Munich until 1863, in Co- 
penhagen till 1865, then in Kiel until 1875, 
when he settled in Munich. In 1869 he 
visited the Netherlands, in 1872 the Ger- 
man cities, and in 1874 Venice. Works : 
Oratory in Castle Gottorp, Kiel Gallery ; 
View in Sebaldus Church, Nuremberg ; In- 
terior of Ulm Cathedral ; Hall in Burgo- 
master's House, Ltlbeck Gallery ; Sacristy 
of San Marco, Dantzic Gallery ; Council- 
Chamber in Dantzic ; do. in Luneburg, 
Bruges, and Ltlbeck ; Emperors' Hall in 
Goslar, Senate-Chamber in Venice. — Muller, 

Baron, called Heidegger, born at Saaralben, 
Lorraine, Dec. 6, 1788, died in Munich, Feb. 
21, 1861. Military genre and landscape 



painter, engraver, and lithographer. Stud- 
ied at the Zurich Art School under Meyer, 
Huber, and Konrad Gessner, then from 
1799 in Zweibrucken, and in 1801 in Mu- 
nich under Quaglio and Hanenstein. In 
1805 he entered the Bavarian army and 
fought against Napoleon in Spain, Germany, 
and France ; in 1816-25 he painted in Salz- 
burg and Munich ; in 1828 was commander 
in Nauplia, Greece, and military governor 
of Argoa ; in 1829-33 painted in Munich, 
and in latter year went again to Greece and 
reorganized the army. On his return he 
was made baron, lieutenant-general, and 
chief of a department in the ministry of 
war. Hia pictures of wars in Spain and 
Greece are historically interesting, and to- 
gether with his landscapes and genre pieces 
artistically meritorious. Works : Bavarian 
Tree-Fellers (1823), Pallicares near Corinth 
<1829), National Gallery, Berlin ; Camp of 
the Pbilhellenes before Athens, Carlsruhe 
Gallery ; Donkey Drivers in Italian Osteria 
(1830), Eunsthalle, Hamburg; Scene in 
Spanish Guerilla War in 1809 (1824), Leip- 
sic Museum ; Views in Greece and Spain 
(6), New Pinakothek, Munich ; Angora Gate 
at Athens (1838), Konigsberg Museum ; oth- 
ers in Schleisaheim and Stuttgart Galleries ; 
and many in the possession of the royal 
family of Bavaria. — Allgem. d. Biogr., xL 
295 ; Cotta's Kunstbl. (1835), 15 ; Nagler, 
Mon., ii 303 ; Raczynski, ii. 387. 

Stuttgart in 1757, died there in 1816. Ger- 
man school i history and genre painter, pu- 
pil of Stuttgart Academy under Guibal, 
Harper, and Scotti ; became court-painter 
in 1780, visited Italy in 1782-86, and was 
professor at the Stuttgart Academy in 1790- 
93. Works : Four Seasons, Exit from The- 
atre, Royal Palace, Stuttgart ; Two Ceiling 
Paintings, Stuttgart Academy ; Altarpiece, 
Bottweil. His son and pupil. Earl Alexan- 
der (born in Stuttgart, Feb. 2, 1788, died 
at Hassfurt, Sept 28, 1865), more noted as 
an architect, painted Emperor Maximil- 
ian at the Grave of Duke Eberhard, in the 

Royal Palace at Stuttgart ; and Knight 
Toggenburg, in the collection of Count 
Fries, ib. — Wagner, Gesch. d. Karlsschnle, 
i. 462. 

lin in 1819, died there in 1856. History 
painter, pupil in Breslau of A F. Konig 
and in Berlin of Wach. Works : Hertha 
and Odin, The Nonue, Play of the Nixies, 
Combat of Giants, New Museum, Berlin ; 
Material and Mental Development of Greece, 
Old Museum, ib.— Kunstbl. (1856), 3. 

Paris, May 15, 1813. Portrait and genre 
painter, son of Josef, pupil of Munich Acad- 
emy, then studied in Paris; visited Italy 
repeatedly in 1830-46, also Belgium and 
France, and became court-painter in Mu- 
nich. Bavarian medal for Art and Science ; 
Member of Societe beige des Aquarellistes. 
Works : Portraits of Royal Family of Ba- 
varia ; National Costume Pictures ; Genre 
Scenes.— Mailer, 246. 


TTETT,, DANIEL VAN, born at Brussels 
in 1604, died in 1662. Flemish school; 
landscape painter, master unknown ; after 
having acquired considerable reputation, he 
abandoned his former subjects for confla- 
grations, which he represented with unusual 
effect Works: Conflagration, Lille Museum; 
Winter Landscape, Hermitage, St Peters- 
burg. Leonard van Heil, his brother (born 
in Brussels in 1605), painted architecture, 
flowers, and insects ; and Jan Baptist van 
Heil, a younger brother (born in Brussels 
in 1609), was a history and portrait painter. 
He was living in 1661. 

Hamburg, naturalized in France ; contem- 
porary. Genre painter. At first merely a 
skilful painter of costumes, he developed at 
Rome his peculiar talent for treating life 
and manners with that fine sense of hu- 
mour and insight into character which 
has won him a wide reputation. Medals : 
2d class, 1857, 1859, and 1861; L. of 

d by Google 

Honour, 1861 ; Officer, 1881. Works 
Titian the Younger with his Lady Love 
(1857), Bavene Gallery, Berlin ; Luca Signo- 
relli by the Dead Body of his Son (1859), 
Orphans, Watteau and his Sweetheart, Male 
Portrait, Eunsthalle, Hamburg ; Absolution 
in St Peter's ; The Mont-de-Piete (1861), 
Luxembourg Museum ; On Monte Pincio, 
Corcoran Oallery, Washington ; In His 
Eminence's Waiting Boom ; Cardinal enter- 
ing bis Carriage ; Spring-time ; On the 
River-side, In the Fields, William Astor, 
New York; The Seine; Fine Weather 
(1881); IdlerB in Anteroom of the Vatican 
(1882); Promenade (1884); Lawn-tennis, 
Presentation (1885). — Meyer, Conv. Lex., 
xvii. 443 ; Quarterly Rev., i. 253. 

HFJLMAYER, KARL, born in Munich, 
March 5, 1829, Landscape painter, son of 
the portrait and landscape painter Emil E, 
pupil of Munich Academy ; travelled exten- 
sively in Germany, Italy, and France. Works : 
Foggy Morning on Lake Sternberg ; Moon- 
light Night in Normandy ; The Lido in 
Venice ; View on Via Appia near Borne ; 
Smugglers crossing Mountain, New Pinako- 
thek, Munich.— Mtlller, 246. 

Belfort, Jan. 15, 1787, died in Paris, Oct. 
20, 1865. History painter, pupil of Vin- 
cent, won grand prix in 1807, and lived in 
Borne about six years. With the rise of 
the romantic school be lost his popularity, 
and was called by the critics the fossil of 
the Academy, but his merits were again 
recognized at the Salon of 1855. Medals : 
1st class, 1812 ; Member of Institute, 1829 ; 
Professor, 1831 ; L. of Honour, 1825 ; Offi- 
cer, 1855 ; grand medal of honour, 1855. 
Works : Arrival of Jacob in Mesopotamia 
(1812), Bordeaux Museum ; Ptolenueus 
Philopator(1817), Amiens Museum; Joseph's 
Coat brought to Jacob (1817), Lyons Mu- 
seum ; Raising of Lazarus, Titus pardoning 
Conspirators ; Martyrdom of Si Cyr and 
of St Juliet (1819), St Gervais, Paris; 
Martyrdom of St Hippolytus, Notre Dame, 
Paris ; Rescue of King of Spain ; Capture 

of Temple of Jerusalem (1822) ; St Hya- 
cinth reviving a Drowned Person (1827), 
Notre Dame, Paris ; Charles X. distributing 
Rewards to Artists at Exhibition of 1824 
(1827), Louvre ; Andrieux reading in the 
Lobby of the Comedie-francaise (1847); De- 
fence of Burgos, Louis Philippe receiving 
the Deputies come to offer him the Crown 
(1834), do. receiving the Chamber of Peers, 
Champ da Mai of 1815, Battle of Rocray, 
Portraits of Marquis de Chamilly, Due do 
la Ferte, Comte d'Estrades, Marquis de 
Bournonrille, Versailles Museum ; Vesuvius 
receiving Heavenly Fire from Jupiter, The 
Revival of the Arts, ceilings in Louvre ; 
Charlemagne causing his Capitularies to be 
read, Louis the Fat freeing the Towns, St 
Louis causing the Publication of liis Ordi- 
nances, Louis XII organizing the Chamber 
of Accounts, Defeat of the Cimbri and Teu- 
tons (1863), Palais Bourbon ; Victory of Ju- 
das Maccabseus (1855); Subject from His- 
tory of the Jews (1824).— Bellier, i. 751 ; 
Larousae ; Gaz. des. B. Arts (1867), xxii. 
40 ; Meyer, Gesch., 167. 

in Altona, Jan. 10, 1817, died in Hamburg, 
Oct, 1883. Animal and still-life painter, 
pupil of Dasseldorf Academy under Theodor 
Hildebrandt ; continued his studies in Mu- 
nich, whence he visited Switzerland. He 
afterwards founded a preparatory school for 
artists in Hamburg. Works : Foxes con* 
testing Booty (1848), Eunsthalle, Hamburg; 
Scene from Elf Life (1860) ; Lurking Fox 
(1861); Nut-Cracker(1871); Plover (1875); 
Rabbit and Frog ; Fen-Duck ; Fruit-Seller. 
— Eunst-Chronik, xviii. 9 j Mailer, 247. 

HEINE, WILHELM, born in Dasseldorf, 
April 18, 1813, died June 29, 1839. Genre 
painter, pupil of Dasseldorf Academy, and 
an artist of great promise at the time of his 
premature death. Works : Poachers, Smug- 
gler (1834) ; Tramp (1835); Peasant Cot- 
tage (1836) ; Criminals at Church (1837), 
Leipsic Museum ; replica (1838), National 
Gallery, Berlin.— W. Muller, Dusseldorf E, 



Moiitz in 181$. Battle and landscape 
..painter, pupil in Munich of D. Monten ; 
travelled in France, Italy, Switzerland, and 
the Tyrol Works ; Tavern Scenes and 
Skirmishes ; Frescos in Trinklialle, Baden- 
Baden ; Pictures in the Kursaal, Cemetery 
Chapel, and several Villas, ib. 

Baireuth, Oct 21, 1800, died in Munich, 
July 29, 1843. Genre and landscape painter, 
pupil of tike Munich Academy in 1820-26 
under Robert von Langer ; painted at first 
historical subjects, then portraits, and finally 
genre scenes in the Bavarian Alps and land- 
scapes. Works : Achilles (1823) ; Ossian 
and Malvina (1826) ; Group of Bavarian 
Peasant Girls (1829); Landscape after Storm 
(1830) ; Tyrolese Landscape (1832); Priest's 
Visit, On Lake Sternberg, The Watzmann, 
8cene on a Tyrolese Alp, Poacher watching 
for his Persecutors, Height with Chamois 
(1831) ; Tyrolese Family, Young Tyrolese 
with his Sweetheart, The Bride, Family 
Scene, Girl playing Zither, Rocky Land- 
scape, Bavarian Mountain Lake, Glacier 
(1835) ; Bagpiper (1836) ; Mountain Land- 
scape with Lake, Tyrolese playing to a Girl, 
Two Bavarian Peasant Girls (1837) ; Adora- 
tion of the Shepherds (1838) ; Shepherdess 
(1840).— Allgem. d. Biogr., xi. 366 ; An- 
dreaen, L 164 ; Cotta's KunstbL (1836), 87. 

TTTCTNT iEIN, HEINRICH, born at Weil- 
burg, Nassau, Dec 3, 1803, died in Munich, 
Dec. 8, 1885. Landscape painter, first in- 
structed by his mother, a painter in pastel, 
studied architecture at Munich and drawing 
at Mannheim Academy ; visited Switzer- 
land and Italy, and settled in Munich in 
1829, and in 1830 had obtained reputation 
as one of the best German landscape paint- 
ers. Honorary member of the Munich 
(1846) and Vienna Academies ; Order of St 
Michael, 1862. Works : Ravine ; Poachers 
attacked in their Camp (1823) ; Mountain 
Lake in a Storm ; Alpine Valley with a Fu- 
neral (1825) ; Waldesstille ; KlOaterl am 
Wachensee ; Upper Gosan Lake ; Windau- 

' thai ; Wilderness in Salvaretta Mountains ; 
Engadine Valley ; Ruins of Juvarium; View 
in South Tyrol, New Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Landscape with Castle TyroL Carlsnihe 
Gallery; View in Grisons (1839), Leipsic 
Museum ; others in Stuttgart, Hanover, 
Brunswick, Mentz, and Prague Galleries. — 
Dioskuren (1860), 193, 204 ; KunstrChronik, 
xxL 219 ; Die Kunst fur Alle, i 100 ; Mai- 
ler, 247 ; Raczynski, ii. 338, 402. 

German school, early part of 15th century. 
His large altarpiece (1424), now in the li- 
brary at Gottingen, representing the Twelve 
Apostles, the Crucifixion, and eighteen small 
Passion-Scenes, show that he was influenced 
by the school of Cologne. — Kugler, Gesch. 
d. Malerei, L 257 ; Schnaaae, vL 479. 

Silesia about middle of 17th century, died 
in Prague in 1713. German school ; Lived 
in Prague from 1678, married in 1704, and 
took the freedom of the city. Quirin Jahn, 
his contemporary, Bays that he belonged to 
a monastic fraternity. In his later works 
he was influenced by Carl Scrota, who died 
(1674) a few years before Heintsch's arrival 
in Prague. Works in Prague : Altarpiece, 
Jesuit Church ; Madonna (1696), Karlshofer 
Stiftskirche ; Altarpiece, St Henry's j Side 
Altar-pieces, St Catherine's ; Holy Family, 
Minorites Church ; Transportation of St 
Wenceslaus' Body to Prague in 940 (1692), 
TeinMrche ; several pictures in chapels and 
cloister of the Kreuzherren-Stift ; Christ in 
the Temple, St Joseph, St Clemens adoring 
the Virgin, St Ignatius and Trinity, Mar- 
tyrdom of St Vitus, St Francis Xavier bap- 
tizing Moorish Prince, Four Elements, Bust 
Portrait of Praying Woman, St Norbert 
St Aloysius, Flight to Egypt — Allgem. d. 
Biogr., xi. 660 ; Kugler (Crowe), 528. 

HEINZ, JOSEPH, the elder, born in 
Berne in 1565, died in Prague, Oct 15, 
1609. German school; history painter, 
called by Van Mander a pupil of Johann van 
Achen, which seems doubtful, as the latter 
went to Venice in 1574 Heinz went to 


Prague, studied at the Academy, and in 
1590-94 was employed by Rudolph IL, who 
made him court- 
painter and sent 
himtoltaly. There 
he remained four 
years, a tudying es- 
pecially Paul Ver- 
onese, but after his 
return was strong- 
ly influenced by 
Johann van Ac hen, 
Spranger, and Vel- 
vet Brueghel, his contemporaries at the im- 
perial court Works : Rape of Proserpine, 
Dresden Gallery ; Leda, Artemisia with the 
Ashes of Mausolus, Augsburg Gallery ; Sa- 
tyrs and Nymphs (1599), Schleissheim Gal- 
lery ; Herodias, Venus 
Asleep, Venus and Adonis, 
da and Nymphs (1609), 
Crucifixion (2), Diana and 
Acteeon, Portrait of Ru- 
dolph IL (1594), Vienna 
Museum; Portrait of Him- 
self, his Brother and Sis- 
ter (1596), 
, Berne Muse- 
on (?), 
Schwerin Gallery. — All- 
gem. d. Biogr., xi. 663 ; 
Fuessli, L 61 ; Eugler 
(Crowe), i. 271. 

younger, born about 1590, 
died in 1655. German 
school ; son and pupil of 
Joseph the elder ; after- 
wards studied with his stepfather Gonde- 
lach in Augsburg. Fond of painting sor- 
cerers and witches. Went to Italy, and 
lived mostly in Venice, where he painted 
altarpieces. Urban V11L made him knight 
of the Golden Spur. Works : Two Marys 
at Christ's Grave (1655), All Saints' ChapeL 
Venice ; Diana Bathing, Venice Academy. — 
AUgem. d. Biogr., xi 664. 

HEISS, JOHANN, born at Memmingen, 
Bavaria, in 1640, died at Augsburg In 1704. 
History and landscape painter, pupil of 
HeinrichSchOnfeldandof Sichelbein. There 
ore many altarpieces by him in the churches 
of Augsburg, Ratisbon, and Neustadt. 
Works : Sctpio granting Liberty to Allucius 
(1679), Death of Dido, Neptune and Ve- 
nus, Hall with Antiques, Hall with Female 
Models, Brunswick Museum ; The Seasons 
personified, Wiesbaden Gallery ; Exodus of 
the Israelites (1677), Dresden Museum. 

HELEN, ancient pictures. See Eumelvs, 

HELEN, RAPE OF, Benozzo Gozzoli, 
National Gallery, London ; wood, octagon, 
tempera, H.1 ft.7in.x2 ft The wife of 
Menelaus carried oft to a ship by Paris and 

his companions. Panel probably formed 
the cover of a cassettone or box for wed- 
ding gifts.— Nat GaL Cat 

By Guido Reni, Louvre ; canvas, H. 8 ft 
3 in. x 8 ft 7 in. Paris, preceded by Cupid 
and giving his hand to Helen, leads her to 
the ship in which his companions are about 
to embark ; three women follow Helen, 
bearing jewels and a dog ; in front, a little 


negro with an ape and a dog. This picture, 
celebrated in its time in verse and prose, was 
painted for the King of Spain ; but he find- 
ing the price too high, Guido sold it to M de 
Lft Forcade for Maria de' M6dici ; the queen 
being obliged to leave Paris, M. Forcade 
Bold it to Louis Phelipeaux, Seigneur de La 
Villiere, from whom it passed through sev- 
eral other hands to the Musee Napoleon. 
Engraved by Deaplaces. — Landon, Musee, 

HELENA, painter, daughter of Timon of 
Egypt, 4th century b.c. The mosaic of the 
Battle of Issus, at Naples, is perhaps a re- 
production of her only recorded work. — 
Ptolera. Hephaest. in PhoL BibL, p. 462 
(ed. Hoeschel). 

HELENA, ST., VISION OF, Paolo Vero- 
nese, National Gallery, London ; canvas, H. 

6 ft 5 in. x 3 ft. 9 in. The Saint, in sleep 
or revery, reclines on a marble window-seat, 
resting her head upon her right hand ; 
through the open window are seen two 
cherubim bearing a cross. The design ap- 
pears to be after an engraving by Marc An- 
tonio, supposed to be after a drawing by 
Raphael Etched by E W. Sherborn in 

Art Journal (1884), 267.— Nat Gal Cat ; 
Barteoh, xiv. 443 ; Bichter, 74. 

By Paolo Veronese, Vatican, Borne. Seat- 
ed, asleep, wearing the imperial crown, and 
clad in a rich brocaded Venetian costume, 
her head resting upon her left hand ; at 
right; a little angel standing holds a Greek 
cross. Acquired from Galleria Sacchetti by 
Benedict XIV,, who placed it in the Capitol 
Museum, whence removed to Vatican. En- 
graved by Gius. Craffonara. — Larousse, ix. 
19 ; Vaticano descritto, vi PL 76. 

HELFFT, JULIUS, born in Berlin, April 
6,1818. Landscape and architecture painter, 
pupil of Berlin Academy and of W. Schir- 
mer ; went in 1843 to Italy, painted there 
a series of views around Florence for King 
Frederick William IV., then visited Rome, 
Naples, and Sicily, and returned in 1847, 
when he was appointed professor in Berlin 
Academy. Works : Sicilian Cloister Yard 
(1847), Doge's Palace— Venice (1856), Na- 
tional Gallery, Berlin ; Canal Grande in Ven- 
ice ; San Miniato near Florence. — Mailer, 

HELIODORUS, painter, of Athens, date 
unknown. Perhaps identical with sculptor 
of same name mentioned by Pliny (xxxvi 4 
[91]), some of whose statues were in the 
Temple of Jupiter in the Portico of Octavia, 
Borne. — Pausan., 1, 37, 1. 

ael, Stanza d'Eliodoro, Vatican ; fresco. He- 
Hodorus, treasurer of the Syrian king, at- 
tempting to plunder the Temple at Jerusa- 
lem, is driven out by two avenging angels 
(2 Maccabees, ii. 25). In background the 
High Priest Onias praying before the taber- 
nacle ; in foreground, right, the answer to 
the prayer — Heliodorus overthrown, and his 
soldiers put to flight by two angels with 
scourges and a celestial horseman ; at left, 
the assembled people and Julius IL in his 
chair of state. The bearer in front is Marc 
Antonio Raimondi, and another farther back 
is supposed to be Giulio Romano. Typical 
of the victory of the Papacy over its enemies, 
especially Louis XH. of France. Painted in 



1512. Engraved by A. Meldolla ; Mochetti ; 
Volpato ; Friquet ; Anderloni ; Baillu ; C. 
MarattL — Vasari, ed. Mil., it. 346 ; Muntz, 
360 ; Passavant, ii. 130 ; Springer, 201 ; 
Kugler (Eastlake), ii. 433 ; Perkins, 135. 

born at Brussels in 1787, died there in 1845. 
landscape painter, pupil of Jean Baptiste 
de Roy ; good colourist, painted trees with 
great care. Works : Bois de Soignies, Mech- 
lin Museum ; do., and Mill, Brussels Muse- 

ourjjig is warm and transparent, treatment 
broad, figures well drawn and full of expres- 
sion. Works : Eirmess, Aremberg Gallery, 
Brussels ; Alchemist in his Laboratory, Rot- 
terdam Museum ; do., Copenhagen Gallery ; 
Interior, Farrier at Work, Lille Museum ; 
Drinker, Dunkirk Museum ; Eirmess, Douai 
Museum ; Shoemaker's Shop, Family Group, 
Brunswick Museum ; Peasants Drinking, 
Betrothal Feast, Peasant Weddings (2), 
Stockholm Museum ; Temptation of St An- 

um ; Landscapes in Guelders (2, with figures 
by Eugene Verboeckhoven), Kunsthalle, 
Hamburg; Wood Landscape (1829), Leip- 
sic Museum. His wife, Jean Marie Joseph- 
ine (1796-1837), painted fruit and flowers. 
— Iinmerzeel, ii. 26 ; Eramm, iii. 665. 

VAN, born at Antwerp, baptized July 24, 
1623, died at Brussels. Flemish school ; 
genre painter, pupil of Teniers the younger ; 
visited Italy, and in Paris painted some of 
his best pictures for Louis XIV. Master of 
the guild at Antwerp in 1646, then at Brus- 
sels, having left Antwerp in 1674. His col- 

thony, Musical Party, Historical Society, 
New York. — Iinmerzeel, ii. 28 ; ftiegel, Bei- 
trage, ii. 127 ; Van den Brandon, 1022. 



born at Antwerp, April 17, 1683, died at 
Brussels, Aug. 21, 1726. History and genre 
painter, son and pupil of the portrait painter 


Jan van Hellemont (1650-1719 ?) ; went early 
to Brussels, and there painted many pict- 
ures for churches, in which the decline of 
the school of Antwerp after Rubens is ap- 
parent Works : Martyrdom of St Bar- 
bara, St Mary Magdalen's, Brussels ; Tri- 
umph of David, St Michael's, ib. ; Elijah 
sacrificing before the Priests of Baal, Car- 
melites, ib.; Christ on the Cross, Ghent 
Museum ; Feasants at Cards, Male Portrait 
(1724), Darmstadt Museum ; Dentist in his 
Office, Augsburg Gallery ; Priest distribut- 
ing Bread and Wine, Modena Gallery. — 
Descamps, iii. 188 ; Michiels, x. 103 ; Booses 
(Reber), 440 ; Van den Branden, 1171. 

Bremen, May 10, 1843. Landscape painter, 
pupil in Dusseldorf of Oswald Aehenbach, 
thBn studied in Munich, and in 1864-68 
in Carlsruhe under Gude, 1869 in Paris, 
1870 in Borne, and in 1871 settled in Dus- 
seldorf. Works : Wood Interior ; Land- 
scape in Black Forest ; North German 
Landscape ; Evening in Italy. — Mailer, 

Kungsor in 1851. History painter, pupil 
of Stockholm Academy and of M T. Le- 
febvre in Paris ; received a medal for one 
of his first pictures ; lives now in Munich. 
Honourable mention, Paris. Instructor at 
Berlin Academy, January, 1886. Works: 
Ebba Brahe writing on the Window-Pane ; 
Gustavus Tasa accusing Bishop Sonnanvilder 
of High Treason; Opprobrious Entry of Peder 
Sonnanvader and Master Knut into Stock- 
holm (1870), New York Museum ; Louis XL 
and Tristan at Plessis-les-Tours ; Death of 
Sten Stores ; The Last Friend (1876); Ran- 
som of Town of Visby by King Waldemar 
of Denmark in 1361 (1883); Snow Effect in 
Tyrolese Mountains, On a Bench in the 
Woods, Portrait of Professor Thiersch 
(1884); Idyl, Swedish Peasant, At the Har- 
bor of Wolgast, June 16, 1633 (1886).— 
Mailer, 248; IUustr. Zeitg. (1883), ii. 11; 
D. illustr. Zeitg., iii. 627 ; Zeitsch,, xviii 
274 ; xx. 116. 

HELLBATH, EMTL, horn at Bees, West- 
phalia, in 1839. Landscape painter, pupil 
in Dusseldorf Academy of Oswald Achen- 
bach, then visited Munich and Dresden ; 
lived for some time in Amsterdam, and in 
1863 settled in Munich. Works: Land- 
scape in Bain ; On Lake Chiem ; Convent 
Pond ; Landscape at Early Morning ; View 
in Quarries near Polling ; Road to Convent, 
Johnston sale, New York, 1876, $1,275.— 
Mailer, 248. 

HELLWEGEB, FRANZ, born at St. Lo- 
renz, Tyrol, Sept 7, 1812, died in Innsbruck, 
Feb. 15, 1880. History painter, pupil of 
Munich Academy under Clemens Zimmer- 
mann and Heinrich Hess. In 1843 passed 
eight months in Rome, then returned to 
Munich, where he assisted Cornelius in the 
frescos in St Louis' Church, and afterwards 
Steinle in the Cathedral of Cologne, and 
Schraudolph in the Cathedral of Speyer. 
In 1866 he settled in Innsbruck. Works : 
Death of Mary, and three other altarpieces, 
Brunneck, Tyrol ; Madonna, St Ann, Parish 
Church, Innsbruck ; Baptism of Christ, Scap- 
ulary Festival, Flight into Egypt, Male Por- 
traits (2), Innsbruck Museum ; St Cather- 
ine, Fathers of the Church, Ischl, Upper 
Austria. — Allgem. d. Biogr., xi. 699 ; Kunst- 
Chronik, xv. 871 ; Wurzbach, viii. 237. 

HELLWIG, THEODOB, born at Halber- 
stadt in 1815. Genre and portrait painter, 
pupil in Berlin of MenzeL Franz KrOger, 
and Magnus ; paints scenes from time of 
Louis XT7. and XV. in the manner of Wat- 
teau, and from peasant life of his native 
country. Works : Rendezvous ; Children 
at a Fountain ; Serenade under the Door- 
way.— Mttller, 248. 

Haarlem in 1624, died in Rome in 1694. 
Dutch school; history and genre painter, 
pupil of Pieter de Grebber, went to Venice, 
afterwards to Rome, where he was employed 
by Cardinal de Medici. Works: Tempta- 
tion of Christ ; Christ bearing the Cross ; 
Christ before Pilate ; Christ Crucified ; Fran- 
ciscan Monks distributing Food ; Pilgrim 



with Italian Shepherds, Copenhagen Gallery. 
— Immerzeel, ii. 27 ; Kramm, iii 665. 

Magdeburg in 1781, died at Carlaruhe in 
1852. Landscape painter, in 1809 settled 
in Strassburg, where he had many pupils ; 
visited Italy twice, and bred there in 1816- 
20. Works : Tasao's Oak ; Lake of Nemi. 
born at Haar- 
lem (or Dor- 
drecht) in 
1613 (?), died 
in Amster- 
dam, buried 
Dec. 16, 1670. 
Dutch school; 
; , p o r trait 
either stud- 
ied under 
Fran s Hals or took him as his model, and 
became one of the greatest portrait painters 
of his time. Lived chiefly at Amsterdam, 
where in 1654 he and Nicolaaa Tan Helt- 
Stokade founded the guild of St Luke. 
His earliest picture is dated 1639. Some- 
times painted sacred and mythological sub- 
jects. "Works : Banquet of the Civic Guard 
(1648), Syndics of the Arquebusiers (1657), 
Portraits of Vice-Admiral Kortenaar, An- 
dries Bicker, Gerard Bicker, Mary Henrietta 
Stuart, Lieutenant- Admiral Van Nes and 
Madame Van Nes (1668), Female Portrait 
(1646), Male da (1650), Amsterdam Mu- 
seum; The Archers (2, 1639 and 1656), 
HdteldeVille, Amsterdam; Portrait of Paul 
Potter (1654), Hague Museum ; Portrait of 
a Preacher (1638), two others (1646), Por- 
trait of Lady and Gentleman (1654), do. of 
Daniel Bernard (1669), Rotterdam Museum ; 
Man with emptied Glass (1649), Oldenburg 
Gallery ; Aristocratic Young Couple (1661), 
Carlaruhe Gallery ; Male and Female Por- 
trait, Man with a Ring (1655), Gotha Mu- 
seum ; Female Portrait (1655), Weimar Mu- 
seum ; Male do. (1663), Schwerin Gallery ; 
do. (2, one dated 1651), Copenhagen Gal- 

lery; Portraits (3, 1642 and 1643), Caasel 
Gallery ; do. (2), Brunswick Museum ; da 
(3, one dated 1654), Dresden Gallery ; Por- 
trait of Admiral Tromp, do. of Prince de 
Chabanais, Male (1649) and Female Por- 
trait, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Dutch Fam- 
ily at Dinner, Innsbruck Museum ; Syn- 
dics of the Arquebusiers (1653, study for 
Amsterdam picture), Portrait (1655), do., 
Louvre ; Presentation of the Betrothed 
(1647), Family Group (1652), New Market 
in Amsterdam (1666), Portrait of Govaert 
Flinck, Male Portrait (1670), three other 
portraits, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Por- 
traits of himself and Wife (1664), Brussels 
Museum ; German Baron and his Family, 
Portrait of a Lady, Historical Society, New 
York. Others in Antwerp, Berlin, Geneva, 
Stockholm, Vienna, and London Galleries. 
By his son and pupil Lodewyk, is a Portrait 
of Admiral Stellingwerf (1670), in the Am- 

sterdam Museum. — Allgem. d. Biogr., xi. 
709 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole hollandaise ; Bode, 
Studien, 112 ; Burger, ii. 218 ; Gower, Fig- 
ure Painters, 31 ; Kegel, Beitrage, i 129 ; 
Scheltema, Amstel's oudheid, i 159. 

in Copenhagen, April 11, 1847. Genre 
painter, son and pupil of Frederik Ferdi- 
nand Helsted (1809-75), then pupil of Co- 
penhagen Academy, where he took a medal 
in 1864 ; went in 1869 to Paris, where he 
studied under Bonnat, and thence to Italy. 
Works : Portrait of Professor Stephens 
(1869) ; do. of the painter Kuchler (1878); 
From the Villa Borghese (1876) ; After the 



Lesson, Lesson with the Parson (1877) ; 
Father with his Children praying to Ma- 
donna (1878) ; Country Physician (1879) ; 
Clymene and her Sisters at Phaeton's Grave 
(1880); Father and Son (1882); Two Sons 
at their Mother's Deathbed (1883),— Sigurd 
Mailer, 151. 

born at Nymwegen about 1614, died in 
1669. Dutch school ; history and portrait 
painter, pupil of David Itykaert the elder ; 
for a time court-painter in France, but lived 
mostly in Borne and Venice, though at Am- 
sterdam in 1651. Many European princes 
ordered pictures of him, as he was an excel- 
lent colouriat He supplied the landscapes 
of Wynanta, Hockaert, and De Heusch with 
figures. Works : Grain Market under Jo- 
seph in Egypt, Town Hall, Amsterdam; Fig- 
ures in Border of a Forest (by Wynanta, 
1659), Hague Museum; Susanna at the 
Bath, Leipsic Museum ; Male Portrait, Old 
Pinakothek, Munich. — Immerzeel, iii. 115 ; 
Eramm, v. 1575 ; De Stuers, 186 ; Van den 
Branden, 871. 

HEM3CYCLE, Paul Delaroche, Palais des 
Beaux Arts, Paris ; encaustic painting, H. 
15 ft x about 50 ft Scene — the portico of 
an Ionic temple ; in centre sits Apelles en- 
throned, with Ictinus on his right and 
Phidias on his left Near them are five alle- 
gorical figures i in front, Fame, nude, kneel- 
ing, casting out wreaths from a heap at her 
side ; back of her, at left, seated, are Greek 
Art and Gothic Art, the latter (with the 
model of a cathedral) a portrait of Dela- 
roche's wife, daughter of Horace Vernet ; 
at right, Roman Art and Renaissance Art. 
On each side of this ideal group extend the 
wings of the picture, in which are grouped 
the great artists of the world, standing or 
sitting in their habits as they moved of old. 
The work contains 75 colossal figures. The 
original, called the Hemicycle because it 
occupies the semicircular frieze of the am- 
phitheatre of the Beaux-Arts, was painted 
in 1837-41. Delaroche received for it 80,- 
000 francs, the price set for acanvas of fifteen 

figures, the work originally contemplated. 
It was injured by fire iu 1855, but the dam- 
age was repaired by the artist himself, aided 
by Mercier and Fleury. The engraving by 
Henriquel Dnpont cost eight years' labour. 
Delaroche made for Dupont's use a copy of 
the work, in small (1853), now owned by 
W. T. Walters, Baltimore. There is a pho- 
togravure of it in Art Treasures of America, 
together with a key to the figures. The 
original sketch for the large work is in the 
Nantes Museum. — Art Treas. of Amer., i. 
82 ; Mrs. Jameson ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1860), 
viii. 354 

HEMISSEN (Hemishem, Hemsen), JAN 
VAN, born at Hemishem (Hemixem), near 
Antwerp, about 1500, died at Haarlem be- 
tween 1555 and 1566. Flemish school. 
Real name Jan Sanders. History and por- 
trait pointer, pupil at Antwerp of Hendrik 
van Cleve in 1519, master of the guild be- 
fore 1524, its dean in 1548 ; removed to 
Haarlem in 1551. Although, in his time, 
the influence of the Italian school asserted 
itself strongly, he adhered to the old tradi- 
tions, and took Quinten Massys for his 
model Works: Colling of St Matthew, 
Museum, Antwerp ; do., Theodor van Le- 
riuB, ib. ; do., Ghent Museum ; Prodigal 
Son (1556), Brussels Museum ; Tobias re- 
storing his Father's Sight (1556), Louvre, 
Paris ; Christ driving out the Money-Chang- 
era (1556), Nancy Museum ; Madonna, Vil- 
lage Physician, Madrid Museum ; Abraham's 
Sacrifice, Germanic Museum, Nuremberg; 
Calling of St Matthew (1536), Isaac blessing 
Jacob, Holy Family (1541), Old Pinakothek, 
Munich ; Mocking of Christ (1544), Schleiss- 
heim Gallery ; Calling of St Matthew, do. 
(1537), do. (1548), St Jerome, St William, 
Portrait of Mabuse, Vienna Museum ; St 
Ursula, Adoration of the Magi, Prince Albert 
Collection, London. His 
daughter and pupil, Catharino, l~J J*f 
was on artist of merit ; went ***■/ 
with her husband, a musician, 
to Spain, where both entered the service of 
the Queen of Hungary. A Male Portrait by 


her, dated 1552, is in the National Gallery, 
London.— Allgera. d. Biogr., xl 720; Ck 
Blanc, Ecole flamande ; Cat du Musee 
d'Anvers (1874), 472; Kramm, iii. 671 
Rooses (Eebor), €8; Tan den Braiiden, 98. 

HEMLTNG. See Mending, 

HEMPEL, JOSEF VON, Bitter, born ir 
Vienna, Feb. 9, 1800. History painter, pu 
pil of Vienna Academy under Redl ; went 
to Italy in 1821, studied in Florence and in 
Borne, where he was influenced by Over- 
beck, returned to Vienna in 1825, moved to 
Elagenfurt in 1848, where he founded the 
school of design at the Lyceum, lived four 
years in Tyrol then in Grata, and in 188! 
settled on an estate in Croatia. "Works 
Christ and the 'Woman of Samaria (1822) 
Entombment ; Jacob's Dream ; Flight into 
Egypt ; Raising of Lazarus ; Trinity, and 
many other altarpieces for churches in Vi- 
enna and the Austrian provinces. — Wurz- 
bach, viii 465. 

HEMSEN. See Bemiasen. 

New cas tie-on -Tyne, May 25, 1841. Marine 
painter, pupil of School of Art at Newcastle ; 
entered Dominican monastery at Newcastle, 
whence he was sent to a branch at Lyons, 
France, but left when twenty-two years old 
and became a painter. In 1863 he became a 
student at Antwerp of Henri Leys, on whose 
death he returned to London. Works : The 
Shrine, London River, Limehouse, Barge 
Builders, BlackwalL and Cbeyne Walk (all 
exhibited in Royal Academy, 1872); Ves- 
pers (1879) ; Cavalry (1879) ; Saved (1880) ; 
Lobster Boat, Oporto, Rocky Shore, Mill in 
the Gloaming (1881) ; Oporto from Saude- 
man Wine Lodges, Cinderella and her Sis- 
ters (1882) ; Oyster Dredgers, Ferryman, 
Qld Putney Bridge in 1882, Bargaining for 
the Catch, Cool of the Morning (1883) ; 
Tipping a Shrimp TrawL The Trammel Net 
Catch (1884).— Art Journal (1881), 225. 

HENDERSON, JOSEPH, born in Perth- 
shire, Scotland, in 1832. Marine and genre 
painter, pupil of Royal Scottish Academy at 
Edinburgh. Has resided since 1852 in 

Glasgow, where be became in 1863 a mem- 
ber of the Institute of Fine Arte ; in 1877 
elected a member of the Scottish Water 
Colour Society. Began with portraits and 
genre pictures, but finally devoted himself 
with success to marine painting. Works : 
Where Breakers Roar (1874) ; A Lively 
Haul (1875) ; Weeding the Garden, Under 
the Sand-Hills (1878) ; From the Cliffs of 
Ailsa, Haymaking in the Highlands (1879); 
Travelling Cobbler (1883). 

sterdam, June 24, 1747, died at Haarlem, 
Jan. 28, 1831. Portrait, landscape, and 
still-life painter, pupil of Amsterdam Acad- 
emy, where he won three prizes ; visited 
England, and having lived for several years 
at Eden in Gelderland, settled at Haarlem 
in 1786. Was very versatile, and made fine 
drawings after famous masters. Works : 
Female Portrait (1791), Male do. (1811), 
Hunting Party of Henry TV., view in Haar- 
lem, Haarlem Museum. — Immerzeel, ii. 30 ; 
Kramm, iii. 677. 
HENDSCHEL, ALBERT, born in Frank- 
fort, July 9, 1834, 
died there, Oct 22, 
1883. Genre paint- 
er, pupil of Stiidel 
Institute under 
Steinle and Passft- 
vant, then under 
* Jacob Becker; vis- 
ited the principal 
galleries of Germany, 
and in 1869-70 Italy. 
Works : Hostess's Daughter ; Fiddler of 
Gemund ; Cinderella ; Broken Pitcher ; 
Scenes from Gotz von Berlichingen ; Sketch- 
Book (1872-74); Coffee-Party; Wreath- 
Maker ; Judgment of Paris. — Zeitschr. L b. 
K, viii 81 ; Dlustr. Zeitg. (1874), ii. 309 ; 
(1883), ii. 408; Land und Meer (1884), L 

HENGSBACH, FRANZ, born at Weri, 
Westphalia, in 1814, died in Dusseldorf, Feb. 
25,1883. German school; landscape painter, 
pupil of Dusseldorf Academy under Schirmer ; 



chose his subjects principally from the high 
mountains of the Alpine countries. Works : 
Rainy Weather in the Odenwald (1840), 
Schwerin Gallery ; View of Salzburg (1841); 
The Staufen near Salzburg (1842); Mill in 
Tyrol (1846); Mountainous Landscape (1847), 
Leipsic Museum; Hallstadt Lake (1848); 
Oosau Waterfall (1850) ; Hohentwiel and 
Lake Constance ; Alp near Lago Maggiore ; 
Huts on Seelisberg on Lake Luzerne ; Lau- 
terbrunnenthal ; Limburg on the Lenne by 
Moonlight ; Lausanne and Lake of Ge- 
neva. — Kunst-Chronik, xviii. 418; Mailer, 

RICH), born at Brunswick, Sept 13, 1825, 
died there, Sept. 14, 1876. History and 
genre painter, pupil in 1850-53 at Antwerp 
Academy, then for three years in Paris of 
Couture; visited Italy in ,1861-63, lived 
then in Munich until 1865, in Berlin in 
1866-73, and in Rome in 1873-75. Mem- 
ber of Berlin Aoademy in 1869 '; gold medal, 
Berlin, 1856, 1868 ; Vienna, 1873. Works : 
Bathing Students (1853); Gypsy and his 
Love (1854), Brunswick Gallery ; Wild Hunt, 
er (1856), National Gallery, Berlin; two 
replicas of do. (1871) ; Regenstein, Hare- 
Hunt (1857); WUd Huntsman (1856, replica 
in Schack Gallery, Munich), Criminal from 
Lost Honour (1860), Fortune Chase (1868), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Fairy Princess, 
Declaration of Love, Objectionable People, 
GennaniaLiberata (1869-71); Cycle of Wall- 
paintings with Scenes from War of 1870-71 
(1872), Villa Warschauer, Charlottenburg ; 
Scenes from the Campagna (1873-75). — All- 
gem, d. Biogr., xi. 768 ; Graph. K, t. 41 ; 
Hlustr. Zeitg. (1883), i 245 ; Kunst-Chronik, 
iii. 94 ; xii 473 ; Schack, Meine Gemalde- 
sammlung (1885), 179 ; Rosenberg, BerL 
Malersch., 203. 

HENNEBICQ, ANDRfi, born at Tour- 
nay, Belgium ; contemporary. Portrait and 
history painter, pupil of Portaels. Medals 
at Brussels (1872), Amsterdam (1874), Paris, 
2d class (1874); Order of Leopold. Studio 
in Brussels. Works : Jeremiah's Lament ; 

Messalina insulted by the People ; Doge 
Foscari ; Labourers in the Campagna ; Sale 
of Objects of Art (1883). 

born in Lyons in 1763, died at Leuze near 
Toumay, May 12, 1833. History and genre 
painter, studied under Taraval, Gols, and 
Brenet, and became one of David's best pu- 
pils. Won the grand prix de Borne in 1788. 
Obliged to leave Italy on account of his lib- 
eral opinions, be returned to France, where 
he several times narrowly escaped death 
during the Revolution. In 1814 he retired 
to Liege, and finally to Toumay, where he 
became director of the Academy in the fol- 
lowing year. Works: Confederation of July 
4, 1790 (1794); Remorse of Orestes (1798), 
Louvre; Triumph of the French People 
(1799), Rouen Museum ; Self-sacrifice of 
300 Citizens of Francbimont (1814); Soc- 
rates and his Disciples ; Catherine de La- 
lain ; Battle of Aboukir, Napoleon in the 
Camp at Boulogne (1806), Allegory on Na- 
poleon L, Portrait of Marquis de Perignon, 
Versailles Museum ; Saul and Witoh of En- 
dor, Lyons Museum ; Battle of Quiberon 
(1804), Toulouse Museum ; Crime pursued 
by Remorse, Time, Fright, Young Man, An- 
gers Museum ; others in Museums of Or- 

leans, Mans, and Caen.— Bellier, L 755 ; 
ImmerzeeL ii. 31 ; Larouase ; Lejeune, 
Guide, hi. 125. 

Bernwiller (Alsace), March 5, 1829. Genre 
painter, pupil of Drolling and of Picot ; won 
the grand pris de Rome in 1858. TTiw col- 
ouring, at first weak and thin, has improved 
from year to year. Usually paints nude 
figures. Medals : 3d class, 1863, 1865, and 
1866 ; 1st class, 1878 ; L. of Honour, 1873; 
Officer, 1878. Works ; Bathing Girl Asleep 
(1863), Colmar Museum ; Chaste Susanna 



(1865), Idyl (1872), Naiad, Good 
(1874), Luxembourg Museum ; Girl (1866); 
Biblia (1867), Dijon 
Museum ; "Woman 
Dressing, Woman 
Reclining (1869), 
Mulhouse Museum ; 
Little Writer 
(1869); Alsatian 
Woman (1870); 
Magdalen in the 
Desert (1874); 
Dead Christ (1876); 
John the Baptist, Evening (1877); Christ at 
the Tomb, Eclogue (1879) ; The Fountain, 
Sleep (1880) ; The Spring, St, Jerome (1881); 
Bara (1882); Woman Beading, Nun (1883); 
Christ Entombed, Weeping Nymph (1884) ; 
Madeleine (1885); 
Sleeping Nymph, Be- ||HEHNEK 
poae, La Source 

(1881),-Fabiola (1885), Mrs. M. J. Morgan 
Collection, New York ; Nymph, W. T. "Wal- 
ters, Baltimore ; Andromeda, Mme. Raffalo- 
viteh, Paris.— Gaz. des B. Arts (1869), i. 495 ; 
Larousse ; Claretie, Peintres (1884), ii. 81. 

Thomastown, Ireland, in 1839. Landscape 
and genre painter ; went to New York in 
1849, pupil in 1856 of National Academy ; 
became an AN. A in 1862, and N. A. in 1863 ; 
removed in 1870 to London, but resides the 
greater part ofthe year in Normandy. Works: 
In Memoriam ; Wanderers ; On the Sands ; 
New England Hills; Summer Sea; Lea 
Bona Amis; Gypsy Flower-Girl ; New Eng- 
land Barberry Pickers ; Indian Summer ; 
Notre Dame des Fldts (1877); Fete-Day in 
Cider Orchard in Normandy (1878); Wait- 
ing for the Boats, Gloire de Dijon, Nor- 
mandy Pippin, Aftermath, Sunbeam (1879); 
Visit to the Peacock, Evening at Calvados, 
Spring Fantasy, In a Normandy Cider Or- 
chard (1880); Straw Harvest in Calvados, 
Jocund Spring, An Impressionist at Work 
(1881) ; Spring in Calvados, Winter in Cal- 
vados, En FSte— Calvados (1862); Pastoral, 
With the Birds (1883); 'Twist Day and 

Night (1884) ; Return from School, The 
Flowers of May (1885). 

Dresden in 1798, died in Leipsic, Jan. 15, 
1869. History painter, pupil of Leipsic 
Academy, then studied in Borne ; after his 
return became professor, later director, of 
Iieipsio Academy, and in 1840 professor at 
Dresden Academy. Works: Christ driv- 
ing out the Money-Changers ; Finding of 
Moses (1848), Dresden Museum ; Annuncia- 
tion, Saltarello Dance, Leipsic Museum. 
— KunstbL (1853), 49; Christl EunstbL 
(1870), 12. 

HENNING, ADOLF, born in Berlin in 
1809. History and portrait painter, pupil 
of Berlin Academy and of Wach ; in 1833 
went to Italy for several years. Member of 
and professor at Berlin Academy. Works : 
Portrait of Himself (1826); Girl of Frascati 
(1838), National Gallery, Berlin; Funeral 
in the Campagna ; Portrait Group of Count 
Raczynski's Family; Portrait of Sculptor 
Bauch ; St. Luke and St. John, Chapel of 
Royal Palace, Berlin ; Colossal Figures of 
Eight Prussian Provinces, Royal Palace, Ber- 
lin ; Thetis and Achilles ; Ulysses and Leuco- 
tbea ; Diana and Iphigenia ; MaeoM and An- 
chises ; Ajax Enraged ; Bomnlus Ploughing. 

-Mailer, 250; Kugler, Eleine Schriften, 
iii. 175 ; Rosenberg, BerL Malersch., 33. 

men in 1838. Landscape painter, pupil in 
Dasseldorf of Oswald Achenhach ; perfected 
himself by repeated journeys to Italy. 
Among his German and North Italian land- 
scapes, those by moonlight are the most 
successful. Has recently exhibited garden 
scenes with figures mostly in rococo-costume. 
Works : Landscape with Gypsies (1864) ; 
Malsen on Lake Gtuda (1865) ; Evening in 
Garden of Villa San Lissandro ; Nuremberg 
at MoonriBe; Salzburg by Moonlight (1869); 
View of Passau; Venice; Avenue near 
Nymphenburg ; Avenue at Wilhelmshdhe ; 
Park with rococo-figures. — Mailer, 250. 

HENNTNGSEN, ERIK, born in Copen- 
hagen, Aug. 29, 1855. Genre painter, pu- 



pil of Copenhagen Academy ; visited Paris 
in 1880, and travelled for two years in Ger- 
many. Works: Dilettante on the Violon- 
cello (1879) ; Cake-Woman, Old Bachelor 
Shopping (1880) ; Morning in Address- 
Agency's Yard (1881); Confirmation (1882); 
Dirty Apprentice, Guard mounting at Ama- 
lienborg (1883).— Sigurd Muller, 156. 

penhagen, June 22, 1860. Genre and por- 
trait painter, brother of preceding, pupil of 
Copenhagen Academy, and in Paris of 
Bonnat ; visited Spain, 
where, especially in Madrid 
in 1878, he studied popu- 
lar types. Works : On a 
Pedestrian Trip (1877) ; 
Pond in Zealand (1878) ; 
Ploughing in October 
(1880) ; Hay Harvest, 
Huntsman with Horse and 
Dog, On the Highway 
(1881); The Old Story 
(1882); Burial, In Front of 
a Smithy (1883).— Sigurd 
MUller, 160. 

Francois Gerard, Versailles 
Museum; canvas, H. 16 ft 
9 in. x 31 ft. 6 in.; signed. 

In centre, Luillier, provost H " ■■-.■■» ■*■—■-■ 

of the merchants of Paris, advances at the 
head of a group of municipal officers to pre- 
sent the keys of the city to the king, near 
whom are, on left, CrUlon, De Retz, Mont- 
morency, and Brissac, and on right, Biron, 
Sully bearing the king's casque, and Belle- 
garde, all on horseback ; farther to right, 
Marc'chal de Matignon, sword in hand; in 
a balcony, Gabrielle d'Estrees. Collection 
of Charles X., Salon, 1817. Repetition, re- 
duced, in Louvre. Engraved by Toschi. — 
Larousse, ix. 186. 

By Rubens, Uffizi, Florence ; canvas, fig- 
ures more than life-size. The king, crowned 
with laurel, and mounted on a Roman char- 
iot, is making a triumphal entry into Paris 
after the Battle of Ivry. In this picture 

Rubens has availed himself of several parts 
of Mantegna's Triumph of Caesar at Hamp- 
ton Court. Brought from Palazzo Pitti in 
1773. Sketch in Earl Darnley's Collection, 
Cobham Hall — Waagen, Treasures, iii. 23; 
Cat Louvre, Rubens, 231. 

HENRI IV. AT IVRY, Rubens, tJffizi, 
Florence ; canvas, figures more than life- 
size. The king, mounted, in the centre of 
the composition, followed by many knights, 
who are engaged with the enemy. This 
and the preceding picture were painted 

about 1630 by order of Maria de' Medici, as 
part of a series illustrative of the history of 
Henri TV., for her palace of the Luxembourg. 
Transported from Palazzo Pitti in 1773. — 
Cat. Louvre, Rubens, 231. 

BASSADOR, Richard Parkes Bonington, Sir 
Richard Wallace, Hertford House, London ; 
canvas, H. 1 ft. 4 in. x 1 ft 7 in. The 
Sing, on all fours, romping with his three 
children, one of whom is astride his back, 
turns his head to greet the Spanish ambas- 
sador, who enters at right through a door 
from which the portiere is drawn back by a 
page ; in background, the Queen, seated. 
San Donato sale (1870), £3,320. 

By Dominique Ingres, Baron Alphonse 


do Rothschild, Paris ; canvas, H. 1 ft 3 in. 
X 1 ft. 7 in. The King and his children 
at right, the Spanish ambassador at left 
near an open door; in background, the 
Queen, seated ; at right, a maid, standing. 
Painted in 1817, for Due de Blacas ; Salon, 
1824. According to Ch. Blanc, Ingres 
painted this subject again in 1828. — La- 
rousae, is. 187 ; Landon, Musee, Salon of 
(1824,) i. 34 

HENBIET, FREDERIC, born in Chateau- 
Thierry, Sept 6, 1826. Landscape painter ; 
was educated a lawyer, and took up paint- 
ing after being secretary to Count Nieuwer- 
kerke, inspector of the Louvre. Author of 
" Le Paysagiste aux Champs" (Paris, 1866 ; 
2d edition, 1876) ; "Daubigny and hia En- 
gravings " (Paris, 1875) ; " Clihitreuil, sa Vie 
et son ffiuvre " (Paris, 1874). Knight of the 
Spanish Order of Isabella. Works: Ham- 
let of Montgoin (1867), Chateau-Thierry 
Museum ; The Marne at Tancrou (1868), 
Vire Museum ; Islands of Mary-eur-Marne 
(1869), Laon Museum ; Shore Road at 
Mczy (1879); Evening at Revin (1880); The 
Meuse (1881) ; The Way to School (1882) ; 
Gothic Doorway at Armentierea, Tower of 
Guinette (1883); View at Mezy (1884); 
Ruins of Mill in the Ardennes (1885).- -Bel 
lier, L 176. 

Anton van Dyck, Windsor Castle. The Queen 
seated, with infant Duke of York in her 
arms, Prince Charles standing by her side, 
and three small dogs at her feet ; iu back- 
ground, a curtain, and in distance, West- 
minster Hall. Engraved by R. Strange. 
Other portraits of the Queen at Windsor 
Castle, in collections of Earl of Clarendon, 
Marquis of Lansdowne, Earl of Portarling- 
ton, Earl of Radnor, in Ambrosian Library 
at Milan, and elsewhere.. — Head, 64 ; Klass. 
der Malerei, PL 16. 

HENRY, EDWARD L., born in Charles- 
ton, S. C, Jan. 12, 1841. Genre painter, 
pupil of the Philadelphia Academy, and of 
Gleyre in Paris. In 1860-63 lived in Paris, 
Rome, and Florence ; sketched on the James 

River during the Civil War; revisited En- 
rope in 1871, 1875, and 1882, when be 
sketched in France and England. Elected 
N.A.inl869. Studio in New York. Works: 
Old Clock on the Stairs (1868); City Point- 
Grant's Headquarters (1869), Union League 
Club, New York ; Battle of Germantown, 
Win. Astor, ib. ; Declaration of Independ- 
ence, Cloister, J. W. Drexel, ib. ; Off for the 
(1878), Fairm&n Rogers, Philadelphia; 
Reception to Lafayette, Samuel Chew, Ger- 
town ; Waiting for the Bathers (1879) ; 
Mountain Stage (1880) ; Lovers of Ceramic 
Art, Railway Station (1881) ; In Sight of 
Home (1882); Uninvited Guests (1883); 
Waiting for the Answer (1884). 

HENSEL, WILHELM, born at Trebbin, 
Brandenburg, July 6, 1794, died in Berlin, 
Nov. 26, 1861. History and portrait painter, 
pupil of Berlin Academy ; in 1813 joined the 
army as volunteer, and during the war went 
twice to Paris, where he studied the art treas- 
ures; in 1825 went to Rome, returned in 
1828, became court-painter, and in 1831 
member of and professor at Berlin Acad- 
emy. Works: Christ on Mount of Olives 
(1812); Christ and Woman of Samaria (1825); 
Farewell of Vittoria Caldoni ; Christ before 
Pilate, Garnisonskirche, Berlin ; Good Sa- 
maritan, Royal Palace, ib.; Christ in the 
Desert ; Miriam preceding Israel (1839), 
Queen of England ; Christ meditating on 
his Mission, Bridgewater Gallery, London ; 
Emperor Wenceslaus; Italian Peasants at 
an Antique Well ; Duke of Brunswick at 
the Ball iu Brussels in 1815 ; Portraits of 
Frederic "William TV., Mendelssohn, Prince 
of Wales, and of nearly 1,000 famous con- 
temporaries.— Art Journal (1862), 25 ; Ro- 
senberg, Berl. Malersch., 78. 

HER, THEODOR, born at Roth near 
Leutkirch, Wurtemberg, July 30, 1838. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Stuttgart Art 
School under Neher ; in 1868 went to Paria, 
where he studied after Titian, Palma Vec- 
chio, Paolo Veronese, and Delacroix ; in 
1869 pupil of Ramberg in Munich. Works : 
Spring Day (1872) ; Evening ; Landscape 


with Figures; Moonlight on Via Appia, 
Morning on Lake Avornus (1884). — Elustr. 
Zeitg. (1873), i. 276. 

THILDE (nee Habert), bom in Brunoy 
(Seine-et-Oise), Aug. 24, 1820. Miniature 
painter, pupil of her uncle, Belloc. Began 
by painting in oils. Painted the only min- 
iature ever admitted to the Luxembourg. 
Has visited Italy. Medals : 3d class, 1843 ; 
2d class, 1844 ; 1st class, 1847, 1848, 1855. 
Works: Margaretof Spain (after Velasquez); 
Rembrandt's Virgin ; Peasant Woman, Bur - 
gundian Shepherdess ; The Prayer ; A Sou- 
venir ; Child holding a Hose ; Girl playing 
with a Fan (1855). 

Maldon, Essex, Jan. 23, 1810. History and 
portrait painter, pupil in London of Royal 
Academy ; began by painting portraits and 
drawing book-illustrations; first subject 
picture exhibited, The Appointed Hour. 
After visiting Italy, exhibited Brides of Ven- 
ice (1889). His conversion to Roman Ca- 
tholicism (1840) has had a marked influence 
on his art Elected an A.R.A. in 1841, and 
R A. in 1846, when he was commissioned to 
paint frescos in the Houses of Parliament. 
Corresponding Member of Institute of 
France. Works: Introduction of Chris- 
tianity into Britain (1842) ; Sir Thomas 
More and his Daughter (1844), National 
Gallery ; St. Gregory teaching his Chant 
(1845); St John reproving Herod (1848); 
Mary Magdalen (1859); Virgin Mary (1860); 
To Labour is to Pray (1862); Valley of 
Moses (1868); Adoration of Magi (1874); 
David while a Shepherd, Our Lord after 
Besurrection (1878); Youth of St John the 
Baptist (1879); Christmas Eve at Bethlehem 
(1880) ; Joseph warned that Archelaus Reigns, 
Flight from the Sword of Herod (1881); Jus- 
tice not always Slow, Happy Valley, Appoint- 
ed Hour, Esther with Handmaidens (1882); 
Madonna, Captive Musician (1883); Treas- 
ures of the Home, Ruth with the Reapers 
at Meal-time, Evening near Windsor, Bend 
on the Thames (1884). His son and pupil 

Cyril Wiseman, born in France in 1848, died 
in London in 1882, was an artist of the 
brightest promise. — Sand by, ii. 179. 

HERBST (Herbster), HANS, born in 
Strasburg about 1468. German school ; 
master in 1492 of the guild of Basle, where 
Hans Holbein, the younger, painted his por- 
trait in 1516. In 1500 painted an altarpiece 
for the convent of St. Dominick. Gave up 
painting after the Reformation, having scru- 
ples about ministering to picture-worship. — 
Cotta's Kunstbl (1846), 46; W. 4 W., ii. 

HERBSTHOFFER, EARL, born at Press- 
burg, Hungary, April 17, 1821, died in Paris 
in 1876. Genre painter, pupil of Vienna 
Academy under Amerling ; went afterwards 
to Paris, where be became naturalized, and 
adopted Isabey's style. Works : Arpad 
elected Duke of the Magyars (1842); Mask- 
erade at Worms in 16th Century, Tasso 
reading to Duchess of Ferrara (1843); Hun- 
garian Bobbers in Ambush (1843), Schwerin 
Gallery ; Episode during the Inquisition in 
Holland (1846), owned by State ; Iconoclasts 
(1846), Avery Sale, New York, 1870 ; Studio 
of Van Ostade (1849); Daniel in Lions' Den, 
Lady Macbeth, Episode in Thirty Years' War 
(1850); Temptation (1852); Raising of Laza- 
rus (1855), owned by State ; Studio of Ru- 
bens (1857); Partie Carres, Scene in St Bar- 
tholomew's Night, Duel on Banks of the 
Seine (1859); Gunsmith, Antechamber in 
Time of Louis XIH (1863), both bought by 
State; Last Resource (1865); Religious In- 
struction in Jewish Family (1868); Arrest 
(X871); Convulsionnaires in the Cemetery, 
After the Pillage (1876).— Bellier, i. 760 ; 
KunstChronik, v. 189 ; Wurzbach, viii. 362 ; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K, vi. 215. 

HERCTJLANEUM, Hector Leroux, John 
G. Johnson, Philadelphia ; canvas, H. 3 f t 
X 4 ft Destruction of Herculaneum, a.d. 
79, by the eruption of Vesuvius, which is 
seen in background ; in foreground, a group 
of fugitives, mostly women, gazing on the 
spectacle.— Salon, 1881. 

HERCULES, ancient pictures. See 


Apelles, Arlemon, Nearchus, Parumus, Par- 
rhasivs, ZetixU. 

chino, Louvre ; canvas, H. 1 ft. x 5 ft. Her- 
cules overcomes the river-god Achelous 
transformed into a bull, while his father-in. 
law, CEueus, king of Calydon, with one of 
his followers, are spectators of the combat 
meanwhile, two shepherds watch their flocks 
on the banks of the river. Belonged to Car- 
dinal Ludovisi, nephew of Gregory XP7. ; 
bought from him by Louis XIV. Engraved 
byDuthenofer. — Villot, Cat Louvre ; Musue 
francaiB, iii. Part 1 ; FilhoL ii. PI. 94 ; Lan- 
don, Vies, PL lit 

By Guido Rent, Louvre ; canvas, H. 8 f t 
7 in. x 6 ft 6 in. Hercules, covered with 
the lion's skin, struggles with Achelous and 
forces him to bend his body to the ground. 
Painted for Duke of Mantua ; bought by 
Charles I. of England ; on his death sold to 
Jabach, who transferred it to Louis XIV, 
Engraved by G. Rousselet — Landon, Musee, 
ii. PL 15 ; Villot, Cat Louvre ; Felsina Pit- 
trice, ii. 23. 

cois Lemoyne, Toulouse Museum. Same 
subject by Charles Coypel, engraved by Su- 
rugue. Arrival of Hercules at Olympus, 
fresco by P. Cornelius, Glyptothek, Munich. 

Louvre ; canvas, It 4 ft x 5 ft Hercules, 
leaning on his club, drags the body of Ca- 
cus out of his den ; near him, a man points 
to Evander and Faunus, hastening to his 
aid ; in the background, the cattle of Her- 
cules graze on the banks of a stream ; to 
the right, on a wooded hill, are ruined mon- 
uments. Engraved by Pillement — Villot, 
Cat. Louvre ; Musee francois ; iii. Part 1 ; 
Filhol, ii PL 118 ; Landon, Vies, PL 113. 

Louvre ; canvas, H. 8 ft 7 in. x 6 ft 6 in. 
Hercules, unable to bear the anguish caused 
by the poisoned tunio of Nessus, stretches 
himself upon the funeral pyre which he has 
himself prepared, and expires with eyes and 
hands raised toward heaven. Same history 

as Hercules and Achelous of Guido. En- 
graved by G. Rousselet — Landon, Musee, L 
PL 41 j Villot, Cat Louvre. 

DEATH, Sir Frederick Leightm, Bernhard 
Samuelson, MP., London ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 
6 in.x8 ft Subject from the "Alcestis" of 
Euripides. Admetus, the friend of Apollo, 
when his time came for 

OmUi of K*tcuI«, Guido Rtni, I oira, 

death, the Fates consented to prolong his 
life if another person would die in his stead; 
Alcestis offered herself, but when Death came 
to take bis due, Hercules struggled with 
and overcame him. Alcestis, pale and statue- 
like, lies on a bier beneath a canopy hung 
from trees near the sea-shore, which, with 
a vast plain under a lowering sky, is seen 
behind. In the foreground, at right, Her- 
cules struggles with the King of Terrors ; 
at left, a group of attendants ; in front, the 
grave. Behind the bier Admetus, old and 
hoary, sustains a damsel who is overcome 
with terror. Royal Academy, 1871. — Athon. 
(1870), L 203 ; Art Journal (1871), 163. 


Reni, Louvre ; canvas, H. 8 ft 7 in x 6 ft. 6 
in. Hercules, armed with the club, strikes 
the Lernean Hydra, which raises its head 
near a rock. Same history as Sercutea and 
Achelous of Guido. Engraved by G. Rous- 
selet — London, Musee, ii. PI. 30 ; Larousse, 
ix. 214. 

HERCULES, INFANT, attributed to An- 
nibale, but probably by Agostino Camuxi, 
Louvre ; canvas, H GJ in. x 5J in. The 
young Hercules strangles a serpent with his 
left hand while holding down a second one, 

Infant Htrculii, Agortins Cvncci (?), Louvr*. 

which has twined about his right arm, with 
his knee upon his cradle. Formerly in Or- 
leans Gallery, but not sold in England with 
the other pictures; bought in Borne for 
Musee Napoleon. Engraved by Era. Marace; 
Count Bizemont-Prunele. — Villot, Cat. Lou- 
vre ; Musee francais, L ; Filbol, i. PL 63 ; 
London, Musve, vi. PL 14. 

Giordano, Dresden Gallery ; canvas, H 7 
ft 6 in. x 9 ft. 2 in.; signed, dated 1690. 
Hercules, submissive to the charms of Om- 
phale, has dropped his club and taken up 
the distaff ; the two, who sit side by side, 

are surrounded by her companions. Painted 
for Don Andrea d'Avalos, Prince of Monte- 
sarchio. In catalogue of 1722. Engraved 
by C. Duflos.— GaL Roy. do Dresde, i. PL 40. 

By Alessandro Turcki, Munich Gallery ; 
canvas, H 5 ft 1 in. x 7 ft 3 in. The god, 
nude, seated in an antique chair, spinning ; 
before him, Omphale, nearly nude, her back 
covered with the lion's skin, leans one arm 
on the hero's club, and glances at her com- 
panions, three other young women, who 
mock Hercules, while Cupid looks on with 
a pitying expression. Formerly attributed 
to Domenichino. 

PENTS, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Hermitage, 
St Petersburg ; canvas. In the centre Her- 
cules grasps the serpents by the throat, 
while Iphicles cowers in terror beside him ; 
on one side rushes in Alcmena, with attend- 
ants, half clad, as if aroused from sleep ; on 
the other, Amphitryon, sword in hand, fol- 
lowed by servants with torches ; Tiresias the 
blind seer (head of Samuel Johnson) stands 
by with uplifted hands ; above, Juno looks 
down from black clouds at the baffling of 
her vengeance. Painted in 178S for Cath- 
erine n. of Russia, who paid for it 1,500 
guineas, and sent Sir Joshua in addition a 
gold snuff-box, on which was her portrait 
with cypher in diamonds. Engraved by J. 
Hodges, J. Walker ; original sketch in pos- 
session of Lord Arran. Lord Fitzwilliam 
owns a repetition of the figure of the Her- 
cules.— Leslie Taylor, ii. 482, 500, 516, 638; 
Pulling, 83 ; Northcote, ii 214 ; Beechey, 
i. 244 ; Art Journal (1860), 358 ; Notes and 
Queries, 4th S., ix. 333 ; Atkinson, Art Tour, 

gio, Uffizi, Florence ; wood. The statue of 
Hercules, on a pedestal, under the portico 
of a temple, with soldiers, philosophers, and 
others grouped around it Of his late pe- 
riod. Probably part of a cassone or chest 
— C. & C, Italy, iiL 612 ; Oh. Blanc. Ecol* 
florentine ; Molini, GaL di Firenze : ii. 61 ; 
Laatnio, L PL 63. 


VIRTUE, Annibale Carracci, Naples Muse- 
um. Scene from allegory by Prodicus, pre- 
served by Xenophon in the Memorabilia, 
Hercules, seated between two women, ap- 
pears irresolute ; Virtue, chastely clad, pre- 
sents a sword and points heavenward ; Vice, 
reclining upon a couch strewn with flowers, 
displays her charms and invites him to 
pleasure. Engraved by N. Mignard. — La- 
rousse, is. 214. 

By Rubens, Uffizi, Florence. Hercules, 
seated in a landscape, with Venus on his 
right and Cupid embracing Ms knees ; on 
Ms left, Minerva, who takes him by the hand 
and points to arms ; above, Time, bearing 
emblems of life ; the god, while turning his 
eyes toward the goddess of pleasure, appears 
ready to follow Minerva. — Larousse, ii. 214. 

Veronese, Hope Collection, London ; canvas. 
Hercules, emblematical of strength, is led 
by Wisdom, and gazes tranquilly on worldly 
Love, who is at hia feet From Orleans 
Gallery ; sold in 1793 for £300.— Cab. Cro- 
zat, ii. PL 24; Waagen, Treasures, ii. 113, 

HERDTLE, HERMANN, bom in Stutt- 
gart, Sept 20, 1819. Landscape and archi- 
tecture painter, pupil of Steinkopf; studied 
from nature in Germany, France, Belgium, 
Italy, and Switzerland, and with Pieter 
Francis Peters founded a permanent art- 
exhibition in Stuttgart. Works : Palace 
Interior in Florence, Court-Yard in Verona, 
Lake Lugano, all in Villa Rosenstein, near 
Stuttgart ; View of Lake Constance ; View 
of Bregenz, Castle Friedrichshafen ; Was- 
sen on St Gothard ; Misocco Valley ; Bel- 
linzona ; Canal Grande with Rial to Bridge ; 
View in Villa Borghese.— Muller, 252. 

HEREAU, JULES, bom in Paris, Aug. 
29, 1830 (1831 ?), died June 26, 1879. Land- 
scape painter, especially skilful in painting 
animals, but his landscapes and city views 
are of great merit Medals: 1865, 1868. 
Works : Shepherd and the Sea (1864), Mont- 
pellier Museum ; Impending Storm (1865), 

Amiens Museum ; Shepherd's Song (1866), 
Roueu Museum ; Gathering Seaweed in 
Brittany, Snow-Storm in Paris (1868); The 
Thames near London Bridge, The Thames 
at Gravesend (1873) ; The Mouse at Rotter- 
dam (1874) ; Mouth of the Seine, the Meuse 
(1879) ; Returning (1880).— L'Art (1879). 
xvul 24 ; Bellier, L 761. 

HERILLUS, painter. See EriUm. 
in London in 1806, died there, Dec 18, 
1879. Landscape painter, studied in Mu- 
nich (1829) and in Italy, settled in London 
(1841), and exhibited often at Royal Acad- 
emy. Works: Morning on Lake Lugano 
(1860) ; Amain (1865) ; Head of the Glen 
(1868) ; Old Red Sandstone Cliffs (1869) ; 
Sunset after a Storm (1872) ; Outskirts of a 
Wood (1873); Kildonan (1875) ; Woodland 
Waters (1876) ; Tormore (1877) ; Loch Etive 
(1878) ; By the Lonely Tarn (1879) ; Loch 
Etive near Taynuilt (1880).— Amer. Art Re- 
view (1880), 180 ; Art Journal (1861), 73 ; 
(1880), 83. 
HERKOMER, HUBERT, born at Waal, 
Bavaria, May 26, 
1849. Genre, land- 
scape, and portrait 
painter; came to 
America in 1851 with 
his father, a wood- 
carver, but returned 
; . in 1857 to Europe, 

^ and settled at South- 
ampton, where he 
entered the school 
of art ; in 1866 visited Munich, and in 1866 
entered the South Kensington Schools under 
Frederick Walker. Member of Institute of 
Water Colours in 1871, A.R.A in 1879. 
Settled in 1873 at Bushey, Hertfordshire, 
where, in 1881, he established an art- 
school Revisited America in 1882, painted 
many portraits in New York and Boston, 
and lectured in both cities. Visited America 
again in 1883 and 1885, when he opened a 
studio in Boston. Elected Slade professor 
of art at Oxford, as successor of John Ruakin, 


andmemberof Berlin Academy, 1885. Medal 
of Honour, Paris, 1878. Paints in both oil 
and water-colours, and is one of the best 
living etchers. Many of his drawings have 
appeared in the Graphic. Works in oil : 
After the Toil of the Day (1873) ; Last Mus- 
ter—Chelsea Hospital (1875) ; At Death's 
Door (1876); Der Bittgang, Who Comes 
Here? Souvenir of Bembrandt(1877); Even- 
tide (1878) ; Life, Light, and Melody (1879) ; 
Wind-Swept, God's Shrine (1880) ; Missing 
(1881) ; Gloom of IdwaL Homeward (1882); 
Natural Enemies (1883) ; Pressing to the 
West— Scene in Castle Garden, N. T. (1884); 
Found, Grave-Digger's Firewood, First 
Warmth of Spring, Bavarian Forester, Old 
Peasant Woman (1885). Water-colours: Im 
Walde(1874); Wood-Cutters Beet ; Poach- 
er's Fate ; At the Well. Portraits : Biohard 
Wagner (1878); Alfred Tennyson (1879); 
Lord Stratford de Badclyffe, Odell the 
Actor (1880) ; John Buskin (1881) ; Bichard 
Oakes, Lorenz Herkomer, Archibald Forbes 
(1882) ; Viscount Eversley ; Dr. A, B, Gar- 
rod ; Hans Bichter (1883) ; Canon Ellison, 
Canon Bradley, Canon Purse, . 

Lord Brabourne (1884); Owen l\U%^ 
Grant, C. Vffliers Stanford, \\\\ 
William Sandbach (1885).— V > 
Art Journal (1878), 141 ; (1880), 109 ; (1882), 
238; Portfolio (1882), 81. 

HEBLEN (Herlin, Herlein, Horlin), 
FBIEDBICH, bom at Bothenburg or Nord- 
lingen, Bavaria, died at Nordlingen, Oct 
12, 1491. German school ; probably son 
of the painter Hans Herlen, of Nordling- 
en, about 1442-76. He lived in TJlm in 
1449-54, then went to Flanders, where 
Boger van der Weyden, whom he closely 
imitated, was probably his master, and after 
his return was employed in Nordlingen, 
perhaps as early as 1459, but certainly in 
1462-413, then in Bothenburg and Dinkels- 
bohl in 1466-67, then settled in Nordlingen. 
A noteworthy master, though limited in his 
range and in no sense original. Works : 
Madonna, Circumcision (1459), National 
Museum, Munich ; Adoration of the Magi, 

St. Ottilia (1459), sixteen Panels with Life 
of the Virgin (8), Legend of St. George (3), 
Story of Magdalen (2), Ladies of Donor's 
Family and Saints (2) (1462), Madonna en- 
throned and Saints(1488), Town Hall, Nord- 
lingen ; Panels on Shrine with Passion of 
Christ (4) and Last Judgment (4) (1462), St 
George's, ib. ; Altarpiece with Life of the 
Virgin (1466), St James's, Bothenburg; 
Nativity, Adoration of the Magi (1472), St 
Blasius', Bopfingen ; Marriage of St Cath- 
erine, Germanic Museum, Nuremberg. — 
Allgem. d. Biogr., xii. 115 ; Forster, Gesch., 
ii. 18, 187 ; do., Denkmale, XH. ii. 2 ; iii. 
3 ; Gruneisen & Mauch, 37; Kugler (Crowe), 
L 138 ; D. Kunstblatt (1854), 187 ; Schnaase, 
viiL 407 ; Waagen, K u. K in D., i 324, 
347 ; W. ft W., il 112 ; Zeitechr. £ b. K, 
iii. 87. 

HERLIN, AUGUSTS, born at Lille, Aug. 
18, 1835. Genre painter, pupil of Souchon; 
paints subjects from every-day life with 
spirit and humour. Works: The Wafer, 
Beating Colza, The Alloir (1861) ; Washer- 
woman, The Pleasure-Trip (1863) ; Visiting 
One's Colleague, Burial of a Pauper (1866) ; 
The Lotion (1867) ; Amusing their Little 
Brother, A Pond (1868) ; Time for the In- 
terview, Returning from the Fields (1869) ; 
The Interview, The Parade (1870) ; Going 
to Harvest Lake Evian, Souvenir of Dinard 
(1874) ; A Vision, Woman of Lille, Hour 
for Walking (1875) ; Stella Maris, Affair of 
Honour (1876).— Muller, 253. 

Dresden, Jan. 6, 1802, died in Berlin, April 
30, 1880. History painter, pupil of the 
Dresden Academy under Hartmann, then 
from 1822 in Dflsseldorf under Cornelius, 
who entrusted him with important fresco 
works in Munich and (1840) Berlin, where 
in 1844 he became professor at the Acad- 
emy. Works : Theology, Bonn University ; 
Scenes from Parcival (1834), KOnigsbau, 
Munich ; Victory of Louis the Bavarian at 
Ampfing, Arcades, Royal Garden, ib. ; As- 
cension (1835), Protestant Church, Munich ; 
Patriarchs, Prophets, Evangelists, Apostles 



Peter and Paul (1840^*4), 14 frescos, KIos- 
terkirche, Berlin ; Easter Morn, St. Mat- 
thew's, ib. ; Sermon on the Mount, Fifteen 
Pictures from German History (1844-54). — 
Allgem. d. Biogr., sii. 185; Allgem. Zeitg., 
May 20, 1880, Beilage, 141 ; Brockhaus, is. 
145 ; Cotta's KunstbL (1831), 103 ; (1835), 
42 ; D. KuiiBtbL (1853), 40 ; (1854), 31 ; 
KunsUJhronik, it. 560 ; Forster, v. 72 ; 
RaczynBki, i. 55, 65, 270 ; ii 230. 

Havre, July 22, 1838. Animal and genre 

ing-Trough, Shepherd Dog (1883) ; In the 
Heath, Tip, A Pug-Dog (1884) ; Welfare 
(1885).— Bellier, i 762. 

gelica Eauffmann, Vienna Museum ; canvas, 
H. 5 ft 4 in. x 7 ft 3 in. Scene from one 
of Klopstock 's dramas on Hermann (Arinin- 
ius). Hermann, having triumphed over the 
legions of Varus, returns, bearing the spoils 
of victory, to sacrifice on the altars of his 
fathers ; Thuanelda presents him the wreath 
of sacred leaves, while her companions strew 

painter, pupil of Philippe Rousseau and of 
Fromentin. Medals : 3d class, 1873 ; 2d 
class, 1879. Works: Ill-gotten Gains do no 
Good to the Getter, Contempt (1868); Valet 
coupling Dogs, Intermission (1870); Hunt- 
ing Relay (1872); Peasants fleeing from In- 
vasion, Who-hoop to the Boar (1873); Legend 
of St Hubert, Fino a Fox-Terrier (1874) ; 
Galendor and Castillo (1875) ; Mass of St 
Hubert, Shepherd and the Sea (1876) ; 
Huntsman (1877); Death of Action (1878); 
"Who-hoop (1879), bought by State ; Relay of 
Dogs (1880); Maternity, Wolf-Hunt (1881); 
Eve of Lent (1882); Coming from the Water- 

flowers and a priest gives thanks to Woden. 
Engraved by J. B. Durer; G. Kotterba. — 
Reveil, x. 712. 

HERMANS, CHARLES, born in Brus- 
sels, Aug. 17, 1839. Genre painter, pupil 
of Brussels Academy, and in Paris of Ecole 
des Beaux Arts and of Gleyre ; lived in 
1862-66 in Italy, mostly at Rome. First 
attracted attention in Brussels in 1875 by 
his Morning Dawn in a Large City, for 
which he received the Order of Leopold. 
Works : On the Strand ; On the Terrace ; 
At Dawn of Day ; Monks playing Nine- Pins ; 
Job and his Friends (1872); Child's Hospi- 

ce byGoOglC 

tal (1873); Masked Ball (1880), Pennsylva- 
nia Academy, Philadelphia. — Mflller, 253. 

HERMELIN, OLOF, bora at Gripenberg, 
Smalaud, Feb. 8, 1820. landscape painter, 
pupil of Stockholm Academy under Billings ; 
visited in 1870 Copenhagen, DOsseldorf, 
Paris, Belgium, and Holland, and in 1873 
went to London. Member of the Stockholm 
Academy since 1870. Works: Evening in 
Autumn ; King's Hut in Orebro ; Shower 
in Bohusl&n ; Cloudy Evening ; Spring 
Landscape ; End of Winter ; Autumn Land- 
scape ; Fish-Market in 
Houfleur ; On Hunting- 
Ground.— Mailer, 253. 

Domenichino, Louvre; can- 
vas, H. 4 ft x 5 ft. 10 in. 
Herminia, in Clorinda'a 
armour, addresses the old 
shepherd, whose children 
play the flute and the pipe, 
and whose sheep are seen 
in the fold (Tasso, Jerusa- 
lem Delivered, Canto vu.). 
Collection of Louis XIV. 
Formerly attributed to An- 
nibale Carracci. — Villot, 
Cat. Louvre; Rcveil, v. 308. *'""'" 

HERM OGENES, painter and philos- 
opher, of Carthage (?), second half of 2d 
century, a.d. After his conversion to Chris- 
tianity be incurred the anger of Tertullian, 
whose work " Adversus Hermogenem " alone 
has preserved the painter's name from 

Spain ; contemporary. History painter, pu- 
pil of San Fernando Academy. Works : Soc- 
rates and Alcibiades in the House of Lais ; 
Journey of the Virgin and St John to Ephe- 
sus ; Entombment ; Romeo and Juliet ; The 
Virgin in the Desert ; Return from Ponte 
Molle— Rome, Luisa Miller (1883).— La U- 
ustracion (1883), L 242, 291. 

HERP, GUILLIAM (Willem) VAN, born 
at Antwerp in 1614, died there, buried June 

23, 1677. Flemish school ; history and 
genre painter, pupil of Damiaan Wortel- 
mans, and formed himself further under the 
influence of Rubens ; master of the guild in 
1637. Works : A Festival, Bridgewater Gal- 
lery, London ; Men and Women regaling 
Themselves, Repast, Marquis of Bute, ib.; 
Pharaoh's Dream, Christ bearing the Cross, 
Hampton Court Palace ; Figures with Sheep 
at a Well, Dulwich Gallery ; Peasant Fam- 
ily, Arenberg Gallery, Brussels ; Calling of 
St Matthew, Comto Dubus de Ghisignies, 

ib.; Conversion of St Augustine, Baptism 
of da, St Augustine's, Antwerp ; Abraham 
and the Angels, Darmstadt Museum ; do., 
Caasel Gallery ; Peasant at Domestic Work, 
Bamberg Gallery ; Satyr at Repast of Peas- 
ant Family, Berlin Museum ; Soldiers in 
Peasant's Cottage (1664), Harracb Gallery, 
Vienna ; Christ with Martha and Mary, 
Schwerin Gallery ; Christ's Entry into Jeru- 
salem, Stockholm Museum ; Christ before 
_^ . . -■ Caiaphas, do. 

(J * l^A/TPP bearing the 

J. *~"\r cross, do. 

crowned with Thorns, Historical Society, 

New York. — Eramm, iii. 680 ; Michiels, viii, 

248 ; Van den Brandeu, 916. 

HERP, HENDRHC VAN, bom at Ant- 
werp, baptized May 20, 1619, died there in 


1667. Flemish school ; history painter, son 
of and first instructed by Nicolaas van Herp 
(pupil of Hendrik van Balen in 1602, and 
master of the guild in 1606) ; then (1627) 
pupil of Adam ran Noort ; master of the 
guild in 1637. Works: St. Boch adoring 
the Virgin, The Plague- Stricken invoking 
St Boch, Godshuizen, Antwerp. — Van den 
Branden, 922. 

HERPFER, It ART, born at DinkelsbOhl 
Bavaria, Nor. 30, 1836. Genre painter, pu- 
pil of Munich Academy under Bamberg; 
paints mostly rococo scenes, better in draw- 
ing and colour than in composition. Works: 
The Coquette ; Good News ; Disagreeable 
News ; The Nurse ; Gentle Waking ; Inter- 
rupted Festival ; Scene from Moliere's " Nar- 
cisse * ; Disturbed Betrothal (1872), Kunst- 
halle, Hamburg.— Muller, 253. 

HERPIN, LEON, born at Granville, Nor- 
mandy, Oct 12, 1841, died Oct. 27, 1880. 
Landscape and porcelain painter, pupil of 
Daubigny, J. Andre, and Busson. Medals : 
3d class, 1875; 2d class, 1876. Works: 
Seine at ScvTes (1868); Environs of Dinan 
(1869); Views of Bas-Meudon (1870); Island 
of Chansey (1872); The Oise, River in the 
Woods (1874); The Marne at Chennevieres, 
The Knoll of Moulineaux (1875); Bridge of 
Sevres, The Little Bridge of San Jacut 
(1876);Environs of Cherbourg, Salt Marshes 
of tbePouliquen (1877); Paris at Evening 
from the Bridge of Saints Peres (1878), 
Paris from the Pont Neuf (1878), Luxem- 
bourg Museum ; da in 1878 (1879), bought 
by the city ; Castle of Gaillard (1880) ; Old 
Mill at Bonneuil, Gate of La Villette 
(1881).— Amer. Art Rev. (1881), 88 ; L'Art 
(1880), xxiii. 168 ; Meyer, Conv. Let, adr. 

HERR, MICHAEL, born at Metzingen, 
Wurtemberg, in 1591, died at Nuremberg 
in 1661. German school ; history and por- 
trait painter ; seems to have gone to Nurem- 
berg early in life, and returned in 1620 after 
a visit to Italy. Works : The Seven Liberal 
Arts with Mars and Justice (1622); Nurem- 
berg during the Siege in Thirty Years' War, 

Male Portrait (1639), Germanic Museum, 

Mechlin, April 1, 1633, died at Antwerp 
before March 3, 1704. Flemish school ; 
history painter, son and pupil of David 
Herregouts (born at Mechlin in 1600), spent 
several years at Rome studying after the best 
| masters, was at Cologne about 1661, came 
I to Antwerp, and entered the guild there in 
1664, but soon removed to Mechlin, where 
he became master of the guild in 1666 ; went 
afterwards again to Germany and Italy, 
whence he returned to Antwerp in 1679. 
Painted altaipieces for churches in all the 
principal cities of Belgium. Works : Mar- 
tyrdom of St. Matthew, Antwerp Cathedral ; 
Last Judgment, St. Ann's, Bruges ; Mar- 
tyrdom of St Basil, St Basil's, ib.; St Au- 
gustine in Ecstasy, St John's Hospital, ib.; 
St Dominic in Prayer, Notre Dame, ib.; 
Assumption, St Magdalen's, ib.; Apotheosis 
of Christ St Peter and Paul's, Mechlin ; 
Trinity, Cologne Museum. — Descamps, iii. 
105 ; Krarara, iii. 681 ; Merlo, 175 ; Van den 
Branden, 947. 

Gelders about 1640, died at Bruges in 1721. 
Flemish school ; history and portrait painter, 
brother of preceding, like whom he visited 
Italy, then entered the guild at Antwerp in 
1673 ; removed to Bruges in 1682, and there 
became master of the guild in 1684. Works : 
Circumcision, Assumption, St Ann's, Bruges; 
Presentation in the Temple, The Virgin and 
Saints kneeling before Christ Church of the 
Carmelites, ib.; two portraits (1699, 1709), 
St John's Hospital, ib.; portrait of himself, 
do. of his Father, Academy, ib; The Cardi- 
nal Virtues (3), Town Hall, Ostend.— Van 
den Branden, 948. 

born in Berlin, Feb. 6, 1824. Architecture 
and landscape painter, pupil of Biermann ; 
travelled in Germany, France, and Italy, and 
in 1845 went to Athens, whence by order of 
King Otto he travelled through the Morea 
in search of ancient monuments. In 1846 


be accompanied the Turkish expedition to 
Asia Minor, Palestine, and Persia, was made 
a Bey by the Sultan ; visited Egypt, Nubia, 
and Abyssinia in 1817, and returned to Ber- 
lin in 1848 via Italy, France, Spain, and Eng- 
land. In 1855 he moved to Dresden. Works: 
Street in Cairo ; Plain of Thebes ; Street in 
Bagdad ; View of Sidon ; View on White 
Nile ; View on Bed Sea ; Colossus of Mem- 
non ; Coast of Paphos in Cyprus ; View on 
Lake Como ; Canal in Venice ; Acropolis at 
Athens; Temple of IbU on Isle of Philas; 
Theatre of Taormina ; Forum at Rome ; 
Temple of Vesta ; Tivoli from Neptune's 
Grotto ; Posilippo.— Mflller, 254. 

HERRERA, ALONZO DE, living at Se- 
govia in 1579, intimate friend of El Mudo. 
Spanish school In 1590 he painted, for 
the high altar of the Church of Villa-Castin, 
six pictures illustrating the life of Christ, 
which were ruined in 1734 by a bungling 
restorer.— Cean Beruradez ; Stirling, L 290. 

(the elder), born 
in Seville about 
1576, died in 
Madrid in 1656. 
Spanish school; 
pupil of Luis 
Fernandez, but 
disdaining to 
imitate him, 
adopted a free 
bold style, and 
became one of the most original and famous 
artists of his time in Spain. He painted 
many religious compositions, and attracted 
numerous students, among whom was Ve- 
lasquez, but his temper was so violent that 
he was abandoned by even his children. 
Accused of coining false money, he took 
refuge in the Jesuits' College, Seville, where 
he painted a noble altarpiece, St Hermen- 
giltl in Glory, now in the Seville Museum. 
Philip IV. on seeing this picture granted 
him a free pardon. In 1650 he settled in 
Madrid. Other works : Last Judgment, S. 
Bernardo, Seville ; Si Peter, Cathedral ib. ; 

St. Basil, Museum, ib.; Israelites gathering 
Manna, Moses smiting the Bock, Marriage 
at Cans, Miracle of Loaves and Fishes, Arch- 
bishop's Palace, ib.; St Augustine and 
Church Fathers, St. Jerome and do., Mont- 
pensier Collection, ib.; St Basil Dictating, 
Louvre ; St Matthew, Dresden Museum. 
He also executed many frescos, of which but 
few remain. His eldest son, called El Ru- 
ble, was an artist of merit, but died young. 
— Ch. Blanc, Ecole espagnole ; Stirling, i 
454 ; Viardot, 191. 

(the younger), born in Seville iu 1622, died 
in Madrid in 1665. Spanish school ; son 
and pupil of Francisco de Herrera, el Viejo, 
from whom he ran away and went to Rome, 
where he learned to paint still-life, espe- 
cially fish, ao well that he was called II 
Spagnuolo degli Pesci. Returning to Se- 
ville on the death of his father, he painted 
several large altarpieces for churches. In 
1660 he aided in founding the Academy at 
Seville, of which Murillo was chosen presi- 
dent and Herrera second or vice-president ; 
but, displeased at this inferior position, he 
went in 1661 to Madrid, where he became 
painter to Philip IV. and superintendent of 
the royal works (1671). Named royal 
painter to Charles IL Though possessed 
of considerable mechanical facility, Herrera 
did not inherit much of his father's genius ; 
he coloured 
with some 
but his draw- 
ing and his composition are alike affected. 
Works : Triumph of St. Heruiengild, Ma- 
drid Museum; two landscapes, Montpenaier 
Gallery, Seville; Saints appearing to St. 
Dominick, Hermitage, St Petersburg. — Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole espagnole; Madrazo, 411; 
Stirling, ii. 936 ; Viardot, 191. 

DE. born in Madrid in 1619, died there in 
1671. Spanish school ; history painter, pu- 
pil of A. Cano, worked especially for the 
EscoriaL Works: St Barnabas, Si Jerome 





in the Desert, St John in Patmos, St. John 
Baptist in the Desert, Escorial ; Two Wan- 
dering Musicians, Louvre. 

in Antwerp, baptized June 10, 1743, died 
there Aug. 10, 1827. Flemish school ; his- 
tory and portrait painter, eon and pupil of 
Jacob Herrejns the younger, a decorative 
painter, and of the Academy, where he won 
prizes in 1762 and 1764 ; professor in 
1765. After travelling in 1767, he settled 
in 1771 at Mechlin, where be founded an 
academy. In 1780 he was visited by Gus- 
taviis III of Sweden, who made him his 
court-painter, and in 1781 by Joseph II. of 
Austria. On the change of the Antwerp 
Academy into a special school for painting, 
sculpture, and architecture, in 1800, lie 
was again appointed professor ; exercised 
a favourable influence upon modern art 
in Belgium. Works : Last Sigh of Christ, 
four portraita (1793, 1809), Museum, Ant- 
werp ; Christ and the Disciples at Emmaus 
(1808), CathedraUb.;Adoration of the Magi, 
Museum, Brussels ; Last Supper, St Nicho- 
las', ib.; Scenes in Life of St Rmnoldus(3), 
Cathedral, Mechlin; Disciples at Emmaus, 
St Francis of Assisi, St John in the Desert, 
God Father, St John's, ib. ; Christ on the 
Cross, Seminary, ib.; Portrait of Emperor 
Joseph DL, do. of a Canon, Museum, ib. — 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole naraande ; ImmerzeeL ii. 
35 ; Michiels, s. 498 ; Booses (Eeber), 447 ; 
Van den Branden, 1265. 

in Surrey in 1795, 
died at Tun- 
bridge, Kent, 
Sept 23, 1865. 
Fainter of horses 
and farm-yard 
scenes, pupil of _, 
A. Cooper. He " 

was auimnl-paint- s, 

er to the Duchess j 

of Kent Many * 

of his coaching and racing pictures have 
been engraved and lithographed. Among 

his best works are : The Baron's Charger, 
Members of the Temperance Society, Re- 
turning from Epsom, Derby Day, Market 
Day, and Horse Fair ; Frugal Meal (1847), 
National Gallery ; Group of Ducks, Deer- 
Stalker, Glasgow Gallery ; Horse at the 
Trough, National Gallery, Dublin ; Mare 
and Foal (1863), W. T. Walters, Baltimore. 
His son, John Frederick, paints similar 
subjects. — Cat. Nat Gal. ; Art Journal 
(1865), 328, 381. 

in WOrzburg in 1720, died at Fulda in 1796. 
German school; landscape and genre painter, 
especially of hunts, peasant frolics, and bath- 
ing nymphs, in the style of the Dutch mas- 
ters ; was court-painter to the Prince-Bishop 
of Fulda. Works : Wood Landscapes with 
Huntsmen and Peasants (2), Basle Museum ; 
Charlatan pulling Tooth, Darmstadt Muse- 
um ; Singing Toper, Zither-Player, Fruit- 
pieces (2), Boy with Basket, Cassel Gallery ; 
Hunters' Camp in the Woods — Night scene, 
Germanic Museum, Nuremberg ; others in 
Stadel Institute, Frankfort 

HERRLICH, P HTT.IP P, born at Solms- 
Laubach, Hesse, in 1818. Genre and por- 
trait painter, pupil of Stadel Institute, 
Frankfort, under Rustige ; painted at first 
portraita, mostly in water-colours, and after- 
wards genre scenes of life and customs in 
Upper Hesse. Works: Convalescent Child ; 
Hansel and Gretel ; Playing Children ; The 
Stork brought It ; Before Confirmation ; 
Preparation for School ; Grandfather. 

HERSENT, LOUIS, born in Paris, March 
10, 1777, died there, Oct 2, 1860. Genre, 
history, and portrait painter, pupil of Regn- 
ault Took his first subjects from Greek 
mythology, like David and Girodet, but 
later also treated historical genre. After 
1824 confined himself to portrait painting. 
Won the 2d grand prize in 1797 ; L of 
Honour, 1819 ; Member of Institute, 1823 ; 
professor, 1825. Works: Narcissus changed 
into a Flower (1802), Cambrai Museum ; 
Achilles delivering Briseto to Agamemnon's 
Heralds (1804) ; Atala poisoning herself in 


the Arms of Chactas (1806) ; Fenelon taking 
back a Cow to some Peasants (1810) ; Pas- 
sage of the Bridge of Landahut by Count 
Lobau (1810), Versailles Museum ; Las Ca 
saa taken care of by Savages when Sick 
(1814) ; Death of Dr. Bichat (1817) ; Louis 
XVI helping the Poor in the Winter of 
1788 (1817), Duke of Bordeaux in his Cra- 
dle, Versailles Museum ; Daphnis and Chloe 
(1817) ; The Abdication of Gustavus Vasa 
(1819, destroyed in 1848) ; Ruth and Boaz 
(1822) ; Monks of St Oothard helping Fam- 
ilies robbed by Brigands (1824) ; Henry IV. 
of France (1827), Grand Trianon, Versailles. 
— Bellier, L 763 ; Ch. Blanc, Erole franoaise ; 
Gaz. des R Arts (1860), viii. 128 ; Larousae; 
Meyer, Gesch., 174. 

AND TATIUS, Guercino, Louvre ; canvas, 
H. 8 ft 3 in. x 8 ft 9 in. Henrilia, holding 
the arm of Romulus, looks entreatingly at 
her father, whose hand, armed with a sword, 
is arrested by a Sabine ; in background 
BomanB and Sabinea fighting. Painted in 
1645 for the Marquis de La Vaffliere.— Vil- 
lot, Cat. Louvre. 

JACQUES, born at Bocroy (Ardennes), Aug. 
28, 1825. Landscape painter ; chiefly known 
by bis water-colours. L. of Honour, 1874. 
Works : Storm on the Coast of Africa, Sun- 
rise at Rotterdam, Old Bridge in Holland 
(1874) ; Valley of SaUanches, Forest Border 
(1875); Low Tide, Spring (1876); View 
near Dordrecht, La Barre— Africa (1S77) ; 
Interior of Farm-yard, Chartres Museum. — 
Bellier, i. 764 

HERTEL, ALBERT, born in Berlin, 
April 19, 1843. Landscape painter, pupil 
of Berlin Academy, and one of the foremost 
Prussian colourists. Professor at Berlin 
Academy in 1875. Works : Capri ; Via 
Flaminia near Borne ; View of Cape Porto- 
fino ; After Storm on Coast of Genoa (1878), 
Northern Coast Scene (1883), National Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; Repose in Egypt, Breslau Mu- 
seum ; Ulysses and the Sirens ; Heights of 
Antemna ; Olive Harvest in Capri ; Summer 

Evening by Brandenburg Gate ; Genovese- 
Still life (1879). -Mailer, 254 ; Rosenberg,. 
Berl. Malersch., 344 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xix. 

HERTEL, EARL, born in Breslau, Oct. 
17, 1837. Genre painter, pupil of Duasel- 
dorf Academy under Wilhelm Sohn ; visited, 
the art centres of Germany, and after set- 
tling in Dusseldorf made annual trips to- 
Belgium and Holland. His well-coloured, 
pictures show genuine feeling. Works:: 
Boys at Play ; Departure of Landwehr ; The 
Two Friends ; Young Germany (1874), Na- 
tional Gallery, Berlin ; replica, and Young 
Wounded Soldier playing on Violin (1872), 
Leipaic Museum ; Dutch Coast Scene 

HERTEBICH, HANS, born at Ansbach,. 
Bavaria, in 1843. Historical genre painter, 
pupil of Munich Academy under Philipp 
Foltz, and of Piloty ; afterwards studied in 
Rome, where he painted scenes from renais- 
sance and rococo time. Works: Ingeborg 
at the Sea ; Frederic with the Bitten Cheek ; 
Not at Home (1876).— Dluatr, Zeitg. (1874), 
it 522 ; (1877), ii 465. 

HERZOG, HERMANN, born in Bremen, 
Nov. 15, 1832. Landscape painter, pupil of 
Dusseldorf Academy under Schirmer ; vis- 
ited repeatedly Norway, Switzerland, Italy, 
and the Pyrenees, of which countries he has 
painted numerous mountain landscapes ex- 
cellent in drawing and pleasing in colour- 
ing. In 1869 he came to America, and set- 
tled in Philadelphia. Works : Festival at 
Unspunnen, Switzerland (1862) ; Norwegian 
Fjord ; The Wetterhorn ; Twilight in the 
Alps ; Lauterbrunn Valley ; Norwegian 
Waterfall ; Views in Yose mite Valley ; Nor- 
wegian Landscape, Got ha Museum. — Mai- 
ler, 255. 

HESS, EUGEN, born in Munich, June 
25, 1824 died there, Nov. 21, 1862. Genre 
painter, son and pupil of Peter Hess, and 
student in Munich Academy. Travelled 
with his father (1839) in Northern Ger- 
many, Poland, and Russia. Early gained 
repute by his works, and in 1849-50- 


profited by studying the old masters in 
Brussels and Paris. Works : Family in 
Forester's House, Game Poulterer (1846) ; 
Hunter's Good Morning (1848) ; First In- 
struction in Hunting (1850) ; Bavarian Rifle- 
man on Outpost (1853) ; Marshal Wrangel 
overtaken by General von Worth (1855) ; 
Message from Battlefield (1857) ; Looking 
for Pheasants (1862) ; Shakespeare as a 
Poacher before his Landlord ; Visit at the 
Monastery, The Swedish General Wrangel 
escaping capture by the Bavarians in 1647 
while hunting, New Pinakothek, Munich. — 
And re sen, iii. 203. 
in Dusseldorf, April 19, 
1798, died in Munich, 
March 29, 1863. His- 
tory and portrait paint- 
er, son and pupil of the 
engraver Earl Ernst 
Christoph Hess, then 
from 1813 at the Munich 
Academy under P. von 
Langer. Having at- 
tracted attention by his 
pointings when only eighteen, he went in 
1821 to Rome, and remained four years. 
In 1827-47 he was professor at the Munich 
Academy, and in 1849 became director of 
all the galleries. His frescos in the Chapel 
of All Saints (1827-37), and especially those 
in the Basilica (1837-46), are among the most 
remarkable modern works of their kind. He 
was a member of the Vienna, Milan, Stock- 
holm, and Antwerp Academies. Works : 
Entombment, St. Luke (1815) ; Holy Fam- 
ily, Faith, Love, and Hope (1817) ; Charity, 
Christmas Eve, St Cecilia, Entombment, 
Descent from the Cross, several portraits 
(1817-21); Portrait of Thorwaldsen, Count- 
ess Florenzi, Parnassus (1821-26); 67 Scenes 
from Old and New Testament, and 11 from 
Church History (1827-37), Life of 8t Boni- 
face (1840-45), Church of All Saints, Munich; 
Last Supper (1846), Refectory, Benedictine 
Monastery, Munich ; Madonna Enthroned, 
Last Supper (1863, unfinished), Peasants on 

Pilgrimage to Rome, Portrait of Thorwald 
sen, da of Florentine Lady, New Pinakothek, 
ib. ; Portrait of Thorwaldsen.Schack Gallery, 
ib. — AUgem. d. Biogr., xii. 278 ; Brockhaus, 
ix. 181 ; Art Journal (1865), 97 ; Reber-Pecht, 

HESS, HXERONTMUS, born in Basle in 
1788, died there in 1850. History painter, 
pupil in Rome of Koch. Works: Murder 
of Emperor Albrecht by Hans von Schwaben ; 
Battle of the Swiss against the French near 
St Jacob, Basle Museum. — Cotta's KunatbL, 
1830, 25 ; N. Necrol. d. D. 1850 ; Waagen, 
D., ii. 283, 290. 

Erlau, Hungary, Sept. 18, 1768, died about 
1830. History painter, pupil of Vienna 
Academy under Maurer, won the first prize 
in 1794, and afterwarda became professor of 
drawing at the Engineer Academy. Works : 
St Stephen, Assumption, John the Baptist 
and John of Nepomuk, Seminary Church, 
Erlau ; Baptism of St. Stephen, Gran Cathe- 
dral. — Wurzbach, viii. 424. 

HESS, KARL, born in Dusseldorf in 
1801, died at Reichenhall, Nov. 16, 1874, 
Genre and animal painter, youngest brother 
of Peter, whom, with Wagenbauer, he took 
for his model Educated in Munich. Pict- 
ures full of truth, character, and poetry. Also 
an engraver. Works: Thierstflck (1835); 
Starting for the Alp, Alp near 
|^7 Kochel (1848); On Stahremberg 

|trl Lake ; Alp near Schliersee ; Mu- 
£ X nich Buck-Cellar ; Pasturage ; Ty- 
/ o J J rolese Landscape, National Gal- 
lery, Berlin. — Allgem. d. Biogr., 
xii. 298; Deutsche Wart* (1875), 768; 
Kunst-Chronik, x. 137. 

HESS, KARL ADOLF, born in Dresden 
in 1769, died at Wilhelmsdorf, near Vienna, 
July 3, 1849. Battle and horse painter, 
pupil of Klass ; settled about 1809 in Vi- 
enna, where he afterwards became professor 
at the Academy. His ' many journeys to 
Hungary, Russia, and Turkey, and in 1829 
to England, enabled him to acquire a thor- 
ough knowledge of the various breeds of 


Jiorsea, which he painted with great skill. 
Works : Attack of Saxon Dragoons (1796) ; 
March of Cossacks through Bohemia 
(1799); Twelve Pictures— The Biding School 
(1SO0-18O7) ; Horses' Heads (1825).— All- 
gem, d. Bitigr., vii. 296 ; Wurzbach, viii. 

HESS, LUDWIG, born in Zurich, Oct. 
16, 1760, died there, April 13, 1800. Land- 
scape painter, studied entirely from nature ; 
visited Florence and Borne in 1794. Much 
influenced by Salomon Gessner. Works : 
Mont Blanc ; Morning in the Alps ; Even- 
ing on Lago Maggiore ; Grfltli, Tail's Chapel ; 
collection of his beat paintings (37) in Zurich 
Gallery.— AUgem. d. Biogr., xii 298 ; Joh. 
Heinr. Meyer, Ludwig Hess (Zurich, 1800). 

HESS, MAX, horn in Munich, Oct 15, 
1825, died at Lippspringe, Westphalia, July 
19, 1868. History painter, youngest son 
and pupil of Peter ; also studied in Paris 
and Dusseldorf. Works : Puritans on Guard ; 
Italian Noblemen on a Veranda ; Pillage of 
a Monastery ; Torchlight Procession at 
Ddsseldorf, 1857, painted for the Princes 
of Hohenzollern ; Portrait of the Opera- 
Singer Eindermann. — AUgem. d. Biogr., xii. 
299; Blanckarts, 30; Eunafc-Chronik, in. 

HESS, PETER TON, bom in Dusseldorf, 
July 29, 1792, died in Munich, April 4, 1871. 
Genre and battle painter, son and pupil of 
Earl Ernst Christoph Hess, and from 1806 
at the Munich Academy ; served in the 
campaigns of 1813-15, visited Vienna, Swit- 
zerland, and Italy (1818), accompanied King 
Otho to Greece in 1833, and visited Russia 
(1839) to make studies for a series of battle- 
pieces ordered by the Czar Nicolas. One 
of the foremost modern painters of war life. 
Founded with Quaglio the Art Union at 
Munich. Bavarian court-painter and mem- 
ber of the Berlin, Vienna, Munich, and St 
Petersburg Academies. Works ; Battle of 
Arcis-sur-Aube, Return of Bavarian Officers 
(1813); Horsemen seeking Shelter, Cossack 
Scenes (1814); Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube 
(1817); Abruzzi Peasants before an Inn, 

Marino — a Bobber — defending Himself, 
Cossacks crossing the Rhine (1819); Defence 
of a Bridge near Hanau (1820) ; Skirmish 
between French and Austrian Cavalry, Aus- 
trian Camp (1822); Plundering Cossacks 
(1820), Sutler Scene, Feast of St Leonhard 
in Bavaria (1825), French Train- Wagon sur- 
prised by Austrian Uhlans, PaUicarea near 
Athens (1829), National Gallery, Berlin; 
Encounter at W&rgel in 1809, Skirmish near 
Pass Strub in 1805, Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube 
(1828); Wallachian Horses, Entry of King 
Otho into Nauplia (1835), da into Athens, 
The Bobber Barbone and Family defending 
themselves against Gendarmes, View of San 
Marino, Rest before Inn, Train of Greek 
Peasants on Sea-Coast, Chamois Hunter, 
Italian Family at Tivoli, Battle of Auster- 
litz, Scenes from Greek War of Independ- 
ence (40 oil sketches for frescos in Arcades 
of Royal Garden), New Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Duck-Shooting on the Moor, Leipaic Muse- 
um ; Laying of Corner-Stone of Column of 
Constitution ; Landing of Greek Troops at 
Nauplia ; Battles of Smolensk, Poloczk, Wi- 
asma, Valutina Gora, Krasnoi, Elasigy, and 
Borodino, Crossing of the Beresina (1839- 
55); Battle of Leipsio (1854); Battle of Aus- 
terlitz (1856).— Allgem. d. Biogr., xii. 300 ; 
Brockhaus, ix. 180 ; Eunst-Chronik, vi. 116. 
TISTE), born in Paris, Sept 30, 1806, 
died there, Aug. 7, 1879. History painter, 
nephew and pupil of Auguste Hesse, and 
pupil of Gros ; studied the works of Paolo 
Veronese at Veuice, and formed his style 
after that master. His pictures are much 
admired for their skilful composition and 
careful finish. Medals : 1st class, 1833 ; 2d 
class, 1848 ; L. of Honour, 1842 ; Officer, 
1868 ; Member of Institute, 1867. Works : 
Titian's Funeral (1833); Leonardo da Vinci 
letting loose some Birds (1836); Mower Girl 
(1837), Girl carrying Fruit (1838), Venetian 
Concert, Nantes Museum ; Death of BriBSon 
(1840); Adoption of Godfrey do Bouillon 
by Emperor Alexis Comnenus (1842), Ver- 
sailles Museum ; Catalan Fishermen, Young 


Woman of Aries (1844); Pisani's Triumph 
(1847), Luxembourg Museum ; The Repub- 
lic (1848); Charity (1861); Mural paintings 
illustrative of the Life of St Francis, in 
chapel of St Francis de Sales, St Sulpice, 
Paris.— Bellier, I 766 ; Kunstr-Chronik, xv. 
29 ; Merer, Oesch., 283. 

Paris, Aug. 28, 1795, died there, June 14, 
1869. History painter, uncle of Alexandre 
Hesse, pupil of Gros ; won the grand prix 
de Borne in 1818. Decorated the churches 
of Notre Dame de Lore tie, St Elizabeth, 
Bonne Nouvelle, St Euatache, St. Severin, 
and St. Sulpice, Paris. Painted on glass 
and made designs for other glass painters. 
Seldom exhibited in the Salon. Medal, let 
class, 1838 ; L of Honour, 1840 ; Member 
of Institute, 1863. Works : Philemon and 
Baucis (1818) ; Foundation of College de 
Sorbonne (1827), Church of the Sorbonne, 
Paris ; Mirabeau in the States -General of 
1789 (1838), Amiens Museum ; Christ at the 
Sepulchre (1838), Cathedral of Perigueux ; 
St. Mary fainting at the Tomb of Christ 
(1845), formerly Luxembourg Museum ; 
Adoration of Shepherds, Conversion and 
Martyrdom of St Hippolytus, Notre Dame 
de Lorette, Paris ; Jacob and the Angel 
(1851), Avranches Cathedral; Clytia Dying 
(1853), Amiens Museum ; Portrait of Girar- 
don (1856). In the Hotel de Ville, he 
painted, among other pictures, the Promul- 
gation of the Concordat — Bellier, i. 765 ; 
Kunst-Clironik, iv. 195. 

born in Stuttgart, Sept. 10, 1758, died there, 
Dec. 31, 1839. History painter, pupil, from 
1773 at the Earlsschule, of Guibal and Har- 
per ; made court-painter in 1780, and sent 
to Paris, where he continued his studies for 
two years under Vien, Vernet, and David ; 
was in Borne in 1785-87, and again in 1795. 
In 1787 he was appointed professor at the 
Earlsschule, in 1798 director of the Ducal 
Gallery, and in 1801 member of the Berlin 
Academy. In 1809 he again visited Paris, 
and in 1816 Leipsic, Dresden, and Berlin. 

His pictured, which show the influence of 
David's school, are mostly in the Wurtem- 

■ berg galleries. Works : Anger of Achilles ; 
Blind CEdipus ; Cupid and Psyche ; Fare- 

j well of Begulus ; Brutus and Portia ; Pa 
pirius and the Gauls ; Mariua at Carthage ; 

; Daniel in the Lions' Den ; Joseph in Prison ; 
Ascension ; St Cecilia ; Mary with Wife of 
Pilate ; Odin's Descent into Hell ; Cornelia 
with her Children ; Albonack's Daughters 
before King Alfred, Stuttgart Museum ; 
King Frederic and Suite before Castle Mod- 
repos; Brutus seeing the Ghost of Casar, 

Darmstadt Museum. — Allgem. d. Biogr., xiL 
320 ; Goethe, Schweizer Reise, L J. 1797 ; 
Haakh, Beitrage, 8 ; BiegeL 175 ; Wagner, 
Gesch. der Earlsschule, L 463. 

in Leipsic in 1843. Landscape, genre, and 
portrait painter, pupil of Weimar Art School 
under Pauwels ; was in 1869-73 director of 
the Aarland Institute, Leipsic. Works : 
Lying-in Room ; Going to Church ; Nobody 
at Home ; Goats in Entrance Ha ll ; View in 
Bh5n Mountains. — Muller, 255. 

Paris, April 23, 1834. Genre painter, pupil 
of Picot and E. Giraud. Paints attractive 
pictures of life and manners. Works : The 
Truant ; The Spring ; Hiding ; Apple-Gath- 
ering in Japan ; Greek Washerwomen ; Sac- 
rifice to Venus ; Sleeping Endymion ; Lover 
of the Olden Time ; Soap-Bubbles, Cleo- 
patra (1879) ; Heliogabalus raining Roses, 
The Nest (1880); Origin of Design, Summer 
(1881) ; Japanese Concert, Japanese Marriage 
Car (1882); A Harem, A Meeting (1883); 
Finding of Moses, Bouquet de Nice (1884); 
Lis (1885). 

Antwerp, March 27, 1707, died March 12, 
1762. Flemish school ; history and interior 
painter, pupil of Easper Jacob van Opstal, 


of Jan Jozef Horemans, the elder, and of 
Peeter Stivers; went in 1730 to Paris, where 
he won several medals (1730, 1731, 1732) ; 
painted chiefly grisailles. Works : Coat of 
Arms of Abbey SaintrMichel, do. of Abbot 
Jacques Thomas, Prudence, Justice, Force, 
Instruction in Perspective (1761), Antwerp 
Museum. — Cat du Musee d'Anvers (1874), 
149 ; Van den Brand en, 1214. 

born at Utrecht in 16—?, died in 1699 
(1712 ?). Dutch school ; landscape painter, 
said to have studied in Italy under Jan 
Both, whom he imitated. Dean of guild in 
"Utrecht in 1649. Works : Road with Shep- 
herd and Herd (1629), Dresden Gallery ; 
Landscape with Cattle and Shepherds (1696), 
Louvre ; Italian View with Waterfall, Rotter- 
dam Museum ; Italian Landscape (3), Am- 
sterdam Museum; do. (2), Hague Museum; 
Mountainous Landscape, Cassel Gallery ; 
do., Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; da, Hermitage, 
St Petersburg; Evening Landscape with 
Ruin, Vienna Museum ; others in Brunswick, 
Frankfort, Copenhagen, and Stockholm Gal- 
leries. — Ch. Blanc, Ecole hollandaise ; Im- 
merzeel, ii. 36 ; Eramm, in. 686 ; De Stuers, 
47 ; Kegel, Beitrage, ii 371. 

HEUSCH, JACOB DE, born at Utrecht 
in 1657, died in Amsterdam in 1701. Dutch 
school; landscape painter, nephew and pupil 
of Guilliam de Heusch, whom he imitated ; 
went to Italy, where he studied from nature 
and the works of Salvator Rosa. His pict- 
ures so clearly resembled those of his uncle 
that the members of the Schilderbent in 
Rome called him Affdruck (copyist). Land- 
scape pleasing, colour good, composition 



well distributed, enlivened with figures and 
animals. Works : Ponte Rotto in Borne 

(1696), Brunswick Museum ; Landscapes 
(2, 1699), Landing-Place on a Lake (1699), 
Vienna Museum ; Mountainous Landscapes 
(2), Hermitage, St Petersburg. — Immerzeel, 
ii. 37 ; Quellenschriften, xiv. 429 ; RiegeL 
Beitrage, ii. 416. 

HEUSS, EDUARD VAN, born at Oggers- 
heim, Bhenish Palatinate, in 1808, died in 
1880. History and portrait painter ; studied 
in Munich and Borne, where he joined the 
artistic circle of Cornelius and companions, 
and was on intimate terms with Thorwald- 
sen. On his travels afterwards through 
Holland, Paris, and London he was much 
influenced by Rubens and Rembrandt 
Painted more than eighty portraits, many 
life-size, of reigning princes, dignitaries, and 
representatives of science and art, among 
them Thorwaldsen and Overbeck. Works : 
Rape of Europa (1832), Darmstadt Museum ; 
Annunciation, Mater Amabilis, Mater Glori- 
oaa, Mater Dolorosa, Mater Salvatoris, New 
Pinakothek, Munich. — Kunst-Ohronik, xviii. 

DOB) VON, born in 
Breslau, June 13, 1827. 
History painter, pupil 
in Berlin of Steffeck, 
and in Paris of Gleyre 
and Couture ; won the 
gold medal, and after- 
wards repeatedly visited 
Italy to study the mon- 
umental painting of the 
Renaissance. Works : 
St Barbaraas Patron Saint of Miners (1864); 
Luther and FrundBberg before the Imperial 
Diet, Germanic Museum, Nuremberg ; Lu- 
ther in Wittenberg ; Arion on Waves of the 
Sea (1868), Berlin Opera-House ; Wooing of 
French Ambassador for Princess Clemence 
(1869) ; The Siesta, The Fairy-Tale (1870) ; 
Festive Morning (1870), National Gallery, 
Berlin ; Happy Times, The Anglers, Ride of 
the Walkyries (1872) ; Leucothea, Martyr 
at the Stake, OSdipus and the Sphinx, Olof's 
Wedding Ride (1878) ; Fresco pointings in 


City Hall and National Gallery, Berlin. — 
Illustr- Zeitg. (1876), ii. 493 ; Meyer, Conv. 
Lex., xix. 565 ; Rosenberg, BerL Malersch., 
211 ; D. Bundschau, xiiL 334 ; xrii. 299 J 
xx. 103. 
HEYDEN, JAM VAN DEB, born at Gor- 
. inchem (Gorkom), 
in 1637, died in 
Amsterdam, Sept 
1712. Dnteh 
1 school ; Architects 
JA3 nre and landscape 
" painter ; views of 
buildings show a 
feeling for the pict- 
i\ j<£*- * uresque, warm and 
*&r transparent tone, 

accurate perspective, and fine touch. Banks 
first among those who represented exteriors 
of buildings. Adriaan van de Yelde, Eglon 
van der Neer, and Iingelbach painted fig- 
ures in his pictures. Said to have visited 
London. Works : Street in Cologne, Land- 
scape, Street in Town, Architectural Scene, 
National Gallery, Loudon ; Cologne Cathe- 
dral, Two Church Views, Sir Bichard Wal- 
lace, London ; Dutch House on a Canal, 
Buckingham Palace ; do., Bridgewater Gal- 
lery ; Market-Place in Dutch Town, Lord ' 
Ashburton, London ; Stone Bridge', Draw- ' 
Bridge, Canal View, View of Amersfoort, ' 
Amsterdam Museum ; Interior of Dutch j 
Town (1667), Hague Museum ; Amsterdam 
Town Hall (1668), Market-Flace and Church 
in Dutch Town, Village on a Biver, Land- 
scape with Ruins, Louvre ; Quay of Amster- 
dam, Aremberg Gallery, Brussels ; The Vy- 
vergracht at the Hague, Public Square at 
Veere — Zealand, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Palace 
with Dutch Garden, Landscape, Cassel Gal- 
lery ; Landscape with Castle, Brunswick 
Museum ; Mordecai's Bide, Landscapes (2), 
Schwerin Gallery ; Square in a City, Palace 
of Duke of Brabant at Brussels, Old Pina- 
kothek, Munich; Gothic Church (1678), 
Views of Monasteries (3), Dresden Gallery ; 
Old Castle, Museum, Vienna ; Interior of a 
Town, Academy, ib. ; Dutch Street on Canal, 

Landscape with Town, Canal with Vessels, 
Church, Mountainous Landscape, Three 
Churches and Castle, Perspective View of 
Street, Italian Castle, Hermitage, St Peters- 
burg ; others in Copenhagen and Frankfort 
Galleries ; Old City on the Rhine, Chateau 
and Park, Historical Society, New York. — 



Ch. Blanc, Ecole hollandaise ; Immerzeel, 
ii 37 ; Kramm, iii. 687 ; Kugler (Crowe), 
ii. 606 ; Biegel, Beitrage, ii 407. 

HEYDEN, KARL, born in Cologne in 
1846. Portrait and genre painter, pupil of 
Dusseldorf Academy and of Wilhelm Sohn ; 
travelled in Germany, Belgium, and France. 
Works : Convalescent ; Women at Grave of 
Fallen Soldier ; Spring Flower ; Apple 
Woman ; Among Favourites. 

HEYDEN, Dr. OTTO, born at Ducherow, 
Pomerania, July 8, 1820, History and por- 
trait painter, pupil of Berlin Academy under 
Elober and Woch, and in Paris (1847-48) 
of Cogniet; lived in Italy, especially in 
Borne and Sicily, in 1850-54, and then set- 
tled in Berlin. In 1866 he took part in the 
campaign in Bohemia, in the suite of the 
Crown Prince, visited the East in 1869, and 
accompanied the army to France in 1870. 
Court-painter and professor at Berlin Acad- 
emy. Works: Job derided by his Wife 
(1855), Stettin Museum; Italian Mower, 
Founding of Greifswalde University (1856) ; 
Boguslaw X. attacked by Pirates, Girl of 
Sorrento, Stettin Museum ; Field-Marshal 
Schwerin in Battle of Prague, Royal Palace, 
Berlin ; Ride of Emperor William over 
Battlefield at Sadowa (1868), National Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; Meeting of Crown Prince and 
Prince Frederic Charles ; Emperor William 
decorating the Crown Prince ; Bazaar iu 
Cairo ; Street Life in Cairo ; Emperor Will- 



iam visiting the 'Wounded at Versailles ; 
Portraits of German Emperor, of Bismarck, 
Moltke, and General Steinnietz. — Mailer, 
256 ; Rosenberg, BerL Malersch., 188. 

HESERDAHL, HANS, born in Sweden ; 
contemporary. Genre painter, pupil of 
Munich Academy and in Paris of Bonnat ; 
now in Florence. Medal, Paris, 3d class, 
1878. Works : Nymph talking to Magpie 
(1880) ; Flower-Seller, " How Much ? " 
(1881); Dead Child, The Visit (1882); 
Sleeping Nymph and Satyr, Girl lighting 
Fire (1883); Bather (1884); Norwegian 
Landscape, Young Girl (1885). 

Antwerp, June 11, 1839. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Antwerp Academy at the age of fif- 
teen, but formed himself chiefly through 
study of nature and of the works of Corot, 
Millet, and Daubigny in Paris. In 1880 he 
exhibited about sixty of his pictures in 
Brussels, with great success. Works : Sun- 
set on Heath (1875), Ghent Museum ; Re- 
turn of the Herd ; Moonrise ; Morning Mist 
by the Sea ; Three Marines ; Sunrise ; Snow 
Landscape with Birch Trees ; Cows at Pas- 
ture ; Evening on the Scheldt ; Old Avenue 
of Bloemeschot ; Spring Morning in the 
Campine, Ghent Museum ; Swamp, Evening 
Landscape ; Snow-Storm. — Moller, 257. 

HEYN, AUGUST, born at Sophienau, 
Meiniugen, Aug. 10, 1837. Genre painter, 
pupil of Munich Academy, and of Raupp 
and Defregger ; copied in the Munich and 
Dresden Galleries, visited Italy, South Ty- 
rol, Hesse, the Black Forest; and England. 
Works : Scenes from Children's World and 
Peasant Life ; To Her I To Him ! ; Little 
Barber (1880).— Mttller, 267. 

HICKEL, ANTON, born at BOhmisch- 
Leipa, Bohemia, in 1745, died in Hamburg, 
Oct. 30, 1798. German school ; portrait 
painter, pupil of his brother Josef and of 
Vienna Academy ; went about 1777 to France, 
where he painted Marie Antoinette, then to 
London, where he made a name by his pict- 
ure of the House of Commons, containing 
ninety-six life-size portraits (1793-95), now 

in National Gallery, London (presented by 
Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria, 1885) ; 
Turk with Slave making Music, Schieissheim 
Gallery ; Portrait of Burgomaster Debary, 
Basle Museum. One of his best works is 
the portrait of the poet Klopstock. — Allgem. 
Ennst-Chronik, ix. 567 ; Wurzbach, is. 2. 

HICKEL, JOSEF, born at Bohmisch- 
Leipa in 1736, died in Vienna, March 28, 
1807. Portrait painter, first instructed by 
his father, then pupil of Vienna Academy 
under Martin van Meytens ; went to Italy 
in 1768, painted the portraits of many nota- 
bilities in Milan, Parma, and Florence for 
the Empress Maria Theresa, and was made 
member of the Florence and, after his re- 
turn, of the Vienna Academy (1776), and 
court-painter. More than three thousand 
of his works are known. Works : Portrait 
of Joseph IX, City HalL Vienna ; Empress 
Maria Theresa, King Ferdinand of Naples 
and Queen ; Duke Albert of Teachen and 
Archduchess Christine ; Emperor Leopold 
H. ; Emperor Francis ; Pope Pius VL ; 
Prince Kaunitz ; General Baron Lascy ; 

J.Huki.6 'itoi 

Prince fiinsky ; Elector Charles Theodore, 
Painter Winck, Augsburg Gallery. — Allgem. 
d. Biogr., xii. 385 ; Wurzbach, ix. 3. 

Lymington, England, in 1824. Genre and 
portrait painter, pupil of BloomBbury School 
of Art iu 1843, and of Royal Academy in 
1844. WorkB: Lark at Heaven's Gate 
(1865) ; Dividend Day at the Bank (1869) ; 
Post Office (1860) ; Before the Magistrates 
(1866); Reflected Smiles (1867); Utilizing 
Church Metal (1869) j Black Monday (1871); 
Ruth the Moabitess (1874) ; Return from 
Gleaning (1876) ; Fisherman's Wife, Wood- 
man's Daughter (1877) ; Forget Me Not 
(1878) ; Cinderella (1883) ; Portraits (1884). 

HICKS, THOMAS, born at Newtown, 
Perm., Oct. 18, 1823. Portrait painter, 
studied in Philadelphia and at the National 
Academy, later a pupil of Couture in Paris. 



In 1845 visited Europe, where he 
four years. First picture exhibited in 1841. 
Elected N.A. in 1851. Studios in New 
York and Trenton Falls, N. J. Works : 
Edwin Booth as Iago ; Henry Ward Beecher ; 
Longfellow ; Halleck ; Dr. Kane ; William 
M. Evarts ; Dr. Cogswell ; Bayard Taylor ; 
Hamilton Fish ; Luther Bradish (1857), 
Elisha Kent Kane (1859), Henry Abbott 
(1863), Historical Society, New York ; Parke 
Godwin (1879), Mrs. F. N. Goddard, New 
York ; Portrait, Indian Summer (1881) ; 
Mrs. B. F. Bomaine (1882) ; Mrs. & F. Bil- 
lings (1883) ; Dr. James R. Wood (1884), 
New York Academy of Medicine ; Birches 
at Thornwood— Trenton Falls (1879); In 
Brittany (1884); End of a Winter Day 
(1885), Dr. Bobert Band, New York.— Tuck- 
«rman, 465 ; Benjamin, 49, 86. 

bom at DQsseldorf, Oct 4, 1829. Genre 
painter, pupil of Dusseldorf Academy under 
Theodor Hildebraud t and Wilhelm Schadow ; 
travelled in Germany, France, Belgium, and 
Holland, painted at first historical and ro- 
mantic subjects, then humourous genre 
scenes. Medals in Vienna (1873), Philadel- 
phia (1876). Works : Wedding and Bap- 
tism ; The Monster ; Concert ; Surprise ; 
Severe Lecture ; Pocket-Revision ; Philoso- 
phy of the Ball (1858), W. T. Walters, Bal- 
timore ; From Bygone Days (1861) ; School- 
Arrest ; Beginning of Kinness (1862) ; Am- 
ateur Quartette (1863), Konigsberg Museum ; 
Bottle of Champagne ; Reunion (1866) ; Be 
oruiting in Time of Frederic the Great 
(1870), National Gallery, Berlin; Eeturnfrom 
Afar (1871) ; Unbidden Neighbours (1872), 
Wiesbaden Museum ; Picnic in tbe Woods, 
In Compartment of First Class (1874) ; 
Winter Pleasure (1875) ; Funeral in West- 
phalia, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Love Letter 
(1875), Dusseldorf Gallery ; Desire for Re- 
venge (1876) ; Physician's Anteroom (1877). 
— Ulustr. Zeitg. (1873), L 32; iL 307; 
{1878), ii. 347; Mailer, 258; Neue freie 
Presse, Aug. 18, 1871. 

BIEN, DANIEL, born at Straasburg in 

1725, died at ZweibrQcken, Bavaria, in 
1773. Landscape, animal, and still-! if a 
painter, pupil of Eonrad Mannlich, then in 
Milan (1749) of Crivelli, and in Paris of 
Oudry; painted especially hunting pieces 
with great skill. "Works : Landscape with 
Herd and Figures, Germanic Museum, Nu- 
remberg; Animal pieces (2) (1765), Schleias- 
heini Gallery ; others in Augsburg Gallery. 

WUhie, Earl of Essex ; canvas. Interior, 
with the father of the family sitting at right, 
and the mother standing, holding her baby for 
him to kiss ; at their feet, two dogs ; in back- 
ground, a girl going out of the door. Painted 
in 1825. Engraved by W. Finden. — Heaton, 
Worksof SirD.W.; Paintersof Georgian Era. 

HIGHMORE, JOSEPH, born in London 
in 1692, died at Canterbury in 1780. His- 
tory and portrait painter, pupil of the Acad- 
emy under Sir Godfrey Kneller ; painted 
portraits of several Knights of tbe Bath on 
the revival of that order in 1725, particu- 
larly a fine picture of the Duke of Rich- 
mond and his esquires, and afterwards, by 
order of George L, a portrait of the Duke of 
Cumberland ; visited the Continent in 1732, 
chiefly to see the DQsseldorf Gallery, and at 
Antwerp to study the workB of Rubens. 
Works : Hagar and Ishmael ; Good Samar- 
itan ; Finding of Moses ; The Graces un- 
veiling Nature ; Portraits of Samuel Rich- 
ardson and Dr. Stebbing, National Gallery, 
London. — Bryan (Graves), 654 

HHiANDERAS, LAS (The Tapestry 
Weavers), Velasquez, Madrid Museum ; can- 
vas, B, 7 ft 3 in. x 9 ft 6 in. Scene in royal 
tapestry manufactory of S. Isabel Madrid 
An old woman, at spinning-wheel, turns to 
speak to a girl behind her, who is drawing 
back a red curtain ; girl in centre, carding 
wool, looks at a cat asleep by her side ; an- 
other, on right, winds yarn from a reel ; be- 
hind her, one entering room with a basket; in 
background, three ladies examining tapestry. 
A masterpiece ; painted about 1656; former- 
ly in palace of Buen Retire. Copy by Col- 
lier in Eeole des Beaux Arte, Paris. Etched 


by Miliua ; Gaujean ; Galvan ; Maura. — Ch. 
Blanc, iScole espagnole ; Gaz. des B. Arts 
(1880), xxL 527 j Curtis, 15 ; Madrazo, 603. 
H3LABJUS, painter, of Bithynia; removed 
in reign of Valens (&.D. 364-379) to Athens, 
where he became noted as a teacher. Slain, 
with all his family, near Corinth, in 879, 
during an invasion of Goths. — Eunap., Vitas 
Philos. et Soph. (ed. Boissonade), 67. 

EENST, born at Falk- 
enberg, Lusatia, in 1833. 
Genre painter, pupil in 
Berlin of Steffeck ; spent 
one year in Paris, and in 
1875 became professor at 
the Carlsruhe Art School, 
afterwards at the Berlin 
Academy, which position 
he resigned in 1885 ; first 
practised decorative paint- 
ing, then turned to por- 
trait, and finally to genre, 
painting, which he treats in 
a realistic manner. Medal 
in Vienna, 1873. Works : 
Mother and Child, Margue- 
rite, Spoletina (1866); Let 
Little Children come unto Me; Praying 
Peasants ; Sick Child ; Kitchen in Hartz 
Mountains ; Fervent Entreaty; Bepentance ; 
Bococo Interior in Brachial ; Wedding Pro- 
cession in Banqueting Hall of Passage in 
Berlin ; Anxious Hour (1885); Child's Por- 
trait, Ravene Gallery, Berlin.— Muller, 258 ; 
Leixner, Mod. K, i. 74. 
Dantzic, Sept 9, 1817, 
died in Berlin, Oct 25, 
1868. Landscape and 
marine painter, pupil 
in Berlin of Erause, and 
in 1841-43, in Paris, of 
, Isabey. Visited in 1840 
' Denmark, Norway, and 
Great Britain, in 1843- 
44 Brazil, in 1847- 
49 England, Scotland, Spain, and the Canary 

Islands, in 1851 Italy, Egypt, Palestine, Tur- 
key, Greece, and the Sahara, in 1853 Swit- 
zerland, Tyrol, and Upper Italy, and in 1856 
the Arctic Ocean. Went around the world 
in 1862-64, and brought home 400 water- 
colours, which, when exhibited in London in 
1866, attracted much attention. A selection 
from them, in a portfolio, was published in 
1869. In 1853 he was made professor and 

inu (TIh Tiptrtiy Vt 

nit), Vtluqun, Madrid M 

in 1855 member of the Berlin Academy. 
Works: Am Bollwerk (1838); Agitated Sea 
with Vessels, Fishing Boats leaving the Har- 
bour, Fishermen and Boat (1840) ; Agitated 
Two Views of Helgoland, Boy with Dog, 
Winter Genre Scene (1843) ; Tropical Bain, 
Tropical City on the Water (1845); St Do- 
mingo Square in Mexico (1846); Street in 
Lyons (1843), Street in Rouen, Fisher-maiden 
on Shore, Hour of Best, Santa Gloria, Even- 
ing in Bay of Bio Janeiro, Children on Shore, 
Winter Landscapes (2, 1847), Irish Peasant 
Cottage (1850), Ravenu Gallery, Berlin ; 
Panorama of Madeira (1848); View of Lis- 
bon, Fort Belem, Cape Vincent, Coast of 
Madeira (1849); Coast by Moonlight, Moon- 
light on Scotch Coast, Irish Genre Scene, 
View of Bio Janeiro (1850); Two Views on 
Scotch Coast, Bio Janeiro, Near Palermo, 



Madeira, Evening in Madeira, Fort St Elmo, 
Horse Love, Moonlight on Scotch Coast 
(1651); Naples with Vesuvius, View near 
Cairo, Bay of Madeira, Coast of Madeira 
(1852); Sea of Marmora, Castle and Park, 
Children with Sleigh (1853); Flood-Tide, 
Strand, On Gosou Lake, Alpengluhen, San 
Giorgio by Moonlight (1854); Moonlight on 
Scotch Coast, Winter Landscape, On Brienz 
Lake, View of Bethlehem, View of Jerusa- 
lem, Children Playing (1855) ; Pool of Be- 
thesda, Nazareth, Stormy Sea, On the Fiah- 
Pond, Under the Willows (1856); Moonlight, 
Sunset, Tropical Landscape, North Cape 
(1857); Village Scene, Coast with Light- 
house (I860); Caveat Staffs, (1865); Benares 
on the Ganges, Evening in Siam (1866); 
Holy Lake in Burmah, Moonlight near Ma- 
cao, Chinese Fishermen (1867); Sunlight in 
Jersey, Evening in Siam (1868); Surge on 
Baltic Sea, Dover Castle, Marine with Fort 
Rouge, Winter Landscape, Stettin Museum ; 
Coast of Normandy, WinterLand scape (1846), 
Sea-Shore in Evening Light (1855), Castle 
Kronborg near Elsinore (1857), National 
Gallery, Berlin ; Moonrise in Madeira, Cor- 
coran Gallery, Washington. — Allgem. d. 
Biogr., xii 402 ; niustr. Zeitg. (1868), 372 ; 
Bruno Meyer, Studien, 376; Rosenberg, 
BerL Malersch., 335 ; Land und Meer (1869), 
i 223 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, i. 25 ; iv. 261, 336. 
Stettin, July 2, 1804, 
died in Dusseldorf, 
Sept 29, 1874. His- 
tory, genre, and por- 
trait painter, pupil 
from 1820 of the 
Berlin Academy, and 
from 1823 under 
j Schadow, whom, in 
' 1826, he accompa- 
nied to DQsseldorf, 
where he soon became celebrated, and was 
made in 1832 assistant, and in 1836 profes- 
sor, at the Academy. In 1829 with Scha- 
dow, and later, he repeatedly visited the 
Netherlands, where he was influenced by 

the realistic school of Wappera ; went in 
1830 to Italy, where, as later in Paris, he 
studied the old masters, especially of the 
Dutch school. Member of the Berlin and 
Vienna Academies. Works: Faust and 
Mephistopheles (1824); Faust and Gretchen 
(1825); Lear and Cordelia (1826); Borneo 
and Juliet (1827); Tancred and Clorinda 
(1828); Caution against the Water-Sprite 
(1830); Judith and Holofernes (1830); The 
Robber (1829), Warrior and Child (1832), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Story-teller (1832) ; 
Sick Senator (1833); Choir Boys in Gothic 
Church (1834); Assassination of Sons of 
Edward TV. (1836), Raczynski Gallery, Ber- 
lin ; Christmas Eve (1840); Reception of 
Cardinal Wolsey in the Monastery (1842); 
Doge and Daughter (1843), Stettin Muse- 
um ; Judith (1844); Italian Woman (1845); 
Othello (1847); Lear awakening from In- 
sanity (1851) ; Juliet taking the Poison 
(1853); Arthur and De Burgh (1855); Cor- 
delia reading the Letter to Kent (1859), 
Cliristianift Museum ; Copy of St Francis 
by Rubens (1850), DOsseldorf Academy; 
Portrait of Artist's Father, Cologne Muse- 
um ; Cordelia and King Lear, Mrs. A. T. 
Stewart, New Vork ; Portraits of Princes 
*yf -— Frederic, Georg, and 
fii t7\ Albrecnt °* Prussia, of 
\J %(,9 Count Stolberg, of 
. n t^ff Schadow ; da of Wap- 
' OlVv pers (1849), Dusseldorf 

V V\ ,Q7S Gallery.-Allgem.d. 
-^ fj fOOif Biogr., lii. 405; 
C Blanckarts, 75; W. 

MUller, DQsseldorf K., 180 ; Bluatr. Zeitg. 
(1874), ii. 359 ; Kunst-Chronik, x. 39. 

HJLGERS, EARL, born in Dusseldorf in 
1818. Landscape painter, pupil of Dussel- 
dorf Academy ; spent some time in Berlin 
and studied the Dutch and French masters ; 
represents nature, especially in her winter 
aspects, often with architectural accessories, 
with much skill Works: Dutch Cottages 
in Winter (1839); View near Amsterdam 
(1840 and 1841); Winter Landscape, Chapel 
in the Snow (1645); Casemate on the Dan- 


ube ; Evening Landscape in Hartz Moun- 
tain a ; Dornburg Citadel ; Drifting of Ice 
in the Rhine; Winter Landscape (1847), 
do. (1848), do. (1850), Storm in the Moun- 
tains (1849), Fisherman's Hut (1850), 
Huntsmen with Dogs, Fisherman on Shore, 
Raven6 Gallery, Berlin ; Convent Yard in 
Winter by Moonlight (1867), Sohwerin Gal- 
lery.— Mttller, 258 ; W. Mailer, DQsseldorf 
K., 349. 

Perth, Scotland, in 1802, died in Edin- 
burgh, May 17, 1870. Landscape paint- 
er, pupil of Andrew Wilson ; was in 1830 
one of the foundation members of the 
Royal Scottish Academy, of which he was 
secretary until October, 1869. At first 
painted pictures illustrative of Scottish 
peasant life, and in 1843 he finished a 
large work containing 470 portraits — The 
Establishment of the Free Kirk, which 
now hangs in the Presbytery TTall of the 
Free Church, Edinburgh, but later devot- 
ed himself to landscape. Works : Edin- 
burgh from Mons Meg (1